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Obesity and its Correlates among Junior High School Children in the Accra Metropolis

The prevalence of obesity is on the increase worldwide due to changes in diet and physical activity patterns. Childhood obesity is now a major public health challenge in advanced economies. Obesity in childhood tends to persist into adulthood and to predispose to non-communicable diseases. There is little data on childhood obesity and its correlates and determinants in sub-Saharan Africa. A cross-sectional study was carried out using simple random sampling technique to select 260 junior high school children aged 11-15 years from six basic schools (n=768) from three different socioeconomic (low, middle, high) areas of Accra, the capital city of Ghana.
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Effects of Mutual Interaction between Constituent Elements on Phase Formation of High Entropy Alloys

High entropy alloys (HEAs) are alloys that contains multiple elements, often five or more principal elements in equiatomic or near equiatomic ratio with or without minor elements. As felt from the name, high mixing entropy is the sole parameter to decide the solid solution alloy formation in HEAs but, the mutual interaction between elements are key parameters to predict the phase formation in HEAs as proposed by some researchers. In this review the guideline for alloy design in HEAs for the formation of solid solution phases are proposed on basis of atomic size difference (δ), mixing entropy (ΔSmix), mixing enthalpy (ΔHmix), valence electron concentration (VEC) and electronegativity difference (Δχ).
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Effect of Chlorhexidine Application on Dentin Bond Strength Durability of Two Etch-and-Rinse Adhesive versus a Universal Bond System

Application of matrix-metalloproteinases (MMP) inhibitors such as chlorhexidine (CHX) is capable of reducing bond strength loss over time by preventing collagen fibrils degradation.
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DNA Polymerase as Therapeutic Intervention for Treating Patients with Multiple Sclerosis

In recent years, increasing evidence has pointed to the potential role of fibrinolysis in the pathogenesis of MS. Based on hypotheses describing the aggressive autoimmune responses observed in MS patients, a result of impaired between (t-PA and PA1-1) which are a key molecules in both fibrinolysis and extracellular proteolysis. The present study was done to investigate the therapeutic potential of polymerase enzyme in modulating the changes occurred between levels of Tissue- type plasminogen activator (t-PA) and its inhibitor (PAI-1) in patients with multiple sclerosis. A pilot study was carried out on a total of twenty-one patients (17 females, 4 males; aged 22-46 years) with demyelination suggestive of MS and clinically silent T2 brain lesions on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).
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Production and Quality Evaluation of Instant Sorrel (Zobo) Drink Produced by Infusion, Dehydration and Size Reduction Methods

Instant sorrel drink (IZD) was developed by processing purple sorrel calyx into powdery form by the method of infusion, and dehydration and size reduction. Another purple sorrel calyx was processed into liquid zobo drink (LZD); and both the IZD and LZD were subjected to sensory evaluation using the total number of thirty five (35) panels of judges and data was subjected to t-test and preference test analytical tools; and found that IZD was also acceptable by the sensory panelists because the T-tabulated is 2.064, while T-calculated is -14.37 with standard deviations of 0.32 (P≥0.05) between the means; hence, there was no significance difference between the reconstituted IZD and the LZD, because T-calculated is not greater than the T-tabulated.
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Detection of Anti-Trypanosoma Cruzi Antibodies among Donors at A Blood Bank from Southern Mexico, Using an Iron Superoxide Dismutase Excreted (Fe-Sode) as Antigen

Trypanosoma cruzi, the causal agent of Chagas disease in humans, is a widely spread protozoan in Latin America. Chronically infected people are asymptomatic during an indeterminate stage but can represent a significant risk of transmission due to blood donations and organ transplants. Blood transfusion is recognized as the second most important path for transmitting of Chagas disease
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Ectopic Intra-Nasal Tooth: A Case Report

An ectopic tooth in a nasal cavity is a rare phenomenon. In most cases, no etiological explanation of teeth in that location has been suggested or found. We report the case of a 26-year-old man, who discovered, 5 years ago, an induration inside his right nasal pit, which caused an unilateral nasal obstruction, without rhinorrhea, with epistaxis, revealing an ectopic in intra-nasal tooth.
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A Study to Determine the Inheritance Pattern of Characteristics of Handwriting between Parents and Off-springs

Parents are the children’s learning models. A preschooler is influenced by the handwriting of his or her parents. He learns to write letters by imitating or copying the letters formed by the parents.
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Occurrence and Distribution of Antibiotic-Resistant Bacteria Isolated in Gaoqiao Mangrove Wetland, China

Antibiotic usage is very popular in the clinical treatment to infective diseases resulting in the occurrence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. Antibiotics are also extensively utilized in mariculture along the coastal area including the mangroves, however, the frequent usage of antimicrobial agents can induce to the bacterial resistance, and no research on this is found to date, as a result, the occurrence and distribution was investigated in Gaoqiao mangrove wetland, China in this research.
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Prevalence-of-Anatomical-Celiac-Trunk-Variations-Using-3D-AngiographyComputed-Tomography-Images-in-a-Reference-Hospital

With the advances in the new image techniques and 3D modeling, angiography computed tomography (A-CT) has become a very useful image to study vessels. Prevalence of Celiac Trunk (CeT) variations is common, and have a clinical relevance in preoperative planning. Our objective was to describe prevalence of CeT variations in a study population in Cali, Colombia.
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Irrational Anti-Retroviral Therapy Prescription among Children Under 15 Years in Eastern Uganda

Highly Active Anti-Retroviral Therapy (HAART) has transformed HIV/AIDS into a manageable chronic illness with HIVinfected children having near-normal growth milestones as a result of virologic control and immunologic reconstitution.
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Long Exposure to CdS-Dextrin Nanoparticles Induces an Immunomodulatory and Anti-Inflammatory Effect in Rats

Male Wistar rats were treated daily and intraperitoneally with CdS-Dextrin nanoparticles (100 μg/kg) during 30, 60, and 90 days. The effect of subacute and chronic administration of CdS-Dextrin nanoparticles on CD4/CD8 subpopulations of thymocytes, spleen-derived T cells, and peripheral blood CD4/CD8/CD3 T cells were analyzed by flow cytometer using a Rat T Lymphocyte Cocktail. An indirect ELISA kit analyzed cytokine Th1/Th2 levels. A DNA content and cell cycle analysis was carried out in bone marrow cells by flow cytometry. We also analyzed the presence of CdS-Dextrin nanoparticles in the thymus and spleen.
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Structural, Elemental and Molecular Characterization of Normal And Osteoarthritic Human Articular Cartilage

The articular cartilage overlying the bone consists of a network of collagen fibres. This network is essential to cartilage integrity, usually suffering damage in degenerative joint diseases such as osteoarthritis. We have been applying a number of techniques to study the bone-cartilage interface and of changes occurring in this with disease. The bone-cartilage samples with disease were investigated for their structural, elemental and molecular properties. The bone-cartilage samples with disease were characterized by scanning electron microscopy- energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDX) and Fourier Transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and Fourier transform (FT) Raman spectroscopy.
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The Evaluation of Functional Mobility Chronic Hemiparetics Submitted to Group Physiotherapy in the Training Circuit Format

Objective: To evaluate the functional mobility of chronic hemiparesis sufferers who undergo 12 weeks of GPCT. IntroductionMethod: We selected 10 chronic hemiparetic patients, aged 21 or over with a medical referral and one-sided hemiparesis with an injury time of ≥12months, capable of walking with or without help and having the ability to perform walking tests. Interviews to collect personal data were conducted, which were then evaluated by Time up & go (TUG) which recorded the time taken for the patient to stand up from a chair, walk 3 meters, return and sit constituting the initial assessment (AV1) and after 12 weeks of intervention with GPCT the final evaluations were taken (AV2).
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Treating Refractory Myasthenia Gravis with Rituximab – Case Report

Myasthenia gravis is an autoimmune disease characterized by motor plaque dysfunction due to antibodies against post-synaptic membrane proteins. Myasthenic symptoms classically wax and wane and are more intense at the end of the day, although they may be constant in severe pictures. Almost every patient have eyelid ptosis and double vision, and the majority of them also have proximal muscle weakness. Reversible cholinesterase inhibitors are the first-line treatment, but patients who do not achieve symptom control should receive immunosuppressive therapy, whose options include azathioprine, cyclosporine, mycophenolate, intravenous immunoglobulin and thymectomy, with different profiles of efficacy, safety and tolerability.
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Introduction to the special issue on ‘Nanostructures by Valve Metal Anodization’

With this special issue of JMSN we are pleased to present significant contributions to a fascinating topic in the field of materials nanostructing, which is the anodization of valve metals. By this treatment porous oxides of controlled geometry can be grown on the respective metal surfaces. To date, aluminum (Al) has been used most often, as confirmed in this special issue where nine out of ten contributions deals with its anodization.
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Ordered Growth of Anodic Aluminum Oxide in Galvanostatic and Galvanostatic-Potentiostatic Modes

The results are presented of obtaining anodic aluminum oxide with an ordered pore arrangement by employing two anodizing modes - galvanostatic mode and combined (galvanostatic + potentiostatic) mode, at high values of the current density and voltage. Use has been made of an oxalate electrolyte and a complex electrolyte comprising oxalic acid and phosphoric acid. Scanning electron microscopy has been used to investigate the surface morphology of the barrier and porous layers and to determine pore sizes and inter-pore distance.
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Anodizing for Design and Function

Two basic reactions occur during the anodizing of aluminum: 1) the aluminum is consumed and 2) an oxide grows. By accepting this statement as true, the anodizing process can be viewed as a corrosion process, and anodizing can be modeled using the Tafel Equation. Anodizing process parameters of electrolyte chemistry and concentration, temperature, aluminum substrate resistance and current density are presented as they relate to the Tafel Equation and how they impact the anodic aluminum oxide structure and properties. Understanding this relationship is consequent in making anodizing an engineering process, one that enables tuning the structure such that it yields distinct characteristics to fulfill design and application requirements.
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Recent Developments in Human Odor Detection Technologies

Human odor detection technologies have drawn attention due to the wide possibility of potential applications they open up in areas such as biometrics, criminal investigation and forensics, search for survivors under rubble, and security checkpoint screening. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) has been the most successful and powerful analytical approach developed to date for human odor analysis, and hundreds of human odorants have been identified using this tool.
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Electronic-nose Applications in Forensic Science and for Analysis of Volatile Biomarkers in the Human Breath

The application of electronic-nose (E-nose) technologies in forensic science is a recent new development following a long history of progress in the development of diverse applications in the related biomedical and pharmaceutical fields. Data from forensic analyses must satisfy the needs and requirements of both the scientific and legal communities. The type of data collected from electronic-nose devices provides a means of identifying specific types of information about the chemical nature of evidentiary objects and samples under investigation using aroma signature profiles of complex gaseous mixtures containing volatile organic compounds (VOCs) released from manufactured products and parts of the human body. E-nose analyses also provide useful qualitative information about the physicochemical characteristics and metabolic conditions of human subjects without the need for time-consuming analyses to identify all chemical components in human-derived volatile mixtures.
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Analysis of Sweat Simulant Mixtures using Multiplexed Arrays of DNA-Carbon Nanotube Vapor Sensors

Carbon nanotube (NT) based electronic vapor sensors were tested against synthetic sweat solutions, consisting of 13 volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in saline, in order to probe the device ability to analyze and differentiate vapors derived from complex biological samples.
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Characteristic Human Scent Compounds Trapped on Natural and Synthetic Fabrics as analyzed by SPME-GC/MS

The collection of human odor volatiles is of interest to forensic applications as a path to investigate canine scent discriminations in legal investigations. A study using a selected array of previously identified human odor compounds has been conducted to determine the retention and release capabilities of five (5) natural and synthetic fabric types, cotton (mercerized fabric and gauze matrix), polyester, rayon and wool.
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The Effects of the Film Thickness and Roughness in the Anodization Process of Very Thin Aluminum Films

The anodization of aluminum foils having micrometer thickness is a common process and results in hexagonally self-ordered alumina membranes. However, anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) membranes fabricated from nanometer-thin films present new challenges to the anodization process, since aluminum films adheres poorly on supporting substrates and the smoothness of the film is highly related to the kind of substrate.
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Anodic Oxidation of Titanium in Sulphuric Acid and Phosphoric Acid Electrolytes

Anodisation of pure titanium has been carried out in sulphuric and in phosphoric acid solutions at potentials ranging from 50 to 150V. The SEM and AFM morphological analysis indicates that, within this potential range, oxidation in sulphuric acid solution produces better developed mesoporous oxide layers.
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Fabrication of Ordered Arrays of Anodic Aluminum Oxide Pores with Interpore Distance Smaller than the Pitch of Nano-pits formed by Ion Beam Etching

We investigated a method for preparation of ordered nanopore arrays with the interpore distance of 60 nm by guided self-organization of anodic aluminum oxide with a prepatterned array of pits in the starting Al film.
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Preparation of Large Area Anodic Alumina Membranes and their Application to Thin Film Fuel Cell

The design of an electrochemical reactor for the preparation of self-supported comparatively thin (up to 10 μm) and large area (up to 50 cm2) anodic alumina membranes is described allowing growth of porous alumina at high applied potential (up to 150 V) without burning.
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Fabrication of Vertical Cu2ZnSnS4 Nanowire Arrays by Two-Step Electroplating Method into Anodic Aluminum Oxide Template

Vertical Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) nanowire arrays have been synthesized via two-step electroplating method into anodized aluminum oxide template. For deposition of CZTS nanowires, anodized aluminum oxide (AAO) was used as the growth mask for the growth of the nanowires. AAO templates with hole sizes of 70 nm in diameter were used in the experiments.
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Synthesis of BaTiO3 Nanowires via Anodic Aluminum Oxide Template Method Assisted by Vacuum-and-Drop Loading

In this paper, we report on the synthesis of BaTiO3 nanowires via the anodic aluminum oxide template method. To fill in the precursors of BaTiO3 into anodic aluminum oxide templates, the vacuum and drop loading method developed in our previous study was used. Ba(CH3COO)2 (barium acetate) and C12H28O4Ti (tetraisopropyl orthotitanate) were used as Ba and Ti sources, respectively. Anodic aluminum oxide membranes with the through-hole diameter of ~200 nm were used as the template for BaTiO3 nanowires.
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Editorial Board Members Related to CT

Curd Bollen

Professor
Department of periodontology
Parimplant Research Group
Netherlands

Hazem Aqel

Professor
College of Applied Medical Sciences
King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences
Saudi Arabia

Lan-Szu Chou

Associate professor
Department of Bio-Agriculture Sciences
National Chiayi University
Taiwan

Parameswaran Ramakrishnan

Assistant Professor
Experimental Pathology
Case Western Reserve University
United States

Clare Helen Bryce

Forensic Pathologist
Division of Pathology
The University of Edinburgh
United Kingdom

Yanyan Li

Assistant Professor
Department of Health and Nutrition Sciences
Montclair State University
United States

Wang Chin-Tsan

Professor
Department of Mechanical and Electro-Mechanical Engineering
National I Lan University
Taiwan

Tamer Atif Mohamed Dawod

Associate Professor
Faculty of Medicine
Mansoura University
Egypt

PUNAM OHRI-VACHASPATI

Associate Professor
School of Nutrition and Health Promotion
Arizona State University
United States

Wen-Quan Zou

Associate Professor
Departments of Pathology and Neurology
Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine
United States
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