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Articles Related to AM

Permeable Rective Barrier Using Bottom Ash and Clay for The Removal of Contaminants Presesent in Leachate

The Rapid generation rate of solid waste due to increasing population and industrialization leads to open dumping of solid waste. This causes serious environmental risk of groundwater contamination due to landfill leachate, that consists of heavy metals and impurities.
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Red Blood Cell Concentration Parameters and Gliflozins

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Cocoa Butter Intake Regulates Gut Immunity through the Release and Transport of IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-10: Activation of Negative Feedback Control System with Inflammatory and Anti-Inflammatory Cytokines

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Forensic Applications of Raman Spectroscopy a Review

The any field of science they have many different techniques method for examine the substance. There have been several major advances in the use of Raman spectroscopy instruments. This method is now a full established method along with, infrared spectroscopy. The process ultimately led to its entry into the forensic science laboratory, and to simplify the process, this article introduces a comprehensive review of Raman spectroscopy; emphasizes how and why this less commonly used method can be a very useful tool for analysing a various evidence. The concepts and principle of Raman spectroscopy are described in two categories the first categories of this article which includes theory, instrumentation, and spectrum data obtained using infrared and Raman techniques for numerous analyse and the Second categories discusses forensic applications of Raman spectroscopy to examine various types of evidence and substance. In this article we study how to examine forensic evidences by using the Raman spectroscopy and make review report on it.
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Level of Adherence to Antiretroviral Therapy Among People Living with HIV/AIDS in Ekiti State

Introduction: The use of anti-retroviral drugs slows down disease progression in Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) and this has improved the quality of life and life expectancy of Persons Living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA). However, optimum use of antiretroviral drugs (adherence) by PLWHA is the key to achieving viral load suppression and preventing drug resistance in them. Objective: This study determined the level of adherence to Anti-Retroviral Therapy (ART) among PLWHA in Ekiti State. Methodology: A cross-sectional study was conducted on 320 PLWHA in Ekiti State University Teaching Hospital, Ado-Ekiti and 300 PLWHA in Federal Teaching Hospital, Ido-Ekiti aged 18 years and above using ARV for at least six months prior to the study. Quantitative data were collected from the participants using a structured questionnaire while sixteen in-depth interviews were conducted among purposively selected PLWHA in both study centres to further elicit qualitative information on determinants of adherence. Quantitative data were analyzed with SPSS 22 using descriptive statistics while content analysis was used for qualitative data. Regression analysis was done to identify determinants of adherence at p value < 0.05. Results: About 60% of the PLWHA had high level of ART adherence while 18.9% had low adherence. Most of the respondents were female (66.0%), married (76.1%) and Christians (89.4%) and had post-secondary education (43.4%). Respondents’ age (X2=32.483), educational status (X2=2.473), marital status (X2=40.083), occupation (X2=57.951) and distance from the clinic (X2=13.181) significantly influenced the level of adherence. Patient factors such as forget timing of the medication, pill burden and feeling better, psychosocial factors like stigmatization, non-disclosure of status and depression; and healthcare factors such as long clinic waiting time and absence of support are some of the barriers to optimum ART adherence. Conclusion: Counseling on drug adherence and psycho-social support to PLWHA will further improve their level of adherence to medication.
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Assessment of Bacteriological Quality of Raw Bulk Milk of Camel, Cow and Goat from Local Markets in Yabello District, Borana Zone, Oromia Regional State

The study was conducted from September 2020 to June 2021 to assess the bacteriological quality of raw bulk milk from urban and rural local market sites in Borana pastoral area of Oromia Regional State, Southern Ethiopia. A total of 78 milk samples were collected and analyzed for bacterial load using standard plate count and coliform count techniques and isolation of pathogenic bacteria was conducted. The total mean aerobic bacterial counts of raw bulk milk samples of camel, cow and goat were 8.51 log cfu/ml, 8.73 log cfu/ml and 8.54 log cfu/ml respectively. Regarding the location of milk market sites, the mean total aerobic bacterial count was 8.72 log cfu/ml and 8.49 log cfu/ml in urban and rural milk market sites respectively. The total mean coliform counts of raw bulk milk samples of camel, cow and goat were 6.51log cfu/ml, 6.55 log cfu/ml and 6.47 log cfu/ml respectively. Regarding the location of milk market sites the total mean coliform counts was 6.63 log cfu/ml and 6.40log cfu/ml from urban and rural milk market sites respectively. Comparing the mean differences of the total mean aerobic and coliform bacterial counts, there was no significant mean differences (p>0.05) among the animal milk samples. However, there was significant mean differences (p<0.05) among the milk market sites. Different bacterial species were isolated from camel, cow and goat raw milk sample from the urban and rural milk market sites. The major bacterial isolates were Staphylococcus (both pathogenic and non-pathogenic), Escherichia coli and Bacillus species. Generally, the unhygienic milk handling resulted in poor milk quality in the pastoral area. Therefore, there is a need of training for persons at the various milk market sites on strict hygienic measures to improve the bacteriological safety of cow milk.
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Effect of Familial Environment on Handwritings

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Comparative Performance of Compacted Clay Liner (CCL) and Geosynthetic Clay Liner (GCL)

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Prevalence of Significant Ocular Surface Symptoms and Its Relation to Polypharmacy Among In-Patients in A General Internal Medicine Department

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Isolation of Microorganisms Associated with Palm Oil Contaminated Soil

Aim: Palm oil processing generally generates lots of wastewater (palm oil mill effluent), this is usually discharged into the environment in the untreated form and subsequently causes several environmental issues. There is therefore need to isolate microorganisms that can be used to clean up the palm oil contaminated environment especially the soil. Methods and Results: Palm oil contaminated soil was obtained from Oba Adeyemi palm oil mill in Oyo, Oyo State, Nigeria, other soil samples which were purposely contaminated with palm oil, were obtained from Ajayi Crowther University Oyo, Oyo State. Isolation, characterization and identification of microorganisms were carried out using morphological and biochemical characterization. The isolates were preliminarily screened for lipolytic activities, this was confirmed by growth on the mineral salt medium after 7 days, signifying hydrolysis. One of the prominent isolates was further identified by sequences analysis of 16S rRNA genes. Forty-one bacterial isolates were identified, which included species of Bacillus (80 %), Pseudomonas (20 %) in the oil mill contaminated soil sample and Bacillus spp. (100 %) in the purposely contaminated soils. Twenty-nine fungal isolates including species of Aspergillus, Oidiodendron, Geotrichum, Penicillum, Saccharomyces were isolated with Aspergillus fumigatus having the highest frequency of occurrence (37.5 %) in artificially contaminated soil and Saccharomyces spp. having the highest frequency of occurrence (91 %) in palm oil contaminated soil from the palm oil mill. Sequencing of the 16S rRNA of one of the prominent isolates showed that it was identified as MN607220 Saccharomyces cerevisae. All the bacterial and fungal isolates had lipolytic activities except Bacillus mycoides and Oidiodendron sp. respectively. Nine of the ten Saccharomyces sp. had lipolytic activities. Conclusion: These screened organisms could therefore be employed for the cleanup of palm oil contamination in the environment. Significance and Impact of Study: Thereby ridding the environment of possible toxic effects especially in areas of need like Malaysia
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Novel Antibiotics for Bloodstream Infections in HSCT

Bloodstream infections (BSI) are one of severe infectious complications faced by hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) patients. BSI increases significantly the morbidity and mortality of HSCT patients. Gram-positive bacteria occurred more frequency than gram-negative bacteria over past decades, but rates of gram-negative bloodstream infections have recently increased again. Antibacterial prophylaxis could be justified in HSCT, infections caused by resistant pathogens increased mortality. New antibiotics such as omadacycline, meropenem/vaborbactam, eravacycline, ceftobiprole, tedizolid, dalbavancin, cefiderocol hold promise for the treatment of highly resistant pathogens.
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Medial Meniscus Dislocation: One Case Report and Literature Review

We present rare case of medial meniscus dislocation, in a 25 years old female patient who was admitted in emergency department. With painful locked left knee. Arthroscopy was done next day showing isolated dislocation of medial meniscus with the absence of any medial meniscus tear. Only reduction of the medial meniscus was done. Postoprative MRI confirmed the diagnosis and showed no tears in the medial meniscus. Physiotherapy and clinical follow up were done with good results and no recurrence for 4 months postoperative.
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Evaluation of Weather Conditions as Well as NO2 and PM 2.5 Levels in the Urban Areas of South Brazil in Different Seasons

Due to the ever-increasing importance of studying pollution effects on environment and population, the development of methodologies for the evaluation of atmospheric pollutants has allowed great advances concerning air quality monitoring. Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and fine particulate matters (PM2.5) have as major sources vehicle engine exhausts and industrial processes. In the municipality of Pelotas, the economical and industrial growth allied to the expansion of the local vehicle fleet have brought several impacts on human health and environment. For this region, there are few studies concerning air pollution monitoring and dispersion. Data were collected seasonally (summer, autumn, winter and spring) in eight points (Porto, Areal, Centro, Fragata, Simões Lopes, Três Vendas, Laranjal,and Capão do Leão) over the city area, aiming to have a picture of the city as a whole. Annual mean ± standard deviation of the PM2.5 measurements are: Porto 48.95±6.28, Areal 3.29±4.56, Centro 39.56±7.05, Fragata 30.28±3.59,Simões Lopes9.5±.9, Três Vendas 3.4±3.80, Laranjal 29.79±2.34, Capão do Leão 24.25±3.2 and annual mean ±standard deviation for NO2 were: Porto 9.06±.5, Areal 0.49±0.94, Centro 4.3±0.89, Fragata 2.44±0.56, Trem 7.20±0.99, Três Vendas 2.94±.22, Laranjal 8.83±.97, Capão do Leão 6.77±0.76. We conclude that there are significant differences in different places of the city, mainly due to traffic and human activities characteristics of each point. On the other hand, meteorological factors act similarly in all sites concerning the pollution dispersion.
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Socio-Demographic, Clinical Characteristics and Blood Lipid profiles of Type 1 Diabetic Patients Followed in Regional Hospitals in The Northern Zone of Cameroon

Background and Objective: In Cameroon, given the galloping growth in the prevalence of diabetes, in particular type 1 diabetes in the northern regions, we undertook this study, with the objective to improve the management of type 1 diabetes by determining the socio-demographic, clinical characteristics and lipid profiles of the patients followed in the care centers of regional hospitals of Maroua, Garoua and Ngaoundere. Methods: We undertook a descriptive cross-sectional study from 07 August 2018 to 07 May 2019 in the care centers of the regional hospitals. Sociodemographic and clinical data were collected by interview to consent patient through structured questionnaires in the survey sheet. Anthropometric data were also determined during the survey, and the blood was collected in referred laboratory for determination of some lipid profiles parameters. Results: On a sample of 467 Patient suffering from diabetes, 68 were of type 1, representing a prevalence of 26%. Type 1 diabetes Patients were mostly female (61.8%) and the mean age was 20.72 ± 3.4 years with a high percentage between 20-30 years (51.5%). More than half of our patients were pupils and students, many of them practiced Muslims as religion (58.8%). In most of cases (51.3%), the disease was diagnosed after one year as a result of illness. The majority of our patients were non-smokers (98.5%) and less athletic (32.4%). The mean Body Mass Index (BMI) was 23.03 ± 2.7 kg /m2 with an average waist circumference of 80.26 ± 9.23 cm in men and 82.15 ± 10.45 in women. Their treatment was based essentially on insulin therapy, mainly using regular and intermediate insulins. More than half of the subjects had high blood glucose (78.1%), high triglyceride (34.1%) and HDL-cholesterol (29.3%) levels. Most of the patients suffered from overweight/obesity, high blood pressure, arthritis, kidney failure and other diseases (malaria, jaundice, stomach ache). No significant relation was found between clinical and the sociodemographic and blood lipid profiles. Conclusion: It emerges from this study that type 1 diabetes represent high proportions of diabetes cases in septentrional area of Cameroon, and affect mostly young of less than 30 years old, dominated by women, practicing Muslim as religion. Their clinical profile characterized by high frequency of overweight/obesity, kidney failure and arthritis vary, but not significantly, with neither their sociodemographic nor their blood lipid profiles. Absence of sport, female and less control of their hypoglycemia are factors risks of the progression of the disease.
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Factors Influencing Adherence to Hydroxyurea Treatment Among Children with Sickle Cell Disease at the Mother and Child Center of the Chantal Biya Foundation

Introduction: Sickle cell disease (SCD) is a genetic hemoglobin disease for which there are many treatment options. Evidence supports the efficacy and cost-effectiveness of hydroxyurea (HU). Nevertheless, its use and adherence to treatment remain suboptimal, hence, the necessity to assess the factors influencing this observance. Objectives: The objective was to evaluate the factors influencing observance to HU in children with sickle cell disease from the Mother and Child Center of the Chantal Biya Foundation (MCC of the CBF). Materials and Methods: This was a descriptive and analytical cross-sectional study from January to June 2020. Children on HU for at least six months, and followed up at MCC of the CBF were included. Data collection was done using a pre-tested questionnaire. The level of compliance was assessed using the Morisky’s observance grid, where 8 points was considered as “good”; 6-7 points as “fair”, and <6 as “poor”. Data were stored in CSPro version 7.0 software, and subsequently analyzed using the SPSS version 20.0 software. Results: Of 142 patients recruited, the level of patient observance was considered “good” in 2.1%, fair in 26.1% and poor in 71.8%. Logistic regression analyses suggested that using hydroxyurea to prevent complications was the only factor that favored good medical adherence [OR=0.37; CI (0.14-0.987)] (p=0.047). Poor compliance was mainly associated with the fear of infertility and and other sides effects associated with the use of HU. Conclusion: Children with SCD in this study have poor compliance with HU. Implementing IEC sessions would make it possible to raise patient/parent awareness and reverse this trend.
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Characteristic Human Scent Compounds Trapped on Natural and Synthetic Fabrics as analyzed by SPME-GC/MS

The collection of human odor volatiles is of interest to forensic applications as a path to investigate canine scent discriminations in legal investigations. A study using a selected array of previously identified human odor compounds has been conducted to determine the retention and release capabilities of five (5) natural and synthetic fabric types, cotton (mercerized fabric and gauze matrix), polyester, rayon and wool.
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The Effects of the Film Thickness and Roughness in the Anodization Process of Very Thin Aluminum Films

The anodization of aluminum foils having micrometer thickness is a common process and results in hexagonally self-ordered alumina membranes. However, anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) membranes fabricated from nanometer-thin films present new challenges to the anodization process, since aluminum films adheres poorly on supporting substrates and the smoothness of the film is highly related to the kind of substrate.
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Anodic Oxidation of Titanium in Sulphuric Acid and Phosphoric Acid Electrolytes

Anodisation of pure titanium has been carried out in sulphuric and in phosphoric acid solutions at potentials ranging from 50 to 150V. The SEM and AFM morphological analysis indicates that, within this potential range, oxidation in sulphuric acid solution produces better developed mesoporous oxide layers.
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Fabrication of Ordered Arrays of Anodic Aluminum Oxide Pores with Interpore Distance Smaller than the Pitch of Nano-pits formed by Ion Beam Etching

We investigated a method for preparation of ordered nanopore arrays with the interpore distance of 60 nm by guided self-organization of anodic aluminum oxide with a prepatterned array of pits in the starting Al film.
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Preparation of Large Area Anodic Alumina Membranes and their Application to Thin Film Fuel Cell

The design of an electrochemical reactor for the preparation of self-supported comparatively thin (up to 10 μm) and large area (up to 50 cm2) anodic alumina membranes is described allowing growth of porous alumina at high applied potential (up to 150 V) without burning.
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Fabrication of Vertical Cu2ZnSnS4 Nanowire Arrays by Two-Step Electroplating Method into Anodic Aluminum Oxide Template

Vertical Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) nanowire arrays have been synthesized via two-step electroplating method into anodized aluminum oxide template. For deposition of CZTS nanowires, anodized aluminum oxide (AAO) was used as the growth mask for the growth of the nanowires. AAO templates with hole sizes of 70 nm in diameter were used in the experiments.
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Synthesis of BaTiO3 Nanowires via Anodic Aluminum Oxide Template Method Assisted by Vacuum-and-Drop Loading

In this paper, we report on the synthesis of BaTiO3 nanowires via the anodic aluminum oxide template method. To fill in the precursors of BaTiO3 into anodic aluminum oxide templates, the vacuum and drop loading method developed in our previous study was used. Ba(CH3COO)2 (barium acetate) and C12H28O4Ti (tetraisopropyl orthotitanate) were used as Ba and Ti sources, respectively. Anodic aluminum oxide membranes with the through-hole diameter of ~200 nm were used as the template for BaTiO3 nanowires.
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Editorial Board Members Related to AM

Ashraf Eljedi

Associate Professor of International Public Health
Faculty of NUrsing
The Islamic University of Gaza
Palestine

Change Tan

Department of Biological Sciences
University of Missouri
USA

Vural Fidan

Associate Professor
Deputy Director of ENT Department
Emre Government Hospital
Turkey

Martin Michaelis

Professor of Molecular Medicine
Centre for Molecular Processing and School of Biosciences
University of Kent
United Kingdom

Aladin M Boriek

Professor
Department of Medicine
Baylor College of Medicine
United States

Suresh G. Joshi

Associate Professor
Department of Microbiology and Immunology
Drexel University
United States

Nathan Newman

Associate Professor of Athletic Training
Athletic Training Program Director
Drake University
USA

RONALD R. THRASHER

Assistant Professor
School of Forensic Sciences
Oklahoma State University
United States

Rajendra Singh Chundawat

Associate Professor
Department of Zoology
School of Sciences
Mody University of Science and Technology
India

Jianxun Song

Professor
Department of Microbiology and Immunology
Texas A&M University
United States
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