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Articles Related to AHA

Mechanisms of Resistance to Kinase Inhibitors and Strategies to Prevent the Development of Drug Resistance

Targeting mutant proteins and associated signaling pathways of driver oncogenes by small molecule kinase inhibitors (KIs) are a promising strategy of cancer therapy. However, despite the initial success of treatment, KIs often become ineffective as intrinsic and acquired resistance. This article reviews the English-language literature to explore the underlying mechanisms of drug resistance and to present a challenge for developing drugs to overcome resistance. Mechanisms of acquired resistance include 1) the selection of pre-existing subclones with other mutations, 2) the emergence of secondary mutations in the target kinase domain, 3) upregulation of kinases both within the same kinase family and their related kinase families, as well as activation of alternative bypass pathways, 4) epithelial-mesenchymal transition, 5) overexpression of pro-survival Bcl-2 family proteins and 6) drug efflux mechanisms. Currently available methods are to obtain tumor biopsy samples at recurrence or progression if the tumor lesion is accessible to a biopsy and to use the second- and third-generation KIs based on the individual need of each patient. Furthermore, recent computational challenges provide design principles to prevent the development of drug resistance. In conclusion, we provide an overview of the postulated resistance mechanisms and highlight the future direction of computational structure-based design of new potent KIs.
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Epiphyseal Closure of Femur, Tibia and Fibula of the Paca (Cuniculus Paca, Linnaeus, 1766)

After capybara, paca (Cuniculus paca) is the largest rodent in the neotropical region and the body weight varies from 5 to 10 kg, and may reach up to 14 kg. They are animals that reach sexual maturity at around 10 months of age. The aim of this research is to examine, through radiography, the femur, tibia and fibula of the paca. The animals were anaesthetized for radiographic exams. At 6 months of age, the growth line of the femoral proximal epiphysis ceases to perform its functions. At 12 months of age, there is the closure of the line growth of distal femoral epiphysis. At the paca’s tibia, at 12 months old, there was the closure of the growth of the proximal epiphysis. In the distal epiphysis, the closure of the line growth also occurred at 12 months old. At the paca’s fibula, the bone activity of proximal epiphysis ceases with only 23 months old. The distal fibular epiphysis ends its development with 15 months. There are similarities and differences relative to the closure of the pacas’ epiphysis femur, tibia and fibula comparing with dogs and cats.
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Upper Oesophageal Foreign Body with Acute Drooling in a Child with Congenital Hypotonia

Foreign body ingestion and aspiration commonly affect children. The most vulnerable age is early childhood when children tend to explore new objects with their mouths or by an accident by elder siblings. A 2-year-old female child who is known to have congenital hypotonia, status post laparoscopic fundoplication and gastrostomy tube feeding (G- tube) inserted at age one year. Then she was in stable condition till when presented with acute unexplained drooling of frothy whitish secretions, mild cough and difficulty breathing with hypoxemia. X-ray chest and upper abdomen revealed normal. She underwent flexible bronchoscopy revealed normal and then direct laryngoscopy was extracted a covering plastic of the feeding tube in the upper end cervical oesophagus by Magill forceps technique. Subsequently her symptoms resolved completely. To increase the likelihood of identifying foreign body ingestion and aspiration, healthcare professionals should maintain a high index of suspicion even in children with neuromuscular disorder.
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Obesity and its Correlates among Junior High School Children in the Accra Metropolis

The prevalence of obesity is on the increase worldwide due to changes in diet and physical activity patterns. Childhood obesity is now a major public health challenge in advanced economies. Obesity in childhood tends to persist into adulthood and to predispose to non-communicable diseases. There is little data on childhood obesity and its correlates and determinants in sub-Saharan Africa. A cross-sectional study was carried out using simple random sampling technique to select 260 junior high school children aged 11-15 years from six basic schools (n=768) from three different socioeconomic (low, middle, high) areas of Accra, the capital city of Ghana.
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Predictors of Delayed Diagnosis and Evolution in Sub-Saharan Immigrants with HIV Infection in a Hospital in Madrid (2004–2013)

The aim of this study was to analyze the delayed diagnosis and evolution of HIV infection in predominantly sub-Saharan immigrants compared to other patients in a hospital in Madrid between 2004 and 2013. We retrospectively analyzed new HIV diagnoses. Late presentation or advanced disease were considered the presence of CD4 lymphocyte counts less than 350 or 200 cells/µl at diagnosis, respectively, or an AIDS-defining disease regardless of the CD4 count. Patients were compared according to their origin and sex.
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Seroepidemiology of Neospora Caninum in Dairy Cattle Farms with a History of Abortion in Isfahan Province, Iran

Neospora caninum is a worldwide-distributed pathogen which causes abortions in dairy cattle, leading to economic losses in the cattle industry.
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The Prevalence of Obesity among Subjects with Chronic Kidney Disease – Cross Sectional Study of Sri Lanka Population

The burden of chronic kidney disease (CKD) is growing rapidly around the world, particularly in Asia. Over the last two decades Sri Lanka has experienced an epidemic of CKD, especially in the “Mahaweli” river basin in North Central region of the island that was not attributable to conventional risk factors - hence widely termed “CKD-unknown”.
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Accidental Hypothermia in the Upper Midwest: A Dual Case Report Comparison

Accidental hypothermia is a potentially life-threatening situation that involves a debilitated patient and is a result of environmental exposure.
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DNA Methylation Status of the Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase Gene is associated with Depressive Symptoms in Japanese Workers: A Cross-Sectional Study

Polymorphisms in methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene, that is considered to be the most important genetic determinant of blood homocysteine concentration, are associated with various diseases, including psychiatric disorders. However, the epigenetic factors influencing on the transcription and expression of this gene are unclear.
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Kawasaki Disease Presented with Meningitis in an Egyptian Adolescent

An Egyptian male adolescent 12 years old presented with fever, loss of appetite, nausea and vomiting for 3 days. He had convulsion on admission. Physical examination revealed positive meningeal signs.
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Epigenetic Changes Caused by Occupational Stress in Humans Revealed through Noninvasive Assessment of DNA Methylation of the Tyrosine Hydroxylase Gene

Tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) catalyzes the rate-limiting step in the synthesis of L-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA), a precursor of dopamine, and is considered to be involved in many aspects of mental health. On the other hand, the epigenetic mechanisms have been recognized as mediators of stable changes in brain function.
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HIV Sero-Discordant Couples in Southwest Nigeria: Prevalence and Associated Risk Factors

This is a cross-sectional multicenter study to determine the prevalence of HIV sero- discordancy and the associated factors. A total of 166 respondents had questionnaire-based interview. All the respondents were PLHIV and most(87%) have been in heterosexual relationship for at least one year.
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Assessment of the Prevalence of HIV Infection at Four Health Facilities in Dilla Town, Ethiopia

The successful introduction and spread of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) into the global human population may have first emerged among humans in the early part of the 20th century (most likely contracted from infected primates).
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Wake-up Strokes Are Similar to Known-Onset Morning Strokes in Severity and Outcome

Stroke symptoms noticed upon waking, wake-up stroke, account for up to a quarter of all acute ischemic strokes. Patients with wake-up stroke, however, are often excluded from thrombolytic therapy.
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The BMBL and Biosafety Levels

Scientists began developing and publishing a series of best practices to mitigate laboratory risks in the 1970’s. These biosafety guidelines are disseminated by the Department of Health and Human Services in the publication Biosafety in Microbiological and Biomedical Laboratories (BMBL).
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Editorial Board Members Related to AHA

Farrukh Aqil

Assistant professor
Department of medicine
University of louisville
United States

Baha’ N. Noureddin

Professor and Chairman
Department of Ophthalmology
The American University of Beirut
Lebanon

Ekrem Dogan

Professor
Department of Internal Medicine
Division of Nephrology
Selahaddin Eyyubi University
Turkey

Ken-ichi Mukaisho

Associate Professor
Department of Pathology
Division of Molecular Diagnostic Pathology
Shiga University of Medical Science
Japan

Shuvra Kanti Dey

Assistant Professor
Department of Microbiology
Jahangirnagar University
Bangladesh

Babak Saedi

Babak saedi Professor
Department of Otolaryngology
Tehran University of Medical Sciences
Iran

Kaveh Ostad-Ali-Askari

Department of Civil Engineering
Islamic Azad University
Iran

Maha Anwar Ali Hassan

Professor
Department of Biophysics
Faculty of Science
Cairo University
Egypt

John Abraham

Lecturer
Department of Conservation Biology and Entomology
University of Cape Coast
Ghana

ASISH K. SAHA

Associate Professor
Department of Medicine
Boston University
United States
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