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Review Article: Managing Spinal Cord Injury on Anesthesiologists’ Perspective

Spinal cord injury (SCI) is trauma to the area of the vertebrae resulting in spinal cord lesions resulting in neurological disorders, depending on the location of the spinal nerve damage and the injured nerve tissue. The symptoms of SCI can range from pain and paralysis to incontinence. SCI due to trauma is estimated to occur in 30-40 per million population per year, and about 8,000- 10,000 sufferers each year; generally, occurs in adolescents and young adults. Although the annual incidence of events is relatively low, the cost of care and rehabilitation for spinal cord injuries is very high, at around US $ 53,000 / patient.
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Ultrastructure of the Frontal Cortex Neurons of 5-Day-Day Rats after Antenatal Alcoholization

Antenatal alcoholization leads to a number of specific disorders in the offspring organism, grouped into the concept of fetal alcohol syndrome, which is included in the fetal alcohol spectrum disorders. The negative effects of alcohol on the developing fetal brain include structural abnormalities of the brain, neurological, behavioral and cognitive defects.
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Narrative Review of Challenges and Considerations in Resuming Elective Gynaecology Surgery in Climate of Continuing Community Transmission of Covid-19 in a Low Resource Setting

The World Health Organization declared COVID-19 a pandemic in March 2020 and since then COVID-19 infection has been reported in all parts of the world. Several Healthcare systems reduced or canceled none emergency or urgent surgeries to effectively manage the pandemic. Recently, the reported incidence of new cases of COVID-19 has reduced in some regions and some Healthcare systems are resuming elective gynecologic surgery. This narrative review explores the challenges of planning and resuming elective gynecologic surgery in a climate of continuing community transmission.
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How the Artificial Intelligence Tool Psumo-CD is working for Predicting Sumoylation Sites in Proteins

In 2016 a very powerful AI (artificial intelligence) tool has been established for predicting sumoylation sites in proteins, one of the most important post modifications in proteins [1].
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Solid State Characterization of Consciousness Energy Healing Treated Magnesium Gluconate using PXRD, PSA, DSC and TGA/DTG Analysis

Magnesium gluconate (Mag-G) is an important nutraceutical and pharmaceutical compound used as a source of magnesium to maintain the overall quality of life as well as for the prevention and treatment of various human diseases. The current study evaluated the influence of the Trivedi Effect® on the physicochemical and thermal properties of Mag-G using sophisticated analytical techniques. Mag-G powder was divided into control and treated parts.
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Thrombocytopenia and Predicting the Severity of Coronavirus 2019

The novel coronavirus, SARS-COV-2, that has emerged as pneumonia (COVID-19), is raising global concern. The current study aimed to quantify the diagnostic value of platelet count for the disease severity assessment.
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Seasonal Abundance of the Seychelles Scale, Icerya Seychellarum (Westwood) (Hemiptera: Monophlebidae) Infesting Guava Trees

The main objective of the present work was to study the population trend of the Seychelles scale, Icerya seychellarum (Westwood) (Hemiptera: Monophlebidae) on guava trees at Abu-Suwair district in Ismailia Governorate, Egypt during two consecutive years (2018-19). The results showed that insect population was recorded on guava trees all the year round and has three peaks of seasonal activity per year i.e., June, August/September and November.
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Melphalan Impacts Temporarily on Pancreatic Enzymes

Multiple myeloma is a malignant disease caused by monoclonal proliferation of multiple myeloma plasma cells [1]. In patients, high-dose melphalan chemotherapy and autologous stem cell transplantation are administered. Common side effects of high dose melphalan are oral mucositis, enteritis, and neutropenia [2].
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A Novel Hemizygous Mutation of HCFC1 Causes X-Linked Recessive Gene Inherited Developmental Delay in a Chinese Family

Developmental delay (DD) / intellectual disability (ID) is considered one of the most genetically heterogeneous human diseases. Herein, we described a Chinese boy affected by DD/ID with 3-methylcrotonyl-CoA carboxylase deficiency (MCCD) and 3-hydroxy3-methylglutaric aciduria (3-HMG), which associated with a novel missense hemizygous mutation, c.4442C>T, within the acidic domain of HCFC1 gene identified by whole exon sequencing (WES) and validated by Sanger sequencing.
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A Review on How Animals Contribute as a Factor to Antibiotic Resistance

The development and spread of antibiotic resistance have become a major cause of concern. Over a past few decades, no major new types of antibiotics have been produced and almost all known antibiotics are losing their activity against pathogenic organisms. Overuse and misuse of antimicrobials in animals and humans is contributing to the rising threat of antibiotic resistance as some types of infections in humans have already developed resistance to most of the antibiotics available for treatment.
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Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy Improves Cognition in Patients Severe TBI; A Prospective Study

Cognitive impairment post TBI is an important factor in rehabilitation outcomes. Pharmacological and therapeutic services do not directly address damage to the cortical infrastructure. Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy is known to improve brain function and healing.
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Drug Therapy Problems and Clinical Outcomes Among Patients with Human Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor 2 (HER2) Positive Breast Cancer on Trastuzumab-Based Therapy in a Kenyan Tertiary Health Facility

Breast cancer ranks first among the most commonly diagnosed cancers in Kenyan females and globally. Treatment is challenging because it is a heterogeneous disease with several subtypes. There has been a significant change in the treatment of Human Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor 2 (HER2) positive breast cancer subtypes following the introduction and widespread use of HER2 targeted therapies.
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Upswing in Industrial Activity and Infant Mortality During Late 19th Century US

This paper aims to assess the effects of industrial pollution on infant mortality between the years 1850-1940 using full count decennial censuses. In this period, US economy experienced a tremendous rise in industrial activity with significant variation among different counties in absorbing manufacturing industries, which is used as a proxy for variation in space-time industrial pollution.
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Amyloid Goiter Showing a Systemic Amyloidosis (A Case Report)

Amyloidosis is the finale pathway of a metabolic disorder in the body that can be primary or secondary leading to abnormal extracellular deposition of proteins in one or more tissues. Thyroid damage is very rare.
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Management of Gluteal Adjuvant Disease by Resection and Rotation of PreExpanded Lumbar Flaps

The adjuvant human disease is defined as any clinical manifestation associated with the parenteral administration of adjuvant substances purposes and that occurs at least 3 months after administration.
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Introduction to the special issue on ‘Nanostructures by Valve Metal Anodization’

With this special issue of JMSN we are pleased to present significant contributions to a fascinating topic in the field of materials nanostructing, which is the anodization of valve metals. By this treatment porous oxides of controlled geometry can be grown on the respective metal surfaces. To date, aluminum (Al) has been used most often, as confirmed in this special issue where nine out of ten contributions deals with its anodization.
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Ordered Growth of Anodic Aluminum Oxide in Galvanostatic and Galvanostatic-Potentiostatic Modes

The results are presented of obtaining anodic aluminum oxide with an ordered pore arrangement by employing two anodizing modes - galvanostatic mode and combined (galvanostatic + potentiostatic) mode, at high values of the current density and voltage. Use has been made of an oxalate electrolyte and a complex electrolyte comprising oxalic acid and phosphoric acid. Scanning electron microscopy has been used to investigate the surface morphology of the barrier and porous layers and to determine pore sizes and inter-pore distance.
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Anodizing for Design and Function

Two basic reactions occur during the anodizing of aluminum: 1) the aluminum is consumed and 2) an oxide grows. By accepting this statement as true, the anodizing process can be viewed as a corrosion process, and anodizing can be modeled using the Tafel Equation. Anodizing process parameters of electrolyte chemistry and concentration, temperature, aluminum substrate resistance and current density are presented as they relate to the Tafel Equation and how they impact the anodic aluminum oxide structure and properties. Understanding this relationship is consequent in making anodizing an engineering process, one that enables tuning the structure such that it yields distinct characteristics to fulfill design and application requirements.
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Recent Developments in Human Odor Detection Technologies

Human odor detection technologies have drawn attention due to the wide possibility of potential applications they open up in areas such as biometrics, criminal investigation and forensics, search for survivors under rubble, and security checkpoint screening. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) has been the most successful and powerful analytical approach developed to date for human odor analysis, and hundreds of human odorants have been identified using this tool.
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Electronic-nose Applications in Forensic Science and for Analysis of Volatile Biomarkers in the Human Breath

The application of electronic-nose (E-nose) technologies in forensic science is a recent new development following a long history of progress in the development of diverse applications in the related biomedical and pharmaceutical fields. Data from forensic analyses must satisfy the needs and requirements of both the scientific and legal communities. The type of data collected from electronic-nose devices provides a means of identifying specific types of information about the chemical nature of evidentiary objects and samples under investigation using aroma signature profiles of complex gaseous mixtures containing volatile organic compounds (VOCs) released from manufactured products and parts of the human body. E-nose analyses also provide useful qualitative information about the physicochemical characteristics and metabolic conditions of human subjects without the need for time-consuming analyses to identify all chemical components in human-derived volatile mixtures.
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Analysis of Sweat Simulant Mixtures using Multiplexed Arrays of DNA-Carbon Nanotube Vapor Sensors

Carbon nanotube (NT) based electronic vapor sensors were tested against synthetic sweat solutions, consisting of 13 volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in saline, in order to probe the device ability to analyze and differentiate vapors derived from complex biological samples.
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Characteristic Human Scent Compounds Trapped on Natural and Synthetic Fabrics as analyzed by SPME-GC/MS

The collection of human odor volatiles is of interest to forensic applications as a path to investigate canine scent discriminations in legal investigations. A study using a selected array of previously identified human odor compounds has been conducted to determine the retention and release capabilities of five (5) natural and synthetic fabric types, cotton (mercerized fabric and gauze matrix), polyester, rayon and wool.
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The Effects of the Film Thickness and Roughness in the Anodization Process of Very Thin Aluminum Films

The anodization of aluminum foils having micrometer thickness is a common process and results in hexagonally self-ordered alumina membranes. However, anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) membranes fabricated from nanometer-thin films present new challenges to the anodization process, since aluminum films adheres poorly on supporting substrates and the smoothness of the film is highly related to the kind of substrate.
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Anodic Oxidation of Titanium in Sulphuric Acid and Phosphoric Acid Electrolytes

Anodisation of pure titanium has been carried out in sulphuric and in phosphoric acid solutions at potentials ranging from 50 to 150V. The SEM and AFM morphological analysis indicates that, within this potential range, oxidation in sulphuric acid solution produces better developed mesoporous oxide layers.
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Fabrication of Ordered Arrays of Anodic Aluminum Oxide Pores with Interpore Distance Smaller than the Pitch of Nano-pits formed by Ion Beam Etching

We investigated a method for preparation of ordered nanopore arrays with the interpore distance of 60 nm by guided self-organization of anodic aluminum oxide with a prepatterned array of pits in the starting Al film.
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Preparation of Large Area Anodic Alumina Membranes and their Application to Thin Film Fuel Cell

The design of an electrochemical reactor for the preparation of self-supported comparatively thin (up to 10 μm) and large area (up to 50 cm2) anodic alumina membranes is described allowing growth of porous alumina at high applied potential (up to 150 V) without burning.
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Fabrication of Vertical Cu2ZnSnS4 Nanowire Arrays by Two-Step Electroplating Method into Anodic Aluminum Oxide Template

Vertical Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) nanowire arrays have been synthesized via two-step electroplating method into anodized aluminum oxide template. For deposition of CZTS nanowires, anodized aluminum oxide (AAO) was used as the growth mask for the growth of the nanowires. AAO templates with hole sizes of 70 nm in diameter were used in the experiments.
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Synthesis of BaTiO3 Nanowires via Anodic Aluminum Oxide Template Method Assisted by Vacuum-and-Drop Loading

In this paper, we report on the synthesis of BaTiO3 nanowires via the anodic aluminum oxide template method. To fill in the precursors of BaTiO3 into anodic aluminum oxide templates, the vacuum and drop loading method developed in our previous study was used. Ba(CH3COO)2 (barium acetate) and C12H28O4Ti (tetraisopropyl orthotitanate) were used as Ba and Ti sources, respectively. Anodic aluminum oxide membranes with the through-hole diameter of ~200 nm were used as the template for BaTiO3 nanowires.
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Editorial Board Members Related to CT

Robert R. Redfield

Professor
Department of Immunology and Microbiology
University of Maryland
United States

LUIS CLAUDIO NASCIMENTO DA SILVA

Department of Parasitary Biology
Ceuma University
Rua dos Castanheiros Jardim Renascença 65075120 - São Luís
Brazil

Tracey Ledoux

Assistant Professor
Department of Health and Human Performance
University of Houston
United States

Ahmed Abdellatif

Assistant Professor
Department of Biology
American University in Cairo
Egypt

Paul H. Wooley

Professor
Orthopaedic Research Institute
Wichita State University
United States

Jurgen Konig

Professor
Department of Nutritional Sciences
University of Vienna
Austria

Ibrahim Fathy Nassar

Associate professor
Department of organic chemistry
Faculty of Specific Education
Ain Shams University
Egypt

SEBASTIANO MERCADANTE

Director of Anesthesia & Intensive Care and Pain Relief & Supportive Care Unit
La Maddalena Cancer Center, Palermo
Italy

Suman Sirimulla

Assistant Professor
Department of Basic Sciences
St. Louis College of Pharmacy
St. Louis, MO
United States.

Arshdeep Tindni

Associate Professor
The Jewish Hospital
Ohio
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