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Articles Related to Acquired

Analysis of Trends in Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) and AIDS Related Conditions in Masvingo Province 2004-2009

Globally 42 million adults and children are estimated to be living with HIV/AIDS of which 22 million of these cases are in Sub Sahara Africa. In Zimbabwe 1.6 million adults aged 15 years and above are living with HIV/ AIDS and in Masvingo Province HIV/AIDS is ranked 2nd on the top ten causes of OPD attendance.
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The Effect of Bundled Interventions on Prevention of Hospital Acquired Clostridium Difficile Infection: An Integrative Review

Hospitalized patients are at an increased risk for acquiring Clostridium Difficile Infection (CDI). Increased virulence of C. difficile strains and increased use of antimicrobials have led to an increase of CDI cases that are more difficult to treat (CDC, 2013). Proper hand hygiene techniques, room cleaning, and equipment cleaning are not consistently being followed by healthcare workers, leading an increased spread of CDI between hospitalized patients. The purpose of this integrative review was to determine the best evidencebased methods to reduce hospital-acquired CDI rates. The evidence reviewed supports the implementation of a multifaceted approach including: (a) proper hand hygiene practices, (b) adequate and appropriate surface cleaning practices, (c) compliance to contact isolation procedures, and (d) strengthening of an existing antimicrobial stewardship committee to reduce hospital-acquired CDI rates.
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Successful Treatment of Acquired Amegakaryocytic Thrombocytopenia (AAT) with Cyclosporine and Eltrombopag: A Case Report

Acquired amegakaryocytic thrombocytopenia is an unusual hematological disorder characterized by severe thrombocytopenia in association with a marked decrease, or the absence, of megakaryocytes in bone marrow. Its pathogenesis is not well understood and its clinical course is variable. Several treatments have been used, producing different responses. We present a case that was successfully treated with a calcineurin inhibitor combined with a thrombopoiesis-stimulating agent.
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Mechanisms of Resistance to Kinase Inhibitors and Strategies to Prevent the Development of Drug Resistance

Targeting mutant proteins and associated signaling pathways of driver oncogenes by small molecule kinase inhibitors (KIs) are a promising strategy of cancer therapy. However, despite the initial success of treatment, KIs often become ineffective as intrinsic and acquired resistance. This article reviews the English-language literature to explore the underlying mechanisms of drug resistance and to present a challenge for developing drugs to overcome resistance. Mechanisms of acquired resistance include 1) the selection of pre-existing subclones with other mutations, 2) the emergence of secondary mutations in the target kinase domain, 3) upregulation of kinases both within the same kinase family and their related kinase families, as well as activation of alternative bypass pathways, 4) epithelial-mesenchymal transition, 5) overexpression of pro-survival Bcl-2 family proteins and 6) drug efflux mechanisms. Currently available methods are to obtain tumor biopsy samples at recurrence or progression if the tumor lesion is accessible to a biopsy and to use the second- and third-generation KIs based on the individual need of each patient. Furthermore, recent computational challenges provide design principles to prevent the development of drug resistance. In conclusion, we provide an overview of the postulated resistance mechanisms and highlight the future direction of computational structure-based design of new potent KIs.
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Acquired Factor XII Deficiency in a Patient with Schizophrenia

We report a 50-year-old man who presented schizophrenia and an abnormal coagulation profile indicative of an inhibitor. Clinical experiments demonstrated prolonged partial thromboplastin time along with acquired factor XII deficiency and a positive anticoagulant antibody. To the best of our knowledge, the coexistence of schizophrenia and anticoagulant antibody with deficiency of coagulation factor XII is extremely rare that has not previously been reported. This patient has also indicated the paraplegia associated with spinal tuberculosis along with the loss of bladder and bowel control. Herein, we present the case of a chronic schizophrenia patient who developed the anticoagulant antibody and abnormally low serum levels of factor XII.
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An Introduction to the Approaches of Novel Drug Delivery Systems for Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS)

The currently available anti HIV agents have several drawbacks such as short half life, low bioavailability, poor CNS penetration and retention, hepatic first pass metabolism, undesirable side effects and frequent dosing regimen.
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Cardiomyopathies among Children Attending a Tertiary Hospital in South-western Nigeria

Acquired heart diseases such as myocarditis, cardiomyopathies and rheumatic heart diseases are important non-communicable diseases responsible for morbidity and mortality in children.
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Nanotechnology Approaches for Antiretroviral Drugs Delivery

The development of effective drug delivery approaches for the treatment of AIDS and HIV infection is a global challenge. The advent of multidrug, highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), have increased the life span of HIV-infected patients.
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AIDS: Signs to Management of the Disease

Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) is a spectrum of conditions caused by infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). They get it after being infected with the HIV virus. HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) is a retrovirus that primarily infects components of the immune system.
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Assessment of the Prevalence of HIV Infection at Four Health Facilities in Dilla Town, Ethiopia

The successful introduction and spread of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) into the global human population may have first emerged among humans in the early part of the 20th century (most likely contracted from infected primates).
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Development of Severe Hypophosphatemia from Acquired Fanconi Syndrome during Treatment with Abiraterone

The first patient was a 77 year old man who had been on abiraterone for 12 months before his phosphorous was checked. At that point, it was 0.6 mg/dl, which is severely decreased. A full work up for hypophosphatemia showed normal parathyroid hormone and 25-hydroxyvitamin D. A urine study showed inappropriate excretion of phosphorous along with aminoaciduria and normoglycemic glucosuria.
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Pulmonic Valve Endocarditis Complicating Streptococcus pneumoniae Community- Acquired Pneumonia

Infective endocarditis is most often seen affecting the left side of the heart, with the pulmonary valve being the least frequently involved valve. The most common organisms responsible for infective endocarditis are Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus viridans. Here we report a rare case of pulmonary valve endocarditis due to Streptococcus pneumoniae, a rare pathogen for this setting. The clinical features, presentation, and review of the literature are discussed.
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Editorial Board Members Related to Acquired

Luis Ulloa

Associate Professor
Department of Surgery
Rutgers New Jersey Medical School
United States

Jayasimha Rao

Associate Professor
Jefferson College of Health Sciences
Department of Medicine
Virginia Tech Carilion School of Medicine
USA

Mariusz Cycon

Department of Microbiology and Virology
School of Pharmacy with the Division of Laboratory Medicine
Medical University of Silesia
Poland

Yao Olive Li

Assistant Professor
Department of Human Nutrition & Food Science
California State Polytechnic University
United States

Lan-Juan (Jean) Zhao

Assistant Professor
Department of Biostatistics and Bioinformatics
Tulane University
United States

Subash Sad

Professor
Department of Biochemistry, Microbiology and Immunology
University of Ottawa
Canada

Lars Larsson

Professor
Department of Clinical Neurophysiology
Karolinska Institutet
Sweden

Efimia Papadopoulou-Alataki

Assistant professor
Aristotle University of Thessaloniki
Papageorgiou Hospital
Greece

Suman Sirimulla

Assistant Professor
Department of Basic Sciences
St. Louis College of Pharmacy
St. Louis, MO
United States.

Norhafiza Mat Lazim

Department of Otorhinolaryngology-Head & Neck Surgeon
School of Medical Sciences
Universiti Sains
Malaysia
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