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Is an IOC Still Necessary during Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy?

Routine intraoperative cholangiogram (IOC) during laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) helps to confirm biliary anatomy and reduce bile leaks. It also allows identification of common bile duct stones intraoperatively which in selected patients can be cleared transcystically in the same procedure which is much less morbid than through post-operative endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP). Despite this, some surgeons only selectively perform IOC or forgot it all together.
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Anti-Diabetic Activity of Lycopene Niosomes: Experimental Observation

The lycopene is a known bioactive constituent of Lycopersicum esculentum and its application in diabetes is an active area of research. The lycopene has disadvantages such as susceptible to light, heat, and oxidants, which limit its therapeutic applications. In the present investigation, we reported lycopene niosomes formulation which can enhance its anti-diabetic application. The niosome formulation was prepared to preserve lycopene activity.
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A Study on Perceived Stress among Undergraduate Medical Students of Bahir Dar University, Bahir Bar, North West Ethiopia, 2016: Institutional Based Cross Sectional Study

Tertiary education has always been regarded as highly stressful environment to students. Medical and health science training further add to the already stressful environment. Awareness of the existence of stress in medical students by physicians will help in diminishing student’s experience of stress. Therefore, identifying additional stressors in the clinical context is very crucial for providing measures to minimize students’ stress to a tolerable level and helping them to cope better. And the aim of this study is to assess perceived stress and factors associated with it among Bahir Dar University medical students, North West Ethiopia, 2016.
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Validation of an Anti-Protective Antigen ELISA for Quantitative IgG Evaluation in B. anthracis Immunized Horses

The potency test for anthrax vaccines has historically involved the challenge of actively or passively immunized laboratory animals with a fully virulent strain of Bacillus anthracis. Lethal challenge studies with the archetypal virulent strains such as B. anthracis Ames strain present considerable difficulties in laboratory management and handling and are too inefficient for the early evaluation of alternative preventative and therapeutic interventions. An ELISA for the evaluation of antibody response to protective antigen (PA) in horses immunized with the Sterne 34F2 strain spore vaccine was developed. The objective of this work was to study the performance of this assay in terms of the guidelines set forth by the International Conference on Harmonics (ICH) and the Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER) for analytical procedures. We have demonstrated a working range for this assay (73-1581 EU/ml) on the bases of the following parameters: linearity (25 and 1,662 EU/ml, r2 = 0.9988, p < 0.001), accuracy (94.8 - 105.4 %, recovery within the range of 25 and 1,662 EU/ml), precision (≤ 17.6 % CV, repeatability; ≤ 15.7 and ≤ 13.1 % CV, intermediate precision per day and per analyst, respectively), limit of detection (2.25 EU/ml) and limit of quantitation (25 EU/ml). The assay was also demonstrated to be specific for the evaluation of anti-PA IgG antibodies. Based on the assay performance characteristics it was determined that the assay was adequate for use in B. anthracis immunogenicity testing in horses.
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Epidemiology of Sudden Unexpected Death in Infancy: Evidence from the London Metropolitan Police Project Indigo Investigation

The London Metropolitan Police in collaboration with medical personnel, study all sudden unexpected death in infancy (SUDI) <2 years in their jurisdiction, to identify suspicious cases for further investigation. The 2005-2010 Project Indigo includes extensive data on all such non-suspicious cases. Deidentified data on age and gender of 477 infants dying a natural unexpected-sudden death in London were gathered for statistical analyses, for comparison to our published a priori probability models that predict their distributions without need of superfluous information, such as race, autopsy findings, or SUDI risk factors. The total observed male fraction of 0.5639 for all these 477 Indigo cases (269 male) is predicted using a recessive X-linkage model for Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) as 0.5676. The transformed age distribution of all 477 Indigo cases of different causes of death is modeled by a single four-parameter lognormal distribution, y = Log [(d + 9.44)/(1254 – d)] = μ + σ z, where d is Indigo age in calendar days of life (d = DOD – DOB ≥ 0), median μ = -1.085, slope σ = 0.543, and z is a standard normal deviate.
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Research in Fracture Healing and Its Clinical Applications in the Veterinary Practice

Bone healing is a complex process consisting of multiple sequential phases needing the coordinated interaction of various cells, growth factors, cytokines and mechanical conditions. However, bone healing is one of the rare regenerative processes resulting in complete restoration of form and function. Fracture treatment aims towards a swift return to functional use of the injured limb. Therefore stabilization is a key requisite. In the veterinary clinic difficult fracture cases often require a unique stabilization by custom made external fixation. While this fixation technique harbors risk factors it offers a high flexibility essentially needed to successfully treat small animal fracture patients. Here we draw the connection between the up-to-date knowledge in bone healing and case reports of external fixation techniques from the small animal practice with respect to benefits and risk factors.
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Perceived Barriers to Maintaining Healthy Body Weight among Saudi Women of Reproductive Age in Jeddah City

Maintaining a healthy body weight is important for overall health and can help prevent and control many chronic conditions. However, the information surrounding the barriers to healthy eating (HE) and physical activity (PA) for weight maintenance among Saudi women of reproductive age is insufficient to design and develop intervention programs. To explore personal, social, and physical environmental factors that act as barriers to maintaining a healthy weight and how these barriers vary by socio-demographic and weight status. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 2014 using a stratified two-stage cluster sampling design comprising 408 Saudi women attending 12 Jeddah Primary Health Centers (JPHCCs). Data was collected using a structured questionnaire consisting of socio-demographic factors, eating habits (EHs), PA, and perceived barriers to a maintenance of healthy weight maintenance. Body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) data also were obtained.
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Macrocystis of the Lung in a Preterm Neonate: Case Report

Thoracic ultrasonography has been used to evaluate pulmonary parenchyma and the macrocystis of the lung in a preterm with congenital cystic adenomatoid malformation type I. The images gained have been important for diagnosis and therapeutic strategies in our case. An infant was prematurely born with congenital cystic adenomatoid malformation type I. The chest X-ray and computerized tomography showed a great opaque area in the entire right lung, we considered performing a pneumonectomy. This opaque area hampered the expansion of left lung. After draining the macrocystis by ultrasonography-guided puncture, it was possible considering and performing the lobectomy due to the reduction of the volume of macrocystis. During follow up at 4 months, the infant did not show complications and the chest X-ray revealed the reduction of volume of the dense area in parenchyma of right lung.
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Compliance in the Duration of Administration of Anticancer Chemotherapy: Comparative Study of Two Different Administration Modalities (PVC versus IVAD)

Objective: To evaluate the compliance of chemotherapy administration duration by comparing the peripheral venous catheter (PVC) route with the implantable venous access device (IVAD).Keywords: Chemotherapy; Gravity perfusion; Peripheral venous; Implantable venous access deviceIntroduction Methods: This was a retrospective study that analyzed 566 cycles of chemotherapy administered by PVC at the Cancer Unit of Yalgado Ouédraogo University Hospital and 258 cycles administered by IVAD at the Oncology Department of Treichville University Hospital in Abidjan. We compared the differences between the programmed duration of chemotherapy and the actual duration of administration according to the two routes of administration.
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The Role of Nanotechnology in Semiconductor Industry: Review Article

Nanotechnology is now the key area of technology to create and manipulate materials at the nanometre (nm or 10-9 m) scale either by bottom up from single groups of atoms to bulk matter or by top down which is reducing bulk materials to a group of atom. Now a days it is being used or considered for use for fabricating and constructing many efficient electronic devices which have extremely large surface area to volume ratio, this makes a large number of surface or interfacial atoms, resulting in more surface dependent material properties specially this technology is used in semiconductor industry or solar cell industry.
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Obesity and its Correlates among Junior High School Children in the Accra Metropolis

The prevalence of obesity is on the increase worldwide due to changes in diet and physical activity patterns. Childhood obesity is now a major public health challenge in advanced economies. Obesity in childhood tends to persist into adulthood and to predispose to non-communicable diseases. There is little data on childhood obesity and its correlates and determinants in sub-Saharan Africa. A cross-sectional study was carried out using simple random sampling technique to select 260 junior high school children aged 11-15 years from six basic schools (n=768) from three different socioeconomic (low, middle, high) areas of Accra, the capital city of Ghana.
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Effects of Mutual Interaction between Constituent Elements on Phase Formation of High Entropy Alloys

High entropy alloys (HEAs) are alloys that contains multiple elements, often five or more principal elements in equiatomic or near equiatomic ratio with or without minor elements. As felt from the name, high mixing entropy is the sole parameter to decide the solid solution alloy formation in HEAs but, the mutual interaction between elements are key parameters to predict the phase formation in HEAs as proposed by some researchers. In this review the guideline for alloy design in HEAs for the formation of solid solution phases are proposed on basis of atomic size difference (δ), mixing entropy (ΔSmix), mixing enthalpy (ΔHmix), valence electron concentration (VEC) and electronegativity difference (Δχ).
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Effect of Chlorhexidine Application on Dentin Bond Strength Durability of Two Etch-and-Rinse Adhesive versus a Universal Bond System

Application of matrix-metalloproteinases (MMP) inhibitors such as chlorhexidine (CHX) is capable of reducing bond strength loss over time by preventing collagen fibrils degradation.
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DNA Polymerase as Therapeutic Intervention for Treating Patients with Multiple Sclerosis

In recent years, increasing evidence has pointed to the potential role of fibrinolysis in the pathogenesis of MS. Based on hypotheses describing the aggressive autoimmune responses observed in MS patients, a result of impaired between (t-PA and PA1-1) which are a key molecules in both fibrinolysis and extracellular proteolysis. The present study was done to investigate the therapeutic potential of polymerase enzyme in modulating the changes occurred between levels of Tissue- type plasminogen activator (t-PA) and its inhibitor (PAI-1) in patients with multiple sclerosis. A pilot study was carried out on a total of twenty-one patients (17 females, 4 males; aged 22-46 years) with demyelination suggestive of MS and clinically silent T2 brain lesions on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).
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Production and Quality Evaluation of Instant Sorrel (Zobo) Drink Produced by Infusion, Dehydration and Size Reduction Methods

Instant sorrel drink (IZD) was developed by processing purple sorrel calyx into powdery form by the method of infusion, and dehydration and size reduction. Another purple sorrel calyx was processed into liquid zobo drink (LZD); and both the IZD and LZD were subjected to sensory evaluation using the total number of thirty five (35) panels of judges and data was subjected to t-test and preference test analytical tools; and found that IZD was also acceptable by the sensory panelists because the T-tabulated is 2.064, while T-calculated is -14.37 with standard deviations of 0.32 (P≥0.05) between the means; hence, there was no significance difference between the reconstituted IZD and the LZD, because T-calculated is not greater than the T-tabulated.
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Introduction to the special issue on ‘Nanostructures by Valve Metal Anodization’

With this special issue of JMSN we are pleased to present significant contributions to a fascinating topic in the field of materials nanostructing, which is the anodization of valve metals. By this treatment porous oxides of controlled geometry can be grown on the respective metal surfaces. To date, aluminum (Al) has been used most often, as confirmed in this special issue where nine out of ten contributions deals with its anodization.
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Ordered Growth of Anodic Aluminum Oxide in Galvanostatic and Galvanostatic-Potentiostatic Modes

The results are presented of obtaining anodic aluminum oxide with an ordered pore arrangement by employing two anodizing modes - galvanostatic mode and combined (galvanostatic + potentiostatic) mode, at high values of the current density and voltage. Use has been made of an oxalate electrolyte and a complex electrolyte comprising oxalic acid and phosphoric acid. Scanning electron microscopy has been used to investigate the surface morphology of the barrier and porous layers and to determine pore sizes and inter-pore distance.
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Anodizing for Design and Function

Two basic reactions occur during the anodizing of aluminum: 1) the aluminum is consumed and 2) an oxide grows. By accepting this statement as true, the anodizing process can be viewed as a corrosion process, and anodizing can be modeled using the Tafel Equation. Anodizing process parameters of electrolyte chemistry and concentration, temperature, aluminum substrate resistance and current density are presented as they relate to the Tafel Equation and how they impact the anodic aluminum oxide structure and properties. Understanding this relationship is consequent in making anodizing an engineering process, one that enables tuning the structure such that it yields distinct characteristics to fulfill design and application requirements.
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Recent Developments in Human Odor Detection Technologies

Human odor detection technologies have drawn attention due to the wide possibility of potential applications they open up in areas such as biometrics, criminal investigation and forensics, search for survivors under rubble, and security checkpoint screening. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) has been the most successful and powerful analytical approach developed to date for human odor analysis, and hundreds of human odorants have been identified using this tool.
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Electronic-nose Applications in Forensic Science and for Analysis of Volatile Biomarkers in the Human Breath

The application of electronic-nose (E-nose) technologies in forensic science is a recent new development following a long history of progress in the development of diverse applications in the related biomedical and pharmaceutical fields. Data from forensic analyses must satisfy the needs and requirements of both the scientific and legal communities. The type of data collected from electronic-nose devices provides a means of identifying specific types of information about the chemical nature of evidentiary objects and samples under investigation using aroma signature profiles of complex gaseous mixtures containing volatile organic compounds (VOCs) released from manufactured products and parts of the human body. E-nose analyses also provide useful qualitative information about the physicochemical characteristics and metabolic conditions of human subjects without the need for time-consuming analyses to identify all chemical components in human-derived volatile mixtures.
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Analysis of Sweat Simulant Mixtures using Multiplexed Arrays of DNA-Carbon Nanotube Vapor Sensors

Carbon nanotube (NT) based electronic vapor sensors were tested against synthetic sweat solutions, consisting of 13 volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in saline, in order to probe the device ability to analyze and differentiate vapors derived from complex biological samples.
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Characteristic Human Scent Compounds Trapped on Natural and Synthetic Fabrics as analyzed by SPME-GC/MS

The collection of human odor volatiles is of interest to forensic applications as a path to investigate canine scent discriminations in legal investigations. A study using a selected array of previously identified human odor compounds has been conducted to determine the retention and release capabilities of five (5) natural and synthetic fabric types, cotton (mercerized fabric and gauze matrix), polyester, rayon and wool.
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The Effects of the Film Thickness and Roughness in the Anodization Process of Very Thin Aluminum Films

The anodization of aluminum foils having micrometer thickness is a common process and results in hexagonally self-ordered alumina membranes. However, anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) membranes fabricated from nanometer-thin films present new challenges to the anodization process, since aluminum films adheres poorly on supporting substrates and the smoothness of the film is highly related to the kind of substrate.
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Anodic Oxidation of Titanium in Sulphuric Acid and Phosphoric Acid Electrolytes

Anodisation of pure titanium has been carried out in sulphuric and in phosphoric acid solutions at potentials ranging from 50 to 150V. The SEM and AFM morphological analysis indicates that, within this potential range, oxidation in sulphuric acid solution produces better developed mesoporous oxide layers.
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Fabrication of Ordered Arrays of Anodic Aluminum Oxide Pores with Interpore Distance Smaller than the Pitch of Nano-pits formed by Ion Beam Etching

We investigated a method for preparation of ordered nanopore arrays with the interpore distance of 60 nm by guided self-organization of anodic aluminum oxide with a prepatterned array of pits in the starting Al film.
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Preparation of Large Area Anodic Alumina Membranes and their Application to Thin Film Fuel Cell

The design of an electrochemical reactor for the preparation of self-supported comparatively thin (up to 10 μm) and large area (up to 50 cm2) anodic alumina membranes is described allowing growth of porous alumina at high applied potential (up to 150 V) without burning.
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Fabrication of Vertical Cu2ZnSnS4 Nanowire Arrays by Two-Step Electroplating Method into Anodic Aluminum Oxide Template

Vertical Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) nanowire arrays have been synthesized via two-step electroplating method into anodized aluminum oxide template. For deposition of CZTS nanowires, anodized aluminum oxide (AAO) was used as the growth mask for the growth of the nanowires. AAO templates with hole sizes of 70 nm in diameter were used in the experiments.
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Synthesis of BaTiO3 Nanowires via Anodic Aluminum Oxide Template Method Assisted by Vacuum-and-Drop Loading

In this paper, we report on the synthesis of BaTiO3 nanowires via the anodic aluminum oxide template method. To fill in the precursors of BaTiO3 into anodic aluminum oxide templates, the vacuum and drop loading method developed in our previous study was used. Ba(CH3COO)2 (barium acetate) and C12H28O4Ti (tetraisopropyl orthotitanate) were used as Ba and Ti sources, respectively. Anodic aluminum oxide membranes with the through-hole diameter of ~200 nm were used as the template for BaTiO3 nanowires.
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Editorial Board Members Related to CT

Hong-Wen Deng

Professor
Department of Biostatistics and Bioinformatics
Tulane University
United States

Yan Guo

Assistant Professor
Center for Quantitative Sciences
Vanderbilt University
United States

Ahmed Abdellatif

Assistant Professor
Department of Biology
American University in Cairo
Egypt

Salerno Marco

Department of Nanophysics
Italian Institute of Technology
Italy

Dan Douer

Leukemia Service
Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center
New York
United States

Suresh G. Joshi

Associate Professor
Department of Microbiology and Immunology
Drexel University
United States

Martin Kroger

Professor
Department of Materials
ETH Zurich
Switzerland

Jeffrey E. Lee

Assistant Professor
Laboratory Medicine & Pathobiology
University of Toronto
Canada

MING-JEN CHEN

Assistant Professor
Division of Gastroenterology
Department of Internal Medicine
Mackay Medical College
Taiwan

ALBA A. TRESPALACIOS

Professor
Department of Microbiology
Pontificia Universidad Javeriana
Colombia
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