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Articles Related to ALS

Socio-Demographic, Clinical Characteristics and Blood Lipid profiles of Type 1 Diabetic Patients Followed in Regional Hospitals in The Northern Zone of Cameroon

Background and Objective: In Cameroon, given the galloping growth in the prevalence of diabetes, in particular type 1 diabetes in the northern regions, we undertook this study, with the objective to improve the management of type 1 diabetes by determining the socio-demographic, clinical characteristics and lipid profiles of the patients followed in the care centers of regional hospitals of Maroua, Garoua and Ngaoundere. Methods: We undertook a descriptive cross-sectional study from 07 August 2018 to 07 May 2019 in the care centers of the regional hospitals. Sociodemographic and clinical data were collected by interview to consent patient through structured questionnaires in the survey sheet. Anthropometric data were also determined during the survey, and the blood was collected in referred laboratory for determination of some lipid profiles parameters. Results: On a sample of 467 Patient suffering from diabetes, 68 were of type 1, representing a prevalence of 26%. Type 1 diabetes Patients were mostly female (61.8%) and the mean age was 20.72 ± 3.4 years with a high percentage between 20-30 years (51.5%). More than half of our patients were pupils and students, many of them practiced Muslims as religion (58.8%). In most of cases (51.3%), the disease was diagnosed after one year as a result of illness. The majority of our patients were non-smokers (98.5%) and less athletic (32.4%). The mean Body Mass Index (BMI) was 23.03 ± 2.7 kg /m2 with an average waist circumference of 80.26 ± 9.23 cm in men and 82.15 ± 10.45 in women. Their treatment was based essentially on insulin therapy, mainly using regular and intermediate insulins. More than half of the subjects had high blood glucose (78.1%), high triglyceride (34.1%) and HDL-cholesterol (29.3%) levels. Most of the patients suffered from overweight/obesity, high blood pressure, arthritis, kidney failure and other diseases (malaria, jaundice, stomach ache). No significant relation was found between clinical and the sociodemographic and blood lipid profiles. Conclusion: It emerges from this study that type 1 diabetes represent high proportions of diabetes cases in septentrional area of Cameroon, and affect mostly young of less than 30 years old, dominated by women, practicing Muslim as religion. Their clinical profile characterized by high frequency of overweight/obesity, kidney failure and arthritis vary, but not significantly, with neither their sociodemographic nor their blood lipid profiles. Absence of sport, female and less control of their hypoglycemia are factors risks of the progression of the disease.
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Removal of Heavy Metals from Groundwater by Hydrous Ferric Oxide-Modified Peanut Shell

This study reports the adsorption capacity of copper Cu (II) and nickel Ni (II) of biochar obtained from peanut shell. The kinetics and equilibrium of biosorption were examined in detail. Two kinetic models (pseudo-first order and pseudo-second order) were used to correlate the experimental data and to determine the kinetic parameters. Two well-known adsorption isotherms were chosen to describe the biosorption equilibrium (Langmuir and Freundlich). The equilibrium isotherms showed that modified peanut shells possess high affinity, sorption capacity for Cu (II) and Ni (II) ions, sorption capacities of 37.443 mg/g Cu (II) and 28.626 mg/g Ni (II) biomass, respectively. All results showed that peanut shells biomass is an attractive, alternative low-cost bio sorbent for removal of heavy metal ions from aqueous media, therefore biomass materials find good application prospects.
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Hypoglycemic Potential of Ziziphus spina-christi Fruit on Alloxan induced Hyperglycemic Rats

Hyperglycaemia is a key symptom in diabetes mellitus associated with long term damages, dysfunction and eventually failure of organs, especially the eyes, kidneys, nerves, heart and blood vessels. This study is to evaluate the hypoglycaemic potential of orally administered aqueous and ethanol extracts of Zyziphus spina-christ fruit on alloxan induced hyperglycaemic Wistar rats. The plant was extracted using maceration using aqueous and 80% ethanol as extraction solvents. Qualitative phytochemical analysis was done. An in vitro assessment of both aqueous and ethanol extract to demonstrate hypoglycaemic activity via inhibition of alpha amylase enzyme and alpha glucosidase enzymes were done. Total of 45 albino rats were used in the study of both sexes divided in 9 groups. Group 1: normal control group, group 2: diabetic control group, group 3: positive control group (metformin 300mg/kg), group 4-6: (150mg/kg, 300mg/kg and 600mg/kg) aqueous extract and group 7-9: (150mg/kg, 300mg/kg and 600mg/kg) ethanol extract. Groups were compared using one way ANOVA for significant differences and Dunnet’s posthoc test was deployed were differences exit. Data were represented as mean ± SEM and p value <0.005 The aqueous and ethanol extract yielded 35.59%% and 46.68% respectively. Phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, terpenoids, tannins, Saponins, Saponins glycosides, steroids, Phytosteroids, carbohydrate and volatile oil. An in vitro assessment of aqueous and ethanol extract demonstrated hypoglycaemic activity via inhibition of both alpha amylase enzyme and alpha glucosidase enzymes. The percentage inhibition of alpha amylase was presented as IC50 of 0.14, 0.19 and 0.58 for the acarbose, ethanol extract and aqueous extract respectively. Alpha glucosidase inhibition was represented by the IC50 of 0.7mg/ml, 0.9mg/ml and 0.7mg/ml for acarbose, ethanol extracts and aqueous extracts. The aqueous and ethanol extracts significantly decrease the blood glucose level. Elevation of cholesterol and LDL was seen in diabetic control group. The results from the studies showed that Ziziphus spina-Christi fruit aqueous and ethanol extracts has an anti-hyperglycaemic potential which is not a dose dependent both in Vitro and in Vivo. Ziziphus spina-Christi fruit aqueous and ethanol extract also causes a significant reduction in cholesterol level.
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Progressive Supranuclear Palsy with Classic Radiological Signs: A Case Report and Literature Review

Progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) is a rare neurodegenerative parkinsonian syndrome with distinct clinical features which tends to be progressive, causing vertical supranuclear gaze palsy, frontal lobe cognitive decline, postural instability and progressive axial rigidity. Clinical examination typically reveals ocular motor dysfunction including restricted vertical gaze, slow vertical saccades and “eyelid opening apraxia” with intact vestibule ocular reflex. PSP falls under the rubric of Parkinsonism plus syndromes that are a group of heterogeneous degenerative neurological disorders that differ from the classical idiopathic Parkinson’s disease. PSP is often underreported, making it important for clinicians to be aware of this disorder. Here we report a case of PSP, which presented primarily with speech disturbances and recurrent falls due to postural instability. On investigating, the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed a classical sign diagnostic of PSP. This teaching case report describes management and prognosis of the disease
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High Prevalence of Morphological Abnormality on Peripheral Blood Cells Among Patients in Public Hospitals, Southern Ethiopia

Introduction: Morphologically abnormal blood cells in peripheral blood of a person reflect underlying pathological condition affecting formation, function, and lifespan of these cells. A properly identified morphological defect in peripheral blood cells is important to manage anemia, leukemia and other disorders of blood. This study aimed to assess magnitude and severity of morphological abnormality in blood cells of patients with abnormal complete blood count in public hospitals found in southern Ethiopia. Method: A facility-based cross-sectional study was conducted from January 01 to March 31, 2019 among five public hospitals in Southern Ethiopia. Peripheral blood sample and socio-demographic data were collected from 423 patients with abnormal complete blood count. Thin blood smear was prepared by Wedge method, stained with Wright’s Stain, and examined under microscope by 1000X magnification to detect and characterize abnormality in blood cells’ morphology. Descriptive statistical analysis was done using Statistical Package for Social Sciences version 20.0, and results are presented in tables and figures. Result: Prevalence of blood cell morphological abnormality was 63.8%. From this, 21.8% is marked and 78.2% is moderate abnormality. In 41.9% of the affected patients, the defect involved at least two blood cell types mainly affecting red blood cells. Females (73.8%), children (70.1%) and elderly (82.1%) carried higher prevalence of the abnormality. Conclusion: High prevalence of abnormality in PBS morphology was observed, chiefly among female, children and elderly. Stakeholders should work to alleviate the high prevalence, with particular attention to women, children and old-age people.
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A Review on Veterinary Medical Waste Disposal and Management

The purpose of this review is to highlight environmentally sound disposal methods of veterinary pharmaceutcals wastes and the risks associated with its improper disposal, with a systematic review. Pharmaceuticals are produced and used in large volumes increasingly every year throughout the world. Medicinal waste products are medicinal products which are not fit for sale or supply. Waste produced in veterinary practice in common with other medical disciplines can be broken down into general waste similar to household waste, clinical waste and hazardous waste. Disposal of pharmaceutical compounds is becoming a complex environmental issue. The safety and health of the environment is directly affected by the disposal methods. Improper medical waste disposal and management causes all types of pollution (air, soil, and water). Proper waste management have to be undertaken to ensure that it does not affect the environment and not cause health hazards to the people living there. Different types of medical waste require different disposal techniques. The appropriate safe disposal method recommended will depend principally on the pharmaceutical dosage form of the drugs. One of the best advisable veterinary waste disposal practices is to store the waste properly before collection and transportation. Some general medical waste can be disposed of in landfill, others require specialist treatment such as a medical incinerator. Appropriate safety precautions, which minimize the risk to the health and safety of pharmacy staff, should be taken when handling medicinal waste products. Extra precautions should be taken by staff in high-risk groups as they may be at increased risk if they come into contact with particular substances. The cost of pharmaceuticals waste disposal comprises of direct costs of supplies and materials used for collection, transport, storage, treatment, disposal, decontamination and cleaning, the cost of labor and material for training and maintenance, and will vary depending on the treatment method chosen, the capacity of the treatment facility and according to the waste quantity and quality.
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Decontamination of Impressions: Knowledge and Attitudes of Dentists in The Dakar Region (Senegal).

Introduction: The prosthetic act must obey the rules of asepsis with a certain rigour for the decontamination of impressions to reduce the risk of cross-contamination. The objective of this study was to evaluate the knowledge and attitudes of practitioners in the Dakar region (Senegal) regarding the decontamination of impressions. Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional descriptive epidemiological survey of 150 dentists in the Dakar region. Results: The sample consisted of 59,3% men and 40,7% women. Practitioners practising in private practice were 61,0% against 39% in public practice. The majority (83.3%) of dentists in the study had not received any continuing education on aseptic procedures in prosthetics and had a vague idea of the term "decontamination of impressions". Nevertheless, almost all practitioners (94,0%) systematically rinsed the impressions with water after disinsertion, 48.7% of practitioners decontaminated their impressions with a disinfectant. The most used decontamination methods were immersion at 70.3% followed by spraying at 17.1%. Sodium hypochlorite (63.9%) was the most used solution due to its effectiveness, simplicity of use and cost. Conclusion: There is diversity in the attitude and knowledge of dentists. Disinfection protocols that are simple to implement and adapted to the impression materials should be put in place. Moreover, a rinsing as soon as the mouth is removed must be carried out, then a post-disinfection rinsing for a better dimensional stability of our impressions.
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Effects of Gabapentin Enacarbil on Cortical Arousals, Heart Rate, Blood Pressure and Anterior Tibialis EMG Responses Associated with PLMs in Restless Legs Syndrome

Objective: This study was conducted to investigate the effects of gabapentin enacarbil (GEn) on sleep EEG, heart rate (HR), blood presssure, anterior tibialis EMG activity (PLMs power) and subjective complaints in subjects with moderate to severe RLS and disturbed sleep. Methods: This was a single site, single-blind, placebo run-in, fixed dose single group polysomnography (PSG) study. Eligible subjects (age 24-66 years) were treated with placebo for one week and GEn (600 mg/day) for 4 weeks. Two in-laboratory PSGs were collected for adaptation and baseline at the end of the placebo run-in period and for re-adaptation and efficacy assessment at the end of the 4-week treatment period. The primary endpoint was the difference in PSG derived cortical arousal intensity (arousal scale, 0-9) associated with PLMs between 4 weeks of treatment with GEn and placebo. Secondary endpoints included changes in HR responses (ΔHR), nocturnal systolic blood pressure (SBP) changes (>10 mmHg) secondary to PLMs and PLMs power. Other PSG and subjective measures were assessed. Results: Of 20 subjects enrolled, 18 completed the study. Subjects treated with GEn did not show significant improvements in cortical arousal intensity and ΔHR. However, subjects showed reduced PLMs power (p= 0.013) and associated reductions in nocturnal SBP per hour of sleep (p= 0.041) GEn showed significant improvement in other PSG parameters and subjective endpoints. Conclusion: The data suggests that GEn reduces the frequency and power of PLMs and the corresponding SBP changes in subjects with RLS. Despite reducing the total number of PLM associated arousals and nocturnal HR, the study did not demonstrate consistent effects of GEn on cortical arousal intensity and corresponding HR changes associated with PLMs. Clinical Trial Registration: identifier: NCT02424695
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Randomised, 2-Sequence, 4-Period Replicate Cross-Over Bioequivalence Study of A New Riluzole Orodispersible Film Vs. A Reference Tablet in Healthy Volunteers

Purpose: The present bioequivalence study aimed at demonstrating the bioequivalence of a recently developed novel riluzole orodispersible film vs. a reference tablet. Methods: Healthy male and female volunteers received single oral doses of 50 mg of riluzole, as test and reference formulation, under fasting conditions, in each of 4 subsequent periods separated by wash-out intervals of at least 7 days, according to a 2-treatment, 4-period, replicate randomised cross-over design. Findings: Riluzole plasma concentrations were almost superimposable. Riluzole attained a similar peak concentration (315.62±124.95 ng/mL with the film and 278.81±123.32 ng/mL with the tablet) at a median tmax of 0.75 h after both treatments. Then, riluzole plasma concentrations showed a superimposable decline from the peak up to 36 h post-dose, with mean half-lives of 10.22±1.66 and 10.22±1.48 h with the film and the tablet. Mean AUC0-t was 1263.40±571.58 h*ng/mL with the film and 1135.98±514.98 h*ng/mL with the tablet. The 90% confidence intervals of Cmax, AUC0-t and AUC0-¥ of riluzole fell within the predefined range 80.00-125.00%. The treatments did not differ significantly either in tmax or t1/2. On average, the test orodispersible film dissolved on the tongue in a median time of about 2.5 min with a range of 0.7-5.7 min. Orodispersible film palatability was good or acceptable for most subjects.
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Comparison of Hemodialysis Patients and Healthy Individuals Attitudes towards Organ Donation: A Descriptive Study

The research is comparative descriptive type. The sample of the study consisted of a total of 167 people, including 82 hemodialysis patients and 85 healthy individuals who applied to the Family Health Center. The data of the study were obtained using the questionnaire and organ donation attitude scale. SPSS 25 was used in the analysis of the data.
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Close Packing of Elements of Transparent Metamaterials in UVC Diapason and its Influence on The Decontamination Efficiency

A new method for repacking optical metamaterials formed from fiber or spherical elements of various diameters is proposed for ultraviolet C (UVC) decontamination of infected liquids that flow between these elements. It is proposed the method of repacking of metamaterial formed from closed packing big fibers/spheres with other subsystems of thin fibers/ bubbles replaced in the free space between the first packing fibers/spheres.
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Capsaicinoids Increase Resting Metabolic Rate in Healthy Individuals under Fasting Condition

Obesity is a chronic metabolic condition of energy imbalance where energy intake exceeds energy expenditure. Resting energy expenditure (REE) represents calories burned at rest and accounts for >60% of total energy expenditure and is an important target for management of obesity. Capsaicinoids, extracted from Capsicum annuum have previously been shown to increase metabolism, lipolysis & induce satiety.
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Sero-Prevalence and Associated Factors of Hepatitis B Virus Infection among Health Professionals in Adama Town, Oromia, Central Ethiopia

Hepatitis B is an infectious disease that caused by hepatitis B virus infection. Hepatitis B virus replicates in the liver and causes both acute and chronic hepatitis. The virus predominantly transmitted through a blood and sexual contact from potential sources. Healthcare professionals are at great risk of occupational exposure to this virus.
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Exploring the Behavioral Drivers of Antibiotic Prescription in Food Animal’s Practitioners

Irrational use of antimicrobials in food animals is reported as a primary cause of antibiotic resistance (AMR) at the animal human interface with detrimental public health implications. Veterinarians are the main player for antimicrobial usage in food producing animals (FPAs). Therefore, this study was aimed to explore the key determinants of antibiotic prescription behavior among FPAs practitioners and its public health implications. For the purpose, a pre-tested questionnaire was presented to FPAs veterinarians.
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Rapid Hydrogenation of Toluene in a One-Pass Reactor at Ambient Temperature and Pressure on a Novel Nanostructured Super-Alloy Catalysts without Containing Noble Metals

Novel Ni-Re super-alloy catalyst system is found for rapid hydrogenation of toluene to methylcyclohexane (MCH) in a one-pass reactor under mild reaction conditions. The novel bimetallic Ni-Re alloy catalysts exhibit the remarkably enhanced activity and stability for hydrogenation of toluene by comparison with monometallic Ni catalyst. The catalytic performance of novel Ni-Re catalyst is compared with that of Pt catalysts for hydrogenation of toluene. The better activity maintenance of the Ni-Re catalysts than the Pt-based catalysts are found. The alloying effect of Ni with Re is identified by XRD and EXAFS measurements.
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Ordered Growth of Anodic Aluminum Oxide in Galvanostatic and Galvanostatic-Potentiostatic Modes

The results are presented of obtaining anodic aluminum oxide with an ordered pore arrangement by employing two anodizing modes - galvanostatic mode and combined (galvanostatic + potentiostatic) mode, at high values of the current density and voltage. Use has been made of an oxalate electrolyte and a complex electrolyte comprising oxalic acid and phosphoric acid. Scanning electron microscopy has been used to investigate the surface morphology of the barrier and porous layers and to determine pore sizes and inter-pore distance.
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Anodic Porous Alumina Array for Cyanine Fluorophore Cy3 Confinement

Self-organized anodic porous alumina films with hexagonal pore lattice have attracted a considerable attention for biological arrays and confinement of various organic probes dyes in solutions. A molecular structure with axial symmetry in bis-heterocyclic indole chains and conjugate system, such as cyanine fluorophore Cy3 dye, was investigated here with respect to its fluorescence when loaded in the anodic alumina pores.
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Anodizing for Design and Function

Two basic reactions occur during the anodizing of aluminum: 1) the aluminum is consumed and 2) an oxide grows. By accepting this statement as true, the anodizing process can be viewed as a corrosion process, and anodizing can be modeled using the Tafel Equation. Anodizing process parameters of electrolyte chemistry and concentration, temperature, aluminum substrate resistance and current density are presented as they relate to the Tafel Equation and how they impact the anodic aluminum oxide structure and properties. Understanding this relationship is consequent in making anodizing an engineering process, one that enables tuning the structure such that it yields distinct characteristics to fulfill design and application requirements.
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The Effects of the Film Thickness and Roughness in the Anodization Process of Very Thin Aluminum Films

The anodization of aluminum foils having micrometer thickness is a common process and results in hexagonally self-ordered alumina membranes. However, anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) membranes fabricated from nanometer-thin films present new challenges to the anodization process, since aluminum films adheres poorly on supporting substrates and the smoothness of the film is highly related to the kind of substrate.
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Anodic Oxidation of Titanium in Sulphuric Acid and Phosphoric Acid Electrolytes

Anodisation of pure titanium has been carried out in sulphuric and in phosphoric acid solutions at potentials ranging from 50 to 150V. The SEM and AFM morphological analysis indicates that, within this potential range, oxidation in sulphuric acid solution produces better developed mesoporous oxide layers.
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Fabrication of Ordered Arrays of Anodic Aluminum Oxide Pores with Interpore Distance Smaller than the Pitch of Nano-pits formed by Ion Beam Etching

We investigated a method for preparation of ordered nanopore arrays with the interpore distance of 60 nm by guided self-organization of anodic aluminum oxide with a prepatterned array of pits in the starting Al film.
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Preparation of Large Area Anodic Alumina Membranes and their Application to Thin Film Fuel Cell

The design of an electrochemical reactor for the preparation of self-supported comparatively thin (up to 10 μm) and large area (up to 50 cm2) anodic alumina membranes is described allowing growth of porous alumina at high applied potential (up to 150 V) without burning.
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Fabrication of Vertical Cu2ZnSnS4 Nanowire Arrays by Two-Step Electroplating Method into Anodic Aluminum Oxide Template

Vertical Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) nanowire arrays have been synthesized via two-step electroplating method into anodized aluminum oxide template. For deposition of CZTS nanowires, anodized aluminum oxide (AAO) was used as the growth mask for the growth of the nanowires. AAO templates with hole sizes of 70 nm in diameter were used in the experiments.
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Fabrication and Luminescence of Anodic Alumina with Incorporated Vanadyl Citrate Chelate Anions

Anodic aluminum oxide doped with vanadyl citrate chelate complex anions was formed by a two-step self-organized anodization in 2 wt. % sulfuric acid containing 0.04 M V2O5 and 0.08 M citric acid at voltage range 13-23 V, and at 0 and 15 oC. The combination of two temperatures and at least four voltages (depending on the applied temperature) was applied as the operating conditions of anodization.
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Synthesis of BaTiO3 Nanowires via Anodic Aluminum Oxide Template Method Assisted by Vacuum-and-Drop Loading

In this paper, we report on the synthesis of BaTiO3 nanowires via the anodic aluminum oxide template method. To fill in the precursors of BaTiO3 into anodic aluminum oxide templates, the vacuum and drop loading method developed in our previous study was used. Ba(CH3COO)2 (barium acetate) and C12H28O4Ti (tetraisopropyl orthotitanate) were used as Ba and Ti sources, respectively. Anodic aluminum oxide membranes with the through-hole diameter of ~200 nm were used as the template for BaTiO3 nanowires.
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Editorial Board Members Related to ALS

Gillian Tully

Principal Forensic Services Ltd
United Kingdom

Yu Shyr

Department of Biomedical Informatics
Vanderbilt University
United States

Cristiana Palmela Pereira

Assistant Professor
Portuguese Institute of Legal Medicine
University of Lisboa

Nikhil Arvind Sangle

Assistant Professor
Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine
Schulich School of Medicine & Dentistry
Western University

Franciszek Adamicki

Department of Horticulture
College of Economic and Humanities

Gregory Kouraklis

Professor of Surgery
National and Kapodistrian University
President of Athens Medical Society


Centre for Energy Studies
SRM University

Afrooz Habibi

Assistant Professor
Department of Anatomical Science
School of Medicine
Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences & Health Services
Tehran, Iran.

Daolun Chen

Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering
Ryerson University

Sobhy Mohamed Gomaa

Professor of Organic Chemistry
Faculty of Science
Cairo University
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