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Hierarchical Analysis of The Factors Associated with the Consumption of Fruits and Vegetables: Cohort of Universities of Minas Gerais, Brazil (Cume Project)

The objective of this study was to assess which factors, at hierarchical levels, are associated with adequate consumption of fruits and vegetables (FV) in undergraduate and graduate students. This is a cross-sectional analysis of the baseline of the Cohort of Universities of Minas Gerais (CUME Project), with alumni from Universities of Minas Gerais, Brazil, in the years 2016 and 2018. The outcome variable was adequate consumption of FV (≥400 g/day). The exposure variables were divided into: block 1, socioeconomic (marital status, education, professional status, individual and family income); block 2, behavioral (physical activity, alcohol consumption, tobacco use, and consumption of legumes, natural juices, ultra-processed foods, soft drinks and industrialized juices, and fast foods); block 3, individual (gender, age, skin color, self-perception of health and presence of obesity, systemic arterial hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and depression). To verify the associations, hierarchical multiple logistic regression was used. The sample consisted of 4,124 individuals with a median age of 34 years and Interquartile Range (IQ) of 12 years, 68.1% women, with a high frequency (62.2%) of adequate consumption of FV. This adequate consumption of FV was associated with being a woman (OR=1.41; 95%CI 1.21-1.64; p<0.001), advancing in age and being physically active (OR=2.10; 95%CI 1.78-2.47; p<0.001), having regular consumption of natural fruit juice (OR=2.00; 95%CI 1.70-2.34, p<0.001), or consumption of ultra-processed foods (OR=0.96; 95%CI 0.95-0.97; p<0.001). In conclusion, individual and behavioral factors are associated with adequate consumption of FV in highly educated individuals.
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Optical Depth Measurement of Self-Reversed Line Emitted from In-Homogenous Plasma in Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy

In this work, an original method is proposed and used for measurement of the optical depth of a self-reversed spectral line. A theoretical approach is utilized in an in homogenous laser induced plasma at local thermodynamic to simulate self-reversed line and then to get the main line profile without self-absorption. In this research, the spatial and temporal evolution of optical depth of two spectral lines of Ca II at 393.4 nm and 396,9 nm is studied. Furthermore, the variation of optical depth versus the concentration of species emitter inside of plasma plume is investigated. In addition, the validity of this method is affirmed during comparison with results obtained by other techniques.
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Maximal Distance of Splatters and Droplets Projections Produced by Dental Air and Water-Cooled Instruments Around a Dental Chair in an Open-Plan Area

A dental chair and its environment can be contaminated with droplet/splatter and aerosol particles, which contain various pathogens, including SARS-Cov-2, that can be transmitted by contact or inhalation. We aimed to evaluate the maximal distance of droplet/splatter projections for four different air and water-cooled dental instruments using a patient simulator, to define the boundaries of the open-plan area contaminated immediately after treatment. We used a dental chair unit placed in a room in the open-plan area. Fluorescent powder was added to water, to know the maximal distance reached by the droplet/splatter on the surfaces of the dental room covered with white sheets. Dental care was performed in an artificial mouth using either an air turbine handpiece, a high-speed electric contra-angle, an ultrasonic scaler, or an air/powder polisher with a constant volume of colored water. Maximal distances of droplet/splatter projections were measured after identifying the fluorescent patterns on the surfaces. Calculated heights and angles were then used after normalization to know the maximal distance that could be reached by these projections. In these conditions, the theoretical maximal distance of droplet/splatter projection was 295 cm for the air-powder polisher, followed by 238 cm for the high-speed electric contra-angle, 93 cm for the air turbine and 77 cm for the ultrasonic scaler. Theoretical projections for the ultrasonic scaler did not go beyond the dental room. In our open-plan area, droplet/splatter projections can extend beyond the dental room entrance, but not over 1.80 m-high partitions, and could contaminate areas located nearby. Simple preventive measures would be to limit the perimeter of these projections, for example by installing a door, in addition to measures to limit the scope of aerosols.
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Clinical Impact of Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy to Chronic Calculous Cholecy-stitis: A Retrospective Study

The Aims: The retro-prospective clinical study was to compare these two methods of laparoscopic and classical cholecystectomy. To prove the postoperative benefits of laparoscopic treatment are, less pain, aesthetic aspect without surgical scarring and shorter hospital stay, faster return to social activities as well as more cost effective. Material and Methods: The operated patients, from January 2017 to December 2019 in the abdominal surgery ward in Gjilan. Important data for the study are taken from the operative list, history of the disease, adequate list compiled specifically for this study. The study included 389 patients with chronic calculous cholecystitis. Results: According to the results obtained for calculous diseases of the biliary system are predisposed persons with blood group O, Rh-positive, with 44.2%, followed by group A + with 29.5%, group B + with 14.7%. Other blood groups and Rh factors are below 6.5%. Statistical point of view is significant (p <0.05). The study analyzed, C-reactive protein (CRP) values in both research group (RG) and control groups (CG); CRP by gender; and by age group. RG recorded 76.9% of females with increased CRP values> 6, while 23.1% of males. The percentage difference in statistical terms is significant p <0.05. Conclusion: The results obtained have shown that there are no significant differences in the presentation of intra-operative complications in terms of gender and age, to both methods. Optimization measures for postoperative management of patients after laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Continuing education in laparoscopic surgery is important for successful management.
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E. Coli Bacteria and Its Transcription Regulation

Escherichia coli is the commonest Bacteria for urinary tract Infection do regulate its transcription predominantly at the stage of initiation by repressors and/or activators.
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Selection of Disease Modifying Treatment (DMT) Relates to Patient’s DecisionMaking Competence in MS

Background: In Multiple Sclerosis, more efficient disease modifying treatment (DMT) are often accompanied by higher risks and side effects. Selecting the optimal DMT demands from patients and doctors therefore a complex decision-making process weighing risks and benefits. Patients and doctors often prefer to share responsibility when making these treatment decisions, but this shared decision-making model requests decision-making competence on both sides. The aim of our online study was to investigate whether patients’ decision-making competence relates to DMT selection. Method: 197 patients participated in the online survey, advertised by two patient organizations. Patients reported their DMT and who decided for or against a DMT: their neurologist, themselves, or both. We measured decision-making competence with two tasks from the Adult Decision-Making Competence Battery (A-DMC), the ability to follow decision rules and the consistency of risk perception. Perceived impairment of the disease was measured with Patient Determined Disease Steps (PDDS). Results: The ability to follow decision rules varied with the potency of the DMT. Patients receiving basic DMT were better able to follow decision rules compared to patients receiving medium DMT. Patients who did not take any DMT stated more frequently that this decision was their own choice and independent of their doctor’s advice. Conclusions: If patients without DMT decided against this treatment on their own behalf, doctors and caregivers potentially have to strengthen their effort to reach out to the patient and to ensure the decision is well taken.
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A Rare Case of Albrights Hereditary Osteodystrophy presenting as Recurrent Hypocalcemic Tetany

An internist with an eagle’s eye can diagnose many hidden diseases through careful examination. One such hereditary metabolic disorder is Albright’s Hereditary Osteodystrophy (AHO). Characteristic presentations in an individual affected by AHO were short stature, obesity, mild mental retardation and brachydactyly especially of 4th and 5th digits, which are the phenotypic features of genetic mutation. Pseudohypoparathyroidism (PHP) is characterized by inability of the body to respond appropriately to parathormone, mainly characterized by hypocalcaemia, increased serum parathormone concentration, insensitivity to the biological activity of parathormone and hyperphosphatemia. AHO when seen in association with resistance to parathormone (PTH), it is called PHP. Here is a case report of 22-year-old female patient with AHO with distinctive physical characteristics who presented to us with recurrent hypocalcaemic tetan
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A Retrospective Analysis of 25 cases of Addisons Disease Caused by Adrenal Tuberculosis in Tibet and Review of Related Literature

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2D Analysis of Piezoelectric Layer Over a Rotating Micro-elongated Thermoelastic Medium with DPL Model

The Lord-Shulman theory with one relaxation time and the dual-phase-lag model with two relaxation times of thermoelasticity are used in this article to study the influence rotation micro-elongated thermoelastic layer, when a piezo electric layer is above it. To convert a partial differential equation to an ordinary differential equation, the normal mode method is utilized. Numerical computations are implemented for aluminum epoxy, and the results are charted. A comparison is made among the two theories in the complete absence and the presence of a rotation. The presence of a rotation has a major effect on all physical quantities.
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Psychoactive Drugs Induced DNA Damage: A Review

Psychoactive substances, also known as psychotropic substances are substances that alter the mental state of a person by affecting the way the nervous system and brain work [1]. Psychoactive substances can cause intoxication and this is generally the major reason why most individuals engage in their use. Individuals who take psychoactive substances experience changes in brain function which alter their mood, consciousness, and/or perceptions. Psychoactive substances are present in different medications, alcohol, plants, and animals [2], many, but not all of which are addictive [1]. The most common psychoactive drugs used by people to alter their mental state are caffeine and alcohol [3]. Although they are available legally, yet, they are harmful both psychologically and physically when used in excess. Usually, the decision of how and when to use these psychoactive drugs is left to the individuals [3], however, in certain situations, the drugs are used for exploitation of others by the alteration of their mental state. For example, Rohypnol has been used as a date-rape [4]. Some of the psychoactive drugs are very unpleasant making the users quit their use. This is the case in certain classic psychedelics (e.g., psilocybin), powerful dissociatives (e.g., Salvia divinorum), and deliriants (e.g., Jimson weed) [5]. Addiction and dependence resulting from the misuse of psychoactive drugs have led to moral debate and legal measures, while governmental controls on prescription, supply, and manufacture have been efforts made to minimize the additive use of these drugs. Also, ethical concerns exist about the marketing of these drugs by manufacturers and their clinical over-use. However, in some countries, there are ongoing popular campaigns geared towards legalizing and decriminalizing the use of some recreational drugs such as cannabis. Many individual, genetic and environmental factors have been reported to work individually or synergistically to decrease or increase the probability that an individual will use a psychoactive drug and to what extent [6]. This review aimed at updating information on the different uses of various psychoactive drugs by humans, the different effects on the biological system, and their reported DNA damaging potential in simulated and real-life scenarios.
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A Review Study on Gender Determination with the Help of Bite Marks Analysis

Bite marks are commonly observed in cases such as slaughter, sexual assault, child abuse cases, and during sports events. Bitemark is a type of ‘patterned injury’ which played an important role as evidence in judicial system. Bite marks can find on various body parts and various edible leftovers at the Crime Scene which can be used as evidence for identification of the criminals. Teeth impression shows sexual dimorphism and therefore helps in gender estimation. The various dental characteristics are individual-specific. A piece of exhaustive information and examination of indentations can help in the vindication of the guiltless as well as give decisive proof to the conviction of criminals. In certain violations, indentation proof is the main proof on which conviction has been accomplished, especially in rape and kid abuse cases. The present review describes the importance of bite mark analysis, estimation of gender through bite marks, and stability of teeth impression in diverse conditions. This article can give a better comprehension of the methodology used in forensic dentistry when investigating dental impressions.
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Characterization of Indigenous Goats Type Using Morphological Characters in South West Shewa Zone, Oromia, Ethiopia.

This study was conducted in South west Shewa zone, to describe phenotypic characterization of indigenous goat type in Tole and Becho districts. Morphological and Linear body measurement were carried out to collect necessary raw data during the current study. Morphological characters and linear body measurements were collected from a total of 460 adult goats. Data collected from each site were coded and entered into the computer (Excel 2016 and SPSS, V21, 2013) computer software to facilitate for further analysis. Data collected through Morphological and linear body measurements were analyzed using (SPSS, V21, 2013 and SAS, release 9.2, 2008). Most frequently observed coat color pattern in study was plain 62.8%. Multiple correlations between body weight and linear body measurements were computed for the population within each sex and correlations among body weight and linear body measurements were positive for both sexes. The strong, positive and significant correlation between heart girth and body weight was observed (r = 0.97, 0.93) for male and female population, respectively. Generally, this study was aim to describe phenotypic characterization of indigenous goat type in the study area. The Most observed body color type was plain in the study area so its need investigation because farmers need plain color rather others.
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Decontamination of Impressions: Knowledge and Attitudes of Dentists in The Dakar Region (Senegal).

Introduction: The prosthetic act must obey the rules of asepsis with a certain rigour for the decontamination of impressions to reduce the risk of cross-contamination. The objective of this study was to evaluate the knowledge and attitudes of practitioners in the Dakar region (Senegal) regarding the decontamination of impressions. Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional descriptive epidemiological survey of 150 dentists in the Dakar region. Results: The sample consisted of 59,3% men and 40,7% women. Practitioners practising in private practice were 61,0% against 39% in public practice. The majority (83.3%) of dentists in the study had not received any continuing education on aseptic procedures in prosthetics and had a vague idea of the term "decontamination of impressions". Nevertheless, almost all practitioners (94,0%) systematically rinsed the impressions with water after disinsertion, 48.7% of practitioners decontaminated their impressions with a disinfectant. The most used decontamination methods were immersion at 70.3% followed by spraying at 17.1%. Sodium hypochlorite (63.9%) was the most used solution due to its effectiveness, simplicity of use and cost. Conclusion: There is diversity in the attitude and knowledge of dentists. Disinfection protocols that are simple to implement and adapted to the impression materials should be put in place. Moreover, a rinsing as soon as the mouth is removed must be carried out, then a post-disinfection rinsing for a better dimensional stability of our impressions.
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A Review Study on Adulteration in Bakery Goods

Adulteration in packed bakery products is done by making the product impure or altering its original form by adding materials or elements that are not usually part of it, especially inferior ones. It is finished by making the item debased or modifying its unique structure by adding materials or components that are not as a rule part of it, particularly mediocre ones [1]. It very well may be done deliberately by eliminating substances from food or inadvertently because of obliviousness, imprudence or absence of offices for keeping up with the nature of food. Potassium bromate is a flour improver that goes probably as a creating trained professional. Potassium bromates changes over into potassium bromide at high temperature during the baking framework [3]. Regardless, in case an abundance of is added, then again accepting the bread isn’t warmed long enough or not at an adequately high temperature, then, an extra total stay in the cake kitchen things, which may be dangerous at whatever point gobbled up [2]. It can cause stomach torture, free entrails, nausea, hurling, kidney dissatisfaction, oligonuria, anuria, deafness, dazedness, and hypotension, Detection is finished by spectrophotometric technique, IC/Mass spectrometry gives identification, Ion Chromatography (IC), High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) Synthetic tones in prepared merchandise Blue. #1 (Brilliant Blue) caused kidney growths in mice. Red.#3 (Erythrosine) Recognized as a thyroid cancer-causing agent in creatures. Red.#40 (Allura Red) speeds up the presence of invulnerable framework cancers in mice. It additionally causes extreme touchiness (sensitivity like) responses in certain purchasers and might trigger hyperactivity in youngsters. Yellow. #5 (Tartrazine) causes serious excessive responses. Yellow. #6 (Sunset Yellow) Caused adrenal growths in creatures and sporadically causes extreme responses. Distinguishing proof of engineered food colors corruption by paper chromatography and spectrophotometric strategies. In Adulterated chocolate two defilements are utilized arrowroot and dim rye flour distinguished by Near-Infrared (NIR) spectroscopy [14].
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Effects of Gabapentin Enacarbil on Cortical Arousals, Heart Rate, Blood Pressure and Anterior Tibialis EMG Responses Associated with PLMs in Restless Legs Syndrome

Objective: This study was conducted to investigate the effects of gabapentin enacarbil (GEn) on sleep EEG, heart rate (HR), blood presssure, anterior tibialis EMG activity (PLMs power) and subjective complaints in subjects with moderate to severe RLS and disturbed sleep. Methods: This was a single site, single-blind, placebo run-in, fixed dose single group polysomnography (PSG) study. Eligible subjects (age 24-66 years) were treated with placebo for one week and GEn (600 mg/day) for 4 weeks. Two in-laboratory PSGs were collected for adaptation and baseline at the end of the placebo run-in period and for re-adaptation and efficacy assessment at the end of the 4-week treatment period. The primary endpoint was the difference in PSG derived cortical arousal intensity (arousal scale, 0-9) associated with PLMs between 4 weeks of treatment with GEn and placebo. Secondary endpoints included changes in HR responses (ΔHR), nocturnal systolic blood pressure (SBP) changes (>10 mmHg) secondary to PLMs and PLMs power. Other PSG and subjective measures were assessed. Results: Of 20 subjects enrolled, 18 completed the study. Subjects treated with GEn did not show significant improvements in cortical arousal intensity and ΔHR. However, subjects showed reduced PLMs power (p= 0.013) and associated reductions in nocturnal SBP per hour of sleep (p= 0.041) GEn showed significant improvement in other PSG parameters and subjective endpoints. Conclusion: The data suggests that GEn reduces the frequency and power of PLMs and the corresponding SBP changes in subjects with RLS. Despite reducing the total number of PLM associated arousals and nocturnal HR, the study did not demonstrate consistent effects of GEn on cortical arousal intensity and corresponding HR changes associated with PLMs. Clinical Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT02424695
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Introduction to the special issue on ‘Nanostructures by Valve Metal Anodization’

With this special issue of JMSN we are pleased to present significant contributions to a fascinating topic in the field of materials nanostructing, which is the anodization of valve metals. By this treatment porous oxides of controlled geometry can be grown on the respective metal surfaces. To date, aluminum (Al) has been used most often, as confirmed in this special issue where nine out of ten contributions deals with its anodization.
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Ordered Growth of Anodic Aluminum Oxide in Galvanostatic and Galvanostatic-Potentiostatic Modes

The results are presented of obtaining anodic aluminum oxide with an ordered pore arrangement by employing two anodizing modes - galvanostatic mode and combined (galvanostatic + potentiostatic) mode, at high values of the current density and voltage. Use has been made of an oxalate electrolyte and a complex electrolyte comprising oxalic acid and phosphoric acid. Scanning electron microscopy has been used to investigate the surface morphology of the barrier and porous layers and to determine pore sizes and inter-pore distance.
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Anodizing for Design and Function

Two basic reactions occur during the anodizing of aluminum: 1) the aluminum is consumed and 2) an oxide grows. By accepting this statement as true, the anodizing process can be viewed as a corrosion process, and anodizing can be modeled using the Tafel Equation. Anodizing process parameters of electrolyte chemistry and concentration, temperature, aluminum substrate resistance and current density are presented as they relate to the Tafel Equation and how they impact the anodic aluminum oxide structure and properties. Understanding this relationship is consequent in making anodizing an engineering process, one that enables tuning the structure such that it yields distinct characteristics to fulfill design and application requirements.
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Recent Developments in Human Odor Detection Technologies

Human odor detection technologies have drawn attention due to the wide possibility of potential applications they open up in areas such as biometrics, criminal investigation and forensics, search for survivors under rubble, and security checkpoint screening. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) has been the most successful and powerful analytical approach developed to date for human odor analysis, and hundreds of human odorants have been identified using this tool.
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Electronic-nose Applications in Forensic Science and for Analysis of Volatile Biomarkers in the Human Breath

The application of electronic-nose (E-nose) technologies in forensic science is a recent new development following a long history of progress in the development of diverse applications in the related biomedical and pharmaceutical fields. Data from forensic analyses must satisfy the needs and requirements of both the scientific and legal communities. The type of data collected from electronic-nose devices provides a means of identifying specific types of information about the chemical nature of evidentiary objects and samples under investigation using aroma signature profiles of complex gaseous mixtures containing volatile organic compounds (VOCs) released from manufactured products and parts of the human body. E-nose analyses also provide useful qualitative information about the physicochemical characteristics and metabolic conditions of human subjects without the need for time-consuming analyses to identify all chemical components in human-derived volatile mixtures.
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Analysis of Sweat Simulant Mixtures using Multiplexed Arrays of DNA-Carbon Nanotube Vapor Sensors

Carbon nanotube (NT) based electronic vapor sensors were tested against synthetic sweat solutions, consisting of 13 volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in saline, in order to probe the device ability to analyze and differentiate vapors derived from complex biological samples.
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Characteristic Human Scent Compounds Trapped on Natural and Synthetic Fabrics as analyzed by SPME-GC/MS

The collection of human odor volatiles is of interest to forensic applications as a path to investigate canine scent discriminations in legal investigations. A study using a selected array of previously identified human odor compounds has been conducted to determine the retention and release capabilities of five (5) natural and synthetic fabric types, cotton (mercerized fabric and gauze matrix), polyester, rayon and wool.
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The Effects of the Film Thickness and Roughness in the Anodization Process of Very Thin Aluminum Films

The anodization of aluminum foils having micrometer thickness is a common process and results in hexagonally self-ordered alumina membranes. However, anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) membranes fabricated from nanometer-thin films present new challenges to the anodization process, since aluminum films adheres poorly on supporting substrates and the smoothness of the film is highly related to the kind of substrate.
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Anodic Oxidation of Titanium in Sulphuric Acid and Phosphoric Acid Electrolytes

Anodisation of pure titanium has been carried out in sulphuric and in phosphoric acid solutions at potentials ranging from 50 to 150V. The SEM and AFM morphological analysis indicates that, within this potential range, oxidation in sulphuric acid solution produces better developed mesoporous oxide layers.
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Fabrication of Ordered Arrays of Anodic Aluminum Oxide Pores with Interpore Distance Smaller than the Pitch of Nano-pits formed by Ion Beam Etching

We investigated a method for preparation of ordered nanopore arrays with the interpore distance of 60 nm by guided self-organization of anodic aluminum oxide with a prepatterned array of pits in the starting Al film.
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Preparation of Large Area Anodic Alumina Membranes and their Application to Thin Film Fuel Cell

The design of an electrochemical reactor for the preparation of self-supported comparatively thin (up to 10 μm) and large area (up to 50 cm2) anodic alumina membranes is described allowing growth of porous alumina at high applied potential (up to 150 V) without burning.
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Fabrication of Vertical Cu2ZnSnS4 Nanowire Arrays by Two-Step Electroplating Method into Anodic Aluminum Oxide Template

Vertical Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) nanowire arrays have been synthesized via two-step electroplating method into anodized aluminum oxide template. For deposition of CZTS nanowires, anodized aluminum oxide (AAO) was used as the growth mask for the growth of the nanowires. AAO templates with hole sizes of 70 nm in diameter were used in the experiments.
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Synthesis of BaTiO3 Nanowires via Anodic Aluminum Oxide Template Method Assisted by Vacuum-and-Drop Loading

In this paper, we report on the synthesis of BaTiO3 nanowires via the anodic aluminum oxide template method. To fill in the precursors of BaTiO3 into anodic aluminum oxide templates, the vacuum and drop loading method developed in our previous study was used. Ba(CH3COO)2 (barium acetate) and C12H28O4Ti (tetraisopropyl orthotitanate) were used as Ba and Ti sources, respectively. Anodic aluminum oxide membranes with the through-hole diameter of ~200 nm were used as the template for BaTiO3 nanowires.
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Editorial Board Members Related to CT

Ashraf Youssef Nasr

Associate professor
Department of Anatomy & Embryology
Zagazig University
Egypt

Bruno Amato

Associate Professor
Department of Clinical Medecine and Surgery
University Federico II of Naples
Italy

Yongjun Liu

Associate Professor
Department of Biostatistics and Bioinformatics
Tulane University
United States

Jean-François Desaphy

Associate Professor
Department of Pharmacy & Drug Sciences
University of Bari
Italy

Thiam Chye LIM

Associate Professor
Department of Surgery
National University of Singapore
Singapore

George Panayiotakis

Professor
Department of Medicine
University of Patras
Greece

Jian Yang

Associate Professor
Department of Bioengineering
Pennsylvania State University
United States

Joseph Pergolizzi

Adjunct Assistant Professor
Department of Medicine
Johns Hopkins University
United States

Matthew Tan

Associate Professor (ADJ)
Centre for Sustainable Tropical Fisheries and Aquaculture
James Cook University
Australia

Wei Min Huang

Associate Professor
Nanyang Technological University
Singapore
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