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Minimization of Agricultural Waste through Energy Recovery. Evaluation of the Production of Green Biofuels Using Theoretical Models

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Assessment of Antioxidant and Antineoplastic Activities Blumea Lacera (Burn. F) Leaves

Blumea lacera (Burn. f.) DC. (Family: Asteraceae) is an important member of Bangladeshi natural plant resource and it is an herbaceous weed locally known as Kukursunga. Different parts of this plant are used traditionally to cure various diseases. But detail study on the antioxidant and antineoplastic potentials of Blumea lacera leaves, has not yet been done. Aim of this study is to examine the antioxidant and antineoplastic properties and quantify the different type of phytochemical content of the methanolic extract of leaves of Blumea lacera (MELB). MELB contained a rich polyphenol, flavonol, flavonoid and proanthocyanidins. MELB showed moderate cytotoxic effect against Artemia salina (brine shrimp nauplii) where its LD50 values was 66.12 μg/ml. In vitro antioxidant assay, MELB exhibited a remarkable capacity to scavenge the tested reactive species. MELB scavenged DPPH with an IC50 of 33.64 μg/mL and 42.69 μg/mL, respectively. In vivo antineoplastic assay, MELB significantly (P<0.05) decreased viable cell count and increased the survival time of EAC cell bearing mice. Hematological profiles were also restored significantly (P<0.05) to normal levels in MELB treated mice as compared to untreated EAC control mice. In addition, fluorescence microscopic view of EAC cells derived from MELB-treated group showed apoptotic characteristics in treated cells compared to untreated EAC control. our findings suggest that methanolic extract of Blumea lacera leaves(MELB) might be a potential agent with antioxidant properties for prevention of cancer and has the merit for further investigation in isolating its active constituents.
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Association of Viruses with Aplastic Anemia: A Case Control Study

Several viruses are often believed to be associated with acquired aplastic anemia. There is paucity of literature proving the association between viruses and aplastic anemia. We aimed to study the association of aplastic anemia with Human Parvovirus B19 (B19V), Epstein Barr virus (EBV), Cytomegalovirus (CMV), Hepatitis viruses, Measles virus (MV), Varicella Zoster virus (VZV) and Adenovirus (AdV). Between January 2020 to December 2020, confirmed cases of aplastic anemia and age and sex matched controls of iron deficiency anemia were enrolled in the study. They were tested for the above- mentioned viruses for antigen and/or IgM antibody by ELISA and/or nucleic acid by Real Time PCR in serum samples. Relevant history was collected. Cases were followed up at 3, 6 and 12 months after enrollment for recording the outcome. Total 68 cases and 34 controls were included in the study of which 61(89.70%) cases and 12(38.23%) controls were positive for markers of at-least one of the 10 viruses studied. B19V, EBV, CMV and Hepatitis B virus were found to be significantly associated with aplastic anemia. Five patients died within 12 months. Mortality was not associated with viral infections. Viral infections may play a role in pathogenesis of acquired aplastic anemia.
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A Review: State of Plastic Pollution in Nigeria and Measure to Tackle Them

Marine organisms, scientists, governmental and non-governmental organizations face a significant challenge as a result of the ubiquitousness of plastic and microplastics in the aquatic environment, particularly in Nigeria where there is little or no policy put in place to address the issue of microplastic pollution. Nigeria ranks ninth globally in terms of its contribution to ocean plastic pollution and currently does not have a federal ban on the majority of single-use plastics and equipment. This paper aimed to present the status of plastic pollution in Nigeria and some policies to curb the menace. Data analysis reveals that Bayesa, Katsina, Lagos, and Oyo are the four states that generate the majority of the plastic waste in Nigeria. The number of industries, markets, and urbanization in a location affect the quantity of plastic waste that is produced there and is not dependent on the population. This paper makes some policy suggestions and recommendations such as the federal prohibition and taxation on the use of plastic, ocean clean-up, technological innovation that will support the recycling industry in Nigeria, and the need for additional plastic research. Nigeria can apply the most recent plastic waste management strategies in European and Asian nations as a model and adopt them to reduce marine plastic pollution.
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Temperature Variation on Sulphur Removal from Laterite Nickel Leaching Residue and Iron Extraction

Nickel production for electric vehicle batteries increases by 30% every year. As the country with the most nickel production in 2021, Indonesia will operate six nickel refining plants with High-pressured acid leaching technology and one development of Step Temperature Acid Leach technology. Problems arise with many hydrometallurgical-based nickel refining plants where the leach residue will continue to accumulate and potentially pollute the soil environment. Lateritic nickel leach residue has a high Fe content reaching 44.45% in the form of hematite and an S content of around 1.3%. Besides, demand growth in the iron and steel industry is greater than the availability of its raw materials. Thus, secondary sources for raw materials for the iron and steel industry are needed. The maximum S content for steel raw materials is 0.1%, so the sulfur content in leach residue must be removed. This research focuses on removing sulfur content in lateritic nickel leach residue by roasting at a temperature of 500 °C until 1100 °C. The experiment was continued with reduction roasting at various temperature profiles. The reduced phase of the roasted leach residue sample is then compared with the reduced phase of the initial leach residue sample. Sulfur content decreases with increasing roasting temperature. Sulfur content reaches ~0% at a roasting temperature of 1100 °C. The optimum initial sample reductive roasting temperature of lateritic nickel leach residue was 1400 °C with 95.9% Fe content and 0.1% S in metal. The optimum reductive roasting temperature for 1100 °C roasted samples was 1200 °C with 94.6% Fe content and 0% S. Roasting treatment can reduce the optimum temperature for the reduction roasting process.
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Biomarkers of Microbial Dysbiosis as Causative Agent of Acute Diarrhea in Dogs

Dysbiosis is microbial imbalance and mostly common in gastrointestinal tract [1]. There is a significant different of microbial communities in diarrheic cases more than healthy dogs’ comparison of gender & clinical signs. Clostridium species is mostly commonly genus found infectious animal cases of diarrhea and moreover in dog in other hand unclassified genus of Ruminococcaceae Bacteroidetes and Faecali bacterium were isolated. The microbiome functional gene content of (PICRUSt) with elevation gastric enzymes & increase titers infra structural proteins in acute diarrhea. Studies and data for dysbiosis with different intestinal disorders in dog associated with acute diarrhea or chronic is very limited. Current study to evaluate microbial dysbiosis. The fecal microbiome, characterized by 655 pyrosequencing of the different genes, AU/CG. There was lower range of bacterial isolates from cases of acute diarrhea compared to animal variation with statistical analysis. Altered microbial imbalance in gut occur with the microbial communities for gastric infection.
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Radiation Dose to Oesophagus in Breast Cancer Patients Receiving Radiation Therapy: A Retrospective Study

Background: Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women worldwide. Management of Breast cancer requires multidisciplinary team approach (viz, Surgery, Chemotherapy, Radiation therapy, Hormonal therapy & Targeted therapy). Radiotherapy reduces the risk of breast cancer mortality for women after breast conserving surgery and for women after mastectomy for node-positive disease. One of the organs at risk in breast cancer therapy is esophagus. As such, there is potential to expose greater volumes of esophagus to radiation. This may result in increased frequency and severity of acute radiation esophagitis during treatment. Aims and Objectives: To evaluate dosimetric parameters such as mean dose (Dmean) maximum dose (Dmax) which may influence the incidence and severity of esophagitis in breast cancer patients receiving radiotherapy. Material and Methods: Treatment plans of post mastectomy patients who had already received adjuvant RT of dose 50 Gy in 25 # over 5 weeks to the chest wall along with Supraclavicular field (SCF) using 3-Dimensional Conformal Radiation Therapy (3D CRT) and Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy (IMRT) were selected. Mean dose (Dmean) and maximum dose (Dmax) to esophagus was assessed. Results: Dosimetric parameters assessed are Dmean and Dmax. Dmean assessed up to less than or equal to 11Gy and Dmax assessed upto less than or equal to 34Gy. The average of Dmean in this study is 8.34Gy which is within normal limits of prescribed dose. The mean Of Dmax in this study is 24.80Gy which is in limits of prescribed dose. Conclusion: Increased dose to esophagus in observed when IMRT is used especially when supraclavicular or internal mammary nodes are involved. Routine contouring of esophagus and planning accordingly may reduce oesophageal dose and acute oesophageal toxicity.
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Case Report: De novo Ocular Myasthenia Gravis after the mRNA Vaccine for SARS-COV2

Autoimmune Myasthenia gravis is a neuromuscular junction disease caused by destruction of the acetylcholine receptor on the postsynaptic membrane, mediated by autoantibodies and clinically characterized by skeletal muscle weakness. This can be triggered by drugs, infections, and in rare cases by vaccines. During the COVID pandemic, de novo cases and exacerbations of myasthenia gravis due to viral infection have been documented. Although few cases related to COVID vaccination. A 69-year-old female patient with blurred vision, a clinic that began 10 days later after receiving first dose of COVID vaccine, and diplopia and right palpebral ptosis after the second dose, 30 days later. In the examination, Edrophonium test was clearly positive, treatment with pyridostigmine and prednisone was started and after 14 days the clinic showed improvement until the resolution of the symptoms There are few reports of exacerbations or triggers for the appearance of myasthenia gravis, a series of 27 cases has been published where there are outbreaks of immune-mediated diseases or the new appearance of autoimmune diseases, in which it is observed that the time of appearance of the outbreak was on average 4 days up to a maximum of 25 days. In conclusion, Myasthenia gravis is a rare complication of the BNT162b2 COVID-19 vaccine. Its potential severity and the current lack of knowledge of the real incidence after vaccination makes it necessary to maintain an attitude of vigilance in the face of symptoms that suggest it.
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2D Analysis of Piezoelectric Layer Over a Rotating Micro-elongated Thermoelastic Medium with DPL Model

The Lord-Shulman theory with one relaxation time and the dual-phase-lag model with two relaxation times of thermoelasticity are used in this article to study the influence rotation micro-elongated thermoelastic layer, when a piezo electric layer is above it. To convert a partial differential equation to an ordinary differential equation, the normal mode method is utilized. Numerical computations are implemented for aluminum epoxy, and the results are charted. A comparison is made among the two theories in the complete absence and the presence of a rotation. The presence of a rotation has a major effect on all physical quantities.
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A Review on Veterinary Medical Waste Disposal and Management

The purpose of this review is to highlight environmentally sound disposal methods of veterinary pharmaceutcals wastes and the risks associated with its improper disposal, with a systematic review. Pharmaceuticals are produced and used in large volumes increasingly every year throughout the world. Medicinal waste products are medicinal products which are not fit for sale or supply. Waste produced in veterinary practice in common with other medical disciplines can be broken down into general waste similar to household waste, clinical waste and hazardous waste. Disposal of pharmaceutical compounds is becoming a complex environmental issue. The safety and health of the environment is directly affected by the disposal methods. Improper medical waste disposal and management causes all types of pollution (air, soil, and water). Proper waste management have to be undertaken to ensure that it does not affect the environment and not cause health hazards to the people living there. Different types of medical waste require different disposal techniques. The appropriate safe disposal method recommended will depend principally on the pharmaceutical dosage form of the drugs. One of the best advisable veterinary waste disposal practices is to store the waste properly before collection and transportation. Some general medical waste can be disposed of in landfill, others require specialist treatment such as a medical incinerator. Appropriate safety precautions, which minimize the risk to the health and safety of pharmacy staff, should be taken when handling medicinal waste products. Extra precautions should be taken by staff in high-risk groups as they may be at increased risk if they come into contact with particular substances. The cost of pharmaceuticals waste disposal comprises of direct costs of supplies and materials used for collection, transport, storage, treatment, disposal, decontamination and cleaning, the cost of labor and material for training and maintenance, and will vary depending on the treatment method chosen, the capacity of the treatment facility and according to the waste quantity and quality.
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Evaluation of Contrast Sensitivity And Chromatic Vision In Patients With Primary Open Angle Glaucoma

Purpose:This study aimed to assess contrast sensitivity and acquired color vision deficiency in patients with primary open-angle glaucoma and to evaluate their correlations with visual field parameters. Methods: The current study included 100 patients with primary open-angle glaucoma and 40 healthy control subjects. The 100 glaucoma patients were divided into 3 groups (mild, moderate and sever). Ophthalmic examination included best corrected visual acuity (BCVA), gonioscopy, slit lamp biomicroscopy, visual field assessment by perimetry and intraocular pressure was measured using Goldmann applanation tonometry. Contrast Sensitivity evaluated by the Pelli-Robson chart and the Mesotest II b. Color vision was evaluated by the Farnsworth- panel D15. Results: The mean age of the studied cases was 52.61±14.86 years with male to female ratio 50.2/49.8. Cup-To-Disc (C/D) ratio was statistically significant increase in severe cases followed by moderate and lastly mild glaucoma subgroups. There was highly statistically significant increase in the mean C/D ratio among cases with glaucomatous eyes compared to normal .There was a significant correlation between worsening visual field indeces and decreased contrast sensitivity. Color vision was demonstrated to be significantly correlated according to severity, duration of affection, age and uncontrolled IOP. Conclusion: Mesotest II b is a better alternative to conventional reliable and reproducible Pelli Robson chart test for assessment of contrast sensitivity in patients with glaucoma.
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Solitary Adrenal Metastasis: A Case Report of Aberrant Behavior of Prostate Cancer

A Caucasian male with prostate cancer under androgen deprivation therapy after radiotherapy for a locally advanced lesion. Positron emission tomography/Computed Tomography revealed an adrenal lesion. The mass was removed, and histopathological examination showed adenocarcinoma of prostatic origin. Prostate-specific antigen decreased dramatically after adrenalectomy
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Diverse Feed, Diverse Benefits - The Multiple Roles of Feed Diversity at Pasture on Ruminant Livestock Production - a Review

Several scientists called for a new paradigm in animal nutrition by implementing feed diversity in otherwise homogeneously fed livestock production systems as former was shown to have a notable impact on animal productivity and health and the ecological footprint thereby decrease concerns regarding global food security from a societal perspective. However, there are no specific definitions and no threshold values available, so far, for desired grazed grassland feed diversity levels on pastures that enable envisaged sustainable ruminant livestock production and possibly the production of animal products with particular human health-values. Therefore, we conceptualize grazed grassland feed diversity in multiple layers for the very first time in this review to define its relevance from an animal perspective and implications for human health. The data reviewed reveals a close relationship between grazed grassland feed diversity with regard to plant secondary metabolites and animal characteristics that include animal health, welfare, and behavior as well as product quality with possible human health value.
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Disseminated Blastomycosis: A Case Report

Blastomycosis is known for its propensity to mimic other illnesses, which often leads to incorrect or delayed treatment. Here we present a case report of a patient working in Wisconsin who was misdiagnosed as Tuberculosis since he was an Indian. The patient was not evaluated on endemic grounds for Blastomyces where he was working for couple of years. After he developed skin lesions along with increased shortness of breath, lesions were evaluated which showed large yeast cells resembling Blastomyces. The treating pulmonologist evaluated his occupational history and was revealed with endemicity for Blastomyces.
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A Case Report of Diffuse Ischemic Injury from Leptomeningeal Midline Glioma Metastases

Diffuse midline gliomas with the histone 3-lysine-27-methionine (H3K27M) mutation should be considered in the differential diagnosis of recurrent hemiparesis and headache in patients with midline brainstem lesions, even with the absence of contrast-enhancement. Early diagnosis is essential for prognostication and engagement in trials evaluating novel therapeutics such as ONC-201.
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Editorial Board Members Related to AST

Jimmy SO

Associate Professor
Department of Surgery
Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine
National University Health System
Singapore

KELLI BULLARD DUNN

Professor
Department of Surgery
Roswell Park Cancer Institute
University of Louisville School of Medicine
United States

Ch. Niranjan Patra

Professor
Department of Pharmaceutics
Roland Institute of Pharmaceutical sciences
India

DONALD K. INGRAM

Adjunct Professor
Pennington Biomedical Research Center
Louisiana State University
United States

Richard Simman

Clinical Associate Professor
Department of Surgery
Wright State University Boonshoft School
United States

Syed Ameer Haider Jafri

Assistant professor
Department of pedodontic and preventive dentistry
King Salman North West Armed Force Hospital
Saudi Arabia

Jerry R. Roberson

Associate Professor
Theriogenology/Large Animal Medicine
Ross University School of Veterinary Medicine
West Indies

Nashiru Billa

Associate professor
Faculty of Science
University of Nottingham
Malaysia

Miklas Scholz

Professor
Water Resources Engineering
Lund University
Sweden

Zeliha Selamoglu

Professor
Department of Medical Biology
Faculty of Medicine
Nigde Ömer Halisdemir University Campus
Turkey
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