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Evaluation of the Parodontal Health of Schoolchildren from Widou in Ferlo (Senegal)

Introduction: Mechanical disorganization of the bacterial biofilm is the cornerstone of the prevention of gingivitis and periodontitis periodontal diseases. The objective of this study was to evaluate the periodontal health of schoolchildren in Widou, Ferlo. Methodology: This was a descriptive, cross-sectional study of schoolchildren living in Widou in the centre of Ferlo. The survey was exhaustive and concerned the only school in the locality. The epidemiological data collected concerned oral hygiene practice, periodontal health and socio-demographic characteristics such as sex, age and educational level. The degree of hygiene was assessed by the Silness and Loe plaque index (Plaque Index); inflammation and bleeding on probing were assessed by the Loe and Silness gingival index (Gingival Index). Results: In a total of 126 schoolchildren, boys and girls were equally represented and the average age was 10 years +/- 2.16.Sixty-nine percent (69%) of the children examined did not use a toothbrush. Of these, more than 47% reported brushing 3 times a day. The plaque index mean value was 1.23 and 99.2% of the population had a moderate plaque control. The average gingival index was 0.96 and 80.2% of the sample had moderate gingival inflammation. Conclusion: The study showed a relatively low rate of toothbrush use in contrast to the tooth stick and a relatively high rate of periodontal index. Communication-based approaches to behaviour change in children are needed to improve periodontal health.
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Hierarchical Analysis of The Factors Associated with the Consumption of Fruits and Vegetables: Cohort of Universities of Minas Gerais, Brazil (Cume Project)

The objective of this study was to assess which factors, at hierarchical levels, are associated with adequate consumption of fruits and vegetables (FV) in undergraduate and graduate students. This is a cross-sectional analysis of the baseline of the Cohort of Universities of Minas Gerais (CUME Project), with alumni from Universities of Minas Gerais, Brazil, in the years 2016 and 2018. The outcome variable was adequate consumption of FV (≥400 g/day). The exposure variables were divided into: block 1, socioeconomic (marital status, education, professional status, individual and family income); block 2, behavioral (physical activity, alcohol consumption, tobacco use, and consumption of legumes, natural juices, ultra-processed foods, soft drinks and industrialized juices, and fast foods); block 3, individual (gender, age, skin color, self-perception of health and presence of obesity, systemic arterial hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and depression). To verify the associations, hierarchical multiple logistic regression was used. The sample consisted of 4,124 individuals with a median age of 34 years and Interquartile Range (IQ) of 12 years, 68.1% women, with a high frequency (62.2%) of adequate consumption of FV. This adequate consumption of FV was associated with being a woman (OR=1.41; 95%CI 1.21-1.64; p<0.001), advancing in age and being physically active (OR=2.10; 95%CI 1.78-2.47; p<0.001), having regular consumption of natural fruit juice (OR=2.00; 95%CI 1.70-2.34, p<0.001), or consumption of ultra-processed foods (OR=0.96; 95%CI 0.95-0.97; p<0.001). In conclusion, individual and behavioral factors are associated with adequate consumption of FV in highly educated individuals.
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Pharmacodynamic Equivalence of Ovine Enoxaparin to Porcine Enoxaparin (Lovenox®) In Healthy Volunteers: A Randomized, Open-Label, 2-Way Cross-Over, Single Dose Study

Aim: to demonstrate the PK/PD equivalence of an ovine enoxaparin to the reference product, the originator porcine enoxaparin, Lovenox® from Sanofi, and to assess its safety and tolerability in healthy volunteers with s.c. administration. Methods: a randomized, open-label, 2-way cross-over, single-dose study with 7 days wash-out period was conducted in healthy volunteers of both sexes. A single s.c. injection of 6,000 IU ovine enoxaparin from Metiska Farma (the test drug, T) or Lovenox® from Sanofi (the reference drug, R) was given randomly to each subject in fasting condition. The PD endpoints measured were anti-FXa and anti-FIIa activities in plasma, whereas the PD parameters determined for these endpoints were AUEC0-t (area under the effect curve from time 0 to the last measured activity (t)) and Amax (maximum activity). Bioequivalence (BE) is based on anti-FXa activity, the 90% CIs for GMR T/R (geometric means ratio of Test/ Reference) of AUEC0-t and Amax must fall within the BE limits of 80.00 – 125.00%. The anti-FIIa data are in vivo supportive evidence only. Results: a total of 23 healthy volunteers completed this study. The 90% CIs for GMR T/R of AUEC0-t and Amax for anti-FXa were 107.55 – 116.33% and 110.17 – 117.68%, respectively, while those for anti-FIIa were 100.93 – 122.56% and 105.19 – 124.44%, respectively. All parameters fell within the BE criteria of 80.00 – 125.00%. One AE (adverse event) occurred in one volunteer after s.c. injection of ovine enoxaparin, i.e. bruising which disappeared after a few days. Conclusions: the ovine enoxaparin from Metiska Farma was bioequivalent to the reference porcine enoxaparin (Lovenox®) from Sanofi. Both enoxaparin products were shown to have high safety and tolerability after a single dose in healthy volunteers. This is the first study showing BE of a nonporcine enoxaparin to the reference porcine enoxaparin in Indonesia, a Moslem country
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The Present Scenario of Lathyrisum Regarding Public Health in 2021

Backgrounds: Neurolathyrism is a disease, which is linked with the consumption of Lathyrus sativus ( L. sativusi) pulse that contain the neurotoxin-beta-N-oxalyl-L-alpha-beta-diamino propionic acid (beta-ODAP). Patients with Lathyrisum suffer with gradual enhancement in spasticity and bony changes, which are responsible for appearing the crippling condition throughout life. Objective: The present study has been done as to establish the present situation of L. sativusi consumption and Lathyrisum. Materials and Methods:We performed the survey in the village of Mohammadabad Block of Gazipur district in Eastern Uttar Pradesh (a state with maximum population in India) which have population of million, and L. sativusi is the main pulse of the year, which sustains the economy of these populations. Results:Out of 21,234 subjects L. sativusi eating population for more than 10 years, none had Lathyrisum. On contrary, to popular belief, this population enjoys various dishes made by L. sativusi pulse which in popular are local delicacy. Conclusions:There is no evidence of L. sativusi causing Lathyrisum in 2021. On contrary, L. sativusi pulses have become an inheriting part of the food habits in these populations.
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Randomised, 2-Sequence, 4-Period Replicate Cross-Over Bioequivalence Study of A New Riluzole Orodispersible Film Vs. A Reference Tablet in Healthy Volunteers

Purpose: The present bioequivalence study aimed at demonstrating the bioequivalence of a recently developed novel riluzole orodispersible film vs. a reference tablet. Methods: Healthy male and female volunteers received single oral doses of 50 mg of riluzole, as test and reference formulation, under fasting conditions, in each of 4 subsequent periods separated by wash-out intervals of at least 7 days, according to a 2-treatment, 4-period, replicate randomised cross-over design. Findings: Riluzole plasma concentrations were almost superimposable. Riluzole attained a similar peak concentration (315.62±124.95 ng/mL with the film and 278.81±123.32 ng/mL with the tablet) at a median tmax of 0.75 h after both treatments. Then, riluzole plasma concentrations showed a superimposable decline from the peak up to 36 h post-dose, with mean half-lives of 10.22±1.66 and 10.22±1.48 h with the film and the tablet. Mean AUC0-t was 1263.40±571.58 h*ng/mL with the film and 1135.98±514.98 h*ng/mL with the tablet. The 90% confidence intervals of Cmax, AUC0-t and AUC0-¥ of riluzole fell within the predefined range 80.00-125.00%. The treatments did not differ significantly either in tmax or t1/2. On average, the test orodispersible film dissolved on the tongue in a median time of about 2.5 min with a range of 0.7-5.7 min. Orodispersible film palatability was good or acceptable for most subjects.
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Benefits and Health Risks Associated with Energy Booster Drinks: A Review Study

There are several energy drinks available in the market such as Red Bull, Sting, Rebound, Power Up! Triple X Energy Drink, and so on. After the Red Bull drink was introduced in the market in1990s, Energy drinks started to gain popularity and afterwards it became a common name especially among teenagers and young adults [1]. Most energy drinks are caffeinated nonindulgent beverages that are professed to give an additional increase in energy for day-by-day work, increase alertness, and improve athletic performance and mood. There are even certain shreds of evidence present to substantiate these claims, but the effects of these drinks on mental and physical health cannot be neglected. There are reports of adverse events such as insomnia, anxiety, cardiovascular events, seizures, tachycardia, type-2 diabetes, and even death are associated with the consumption of these drinks [2]. This review will focus on energy drinks, their ingredients, health risks associated with these drinks, and will also suggest some recommendations such as changes in marketing, providing education to children regarding adverse effects of these drinks, and further research should be carried out in this domain.
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Diabetic Retinopathy, Classification And Clinical Impact

Introduction: Diabetic retinopathy maybe defined as the presence and characteristic evolution of typical retinal micro-vascular lesions to an patient with diabetes. DR usually manifests as a gradual, painless progression of vision loss; however, visual loss may occur with vitreous hemorrhage or macular edema. Aims: To ascertain the prevalence of diabetic retinopathy (DR) based on the duration of the diabetes mellitus (DM) and to compare it with data from relevant literature and other referent clinics. This exploratory research was conducted to evaluate the clinical experience of DR, its impact of the other disease and health related quality of life. Material and methods: In this study are included the patients with diabetes mellitus type I insulin dependent (DMID) and diabetes mellitus type II non-insulin dependent (DMNID). The duration of diabetes in the examined patients varied from 5 till 30 years. We have applied examination by ophthalmoscope, slit lamp bio-microscopy with Volk and Goldman lens, optical coherence tomography - OCT as well as fluorescent angiography - FAG. Have been included for focus groups (n = 450) the treated patients with DR, from December 2016 - 2020. Results: Participants described a range of evaluate symptoms and clinical impact. In suffering for a period of 5 years, the prevalence of DR is 12.5%. In diabetic patients suffering over 30 years, the prevalence of DR is over 90.5 %. After the test of PDR impact the comlications results by the X2 -test, the difference was found to be statistically significant for p<0.05.
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Chronic Exposure to Artificial Light Spectra at night alter Neurobehaviour and Neurotransmitter levels in Albino Rats

Artificial light at night has been reported to have significant effects on the physiology and behaviour of animals by its impact on their circadian rhythm. This study investigated the effect of artificial light spectra at night on neurotransmitter activities and neurobehavioural changes in the albino rat. Blue (470 nm) and red (665 nm) lights were used; with ambient light and darkness serving as positive and negative controls, respectively. The rats were exposed to daylight from 6 am to 6 pm and 12 hours of artificial light (6 pm - 6 am) daily (light sources were 13 Watt compact florescent electric bulbs). Neurobehavioural outcomes were measured using the Open Field Test (OFT) and Morris Water Maze (MWM).
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Healthy Living and Lifestyle with Prophet Teaching

The aim of this review is to highlight the Islamic teachings that go beyond the spiritual and religious life of the Muslim, as it provides a healthy outline for daily life.
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Comparison of Hemodialysis Patients and Healthy Individuals Attitudes towards Organ Donation: A Descriptive Study

The research is comparative descriptive type. The sample of the study consisted of a total of 167 people, including 82 hemodialysis patients and 85 healthy individuals who applied to the Family Health Center. The data of the study were obtained using the questionnaire and organ donation attitude scale. SPSS 25 was used in the analysis of the data.
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Health Care Workers and Self-Assessed Communication with Language Diverse Patients in the St. Louis Region at the Onset and One Year into COVID-19

Self-assessment (SA) of English speaking ability by patients has been an important reference for the health workforce, and in the past 10 years, research examining health literacy in the USA has continued to emphasize the patient. In the current study, 338 Health Care Workers (HCWs) (82% female and 63% nurses) reported on their current communications with patients (one year into the COVID-19 pandemic) and recalled what communication was like at the onset of the pandemic. Through SA as a way for HCWs to analyze communication, this study investigated information available from community and healthcare facilities, oral communication with patients, and the training of healthcare professionals.
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Capsaicinoids Increase Resting Metabolic Rate in Healthy Individuals under Fasting Condition

Obesity is a chronic metabolic condition of energy imbalance where energy intake exceeds energy expenditure. Resting energy expenditure (REE) represents calories burned at rest and accounts for >60% of total energy expenditure and is an important target for management of obesity. Capsaicinoids, extracted from Capsicum annuum have previously been shown to increase metabolism, lipolysis & induce satiety.
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Sero-Prevalence and Associated Factors of Hepatitis B Virus Infection among Health Professionals in Adama Town, Oromia, Central Ethiopia

Hepatitis B is an infectious disease that caused by hepatitis B virus infection. Hepatitis B virus replicates in the liver and causes both acute and chronic hepatitis. The virus predominantly transmitted through a blood and sexual contact from potential sources. Healthcare professionals are at great risk of occupational exposure to this virus.
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Bioequivalence Study of Donepezil 10 mg Orally Disintegrating Tablets in Healthy Thai Volunteers Under Fasting Conditions

Donepezil is a potent, selective, noncompetitive and reversible inhibitor of acetylcholinesterase, commonly used for the treatment of Alzheimer’s disease. The form of orally disintegrating tablets (ODTs) is a good alternative dosage form for patients who have a difficulty in swallowing conventional tablets or capsules.
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Eco Safe Assimilation of Plastic Wastes by Microbes and Biodegradable Alternatives: A Review

Lack of degradability and the closing of landfill sites as well as growing water and land pollution problems have led to concern about plastics. In the past few decades, the use of plastics has enormously increased, mostly used for food packaging. Ironically, the most preferred property of plastics – durability – exerts also the major environmental threat. With the excessive use of plastics and increasing pressure being placed on capacities available for plastic waste disposal, the need for biodegradable plastics and biodegradation of plastic wastes has assumed increasing importance in the last few years.
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Editorial Board Members Related to ALT

Hongbin Fang

Associate Professor
Department of Biostatistics, Bioinformatics & Biomathematics
Georgetown University
United States

Meijun Zhu

Assistant Professor
School of Food Science
Washington State University
United States

Özüm Erkin

Research Assistant
Public Health Nursing Department
Ege University Faculty of Nursing
Turkey

Haider Abdul-Lateef Mousa

Professor
Department of Medical Microbiology
University of Basrah, Iraq
Basrah, Iraq.

Sangeeta Singg

Professor of Psychology
Angelo State University
United States

Massimo Dominici

Assistant Professor
Head Laboratory of Cell Biology and Advanced Cancer Therapies
Department of Medical and Surgical Sciences for Children & Adults
University Hospital of Modena and Reggio Emilia
Italy

PUNAM OHRI-VACHASPATI

Associate Professor
School of Nutrition and Health Promotion
Arizona State University
United States

Tetsuya Yoshinaga

Professor
Institute of Health Biosciences
Tokushima University
Japan

GIAN-ARISTIDE NORELLI

Professor
Department of Health Sciences
University of Florence
Italy

Gordon L Fung

Professor
School of Medicine
University of California
United States
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