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Investigation on Silver Ion Release from Wound Dressings In Vitro and In Vivo

Introduction: In recent years, silver ion based dressings have been widely developed and approved in the market. Meanwhile, methods for selecting appropriate standard models to investigate the silver ion release in vitro and in vivo remains unknown with regard to the safety assessment.Methods and Results: In this study, we have identified that silver ion release in eagle minimum essential mediums(MEM) with 10% fetal calf serum had shown better release kinetics in comparison to other vehicles including simulated body fluid (SBF), 0.9% physiological saline, and 5% glucose.
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Mitochondrial Production of Perhydroxyl Radical (HO2 • ) as Inducer of Aging and Age-Related Pathologies

All organisms age, in the search of the universal mechanisms of aging Barja analyzed results obtained with various species of mammals and birds and concluded that only two known factors correlate in the right sense (inversely) with animal longevity in vertebrates: the long life span is associated with (a) low rates of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species production, and (b) low degree of fatty acid polyunsaturation of cellular membranes including the mitochondrial ones [Barja (2014) Prog Mol Biol Transl Sci. 127:1-27].
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Role of Vaginal Washing in Semen Detection and D.N.A. Profiling in Delayed Medical Examination of Sexual Assault Cases: A Case Study

Sexual assault is a social problem faced by every society irrespective of caste, creed or culture. In cases of sexual assault, as soon as the victim files the First Information Report (F.I.R.) she gets the medical examination at nearby government hospital by a gynecologist. But it is seen that due to hesitation, social problems or any kind of relation between the victim and the accused matter is not reported immediately to the police. This hesitation results in the delay of the medical examination and collection of samples like vaginal swabs, breast swabs, nails swab, and other bodily swabs. In such cases, it is noted that the detection of semen and profiling of DNA fails due to daily hygienic chores. In this delayed medical examination case, semen detection and D.N.A.
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Effect of the Tellington Ttouch® Method on Horse Behaviour in Daily Practices

During daily work practices handlers are most frequently injured by horse kicks, induced by their fear. That is why the establishment of safe working circumstances is of high importance. The main objective of the study was to examine the effect of the Tellington Ttouch® method (TT) on the horse behaviour during hoof care. The TT is a complex of circular hand movements made over various parts of horse’s body to enhance trust, and improve health and performance. Within the experiment a group trial and a case study were carried out. Six Lipizzan horses were included in the group trial, which lasted for 2 weeks. In the 1st week, customary method was used and in the 2nd week the TT was applied. Each time horse’s legs were lifted, the hooves were cleaned, and horse shoeing was simulated. During the hoof care horse’s behaviour was observed and following parameters were measured: time needed for hoof care, number of attempts to withdraw each leg, number of actual leg withdrawals, and heart rate. Horse’s cooperation was assessed by signs expressing aggressive behaviour - optical communication, on a scale of 1 – 5 points. Data were analysed using statistical programme SAS/STAT. Statistically significant differences between methods were estimated for leg withdrawal attempts and optical communication. The case study which lasted for 8 weeks included young problematic horse. The horse was kicking and showing threats toward its new owner when attempt to approach and touch its legs was made. After the first 4 week application of the TT, the horse became relaxed. In the following 4 weeks of continued application of the TT, statistically significant decrease of heart rate and an increase of optical communication assessment were observed. The two-month application of the TT resulted in an improved welfare and increased safety of work conditions.
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Immunohistochemical Localization of Ghrelin and IGF-I (Insulin-Like Growth Factor-I) in the Liver and Kidney Tissues of Melatonin-Treated Rats

This study was conducted to investigate the immunohistochemical localization of ghrelin and IGF-I in the liver and kidney tissues in melatonin-treated rats. Rats were divided into three groups as a control, a sham and a treatment groups. While the treatment group received melatonin (10 mg/kg i.p.) for 3 weeks, only ethanol and saline solution were administered to the sham group. The control group received nothing.
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Comparative Enzyme Activity of Vespa Orientalis Venom and its Photooxidized Venom Products

The Vespa orientalis venom, a secretary substance from arthropod wasps has attracted considerable interest as a potential source of pharmacological substances. Photo detoxified snake venom has been used for dementia, dengue fever, atherosclerosis, cancer, and diabetes. There was no scientific evidence on the photooxidized Vespa orientalis venom of Indian origin as well as its protein characteristic.
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Biological Effect Tetra-Branched Anti-TNF-Peptide and Coating Ratio-Dependent Penetration of the Peptide-Conjugated Cerium3/4+ Cation-Stabilized Gamma-Maghemite Nanoparticles into Rat Inner Ear after Transtympanic Injection Visualized By MRI

Jing.Zou@staff.uta.fi
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On Physical Nature of the Long-Range Effect during the Crystal Growth through Boundary Layers

A mechanism of the long-range effect in the processes of crystal growth through boundary layers based on the study of the nature of the chemical bond between the deposited and surface atoms is proposed. It is shown that the spatial distribution of the probability of finding a negative binding charge (i.e. its density) cannot be considered strictly fixed between the nearest neighboring ion cores.
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Electrocardiographic Abnormalities in the Elderly: A Study in a Large Database of Primary Care Patients

Ageing is associated with increasing prevalence of chronic and degenerative disease and changes in cardiovascular structure, which may be associated with electrocardiographic abnormalities. Our aim is to assess the prevalence of electrocardiographic abnormalities in elderly primary care patients.
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Physician and Patient Perspective to Weight Gain in Pregnancy

Gaining weight outside of the Institute of Medicine guidelines puts a woman and her foetus at an increased risk. Limited or incorrect information is being provided to women during antenatal care. Research shows that physicians do not perceive this as an important issue. We aimed to assess both physician and patient perspective to weight gain in pregnancy as well as assessing physicians current practice to weight management. 71% of women want to be given a target weight to gain during pregnancy; 87% want to be told if they are gaining an inappropriate amount of weight. 87.5% of physicians believe that weight management is important; 31.2% advise patients about weight gain.
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Effect of Levonorgestrel-Releasing Intrauterine System on Sexual and Urinary Functions

The effects of the levonorgestrel-intrauterine system (LNG-IUS) on urinary and sexual functions of women with idiopathic menorrhagia were evaluated using two internationally validated questionnaire forms. This prospective study included (30-49) year-old women with idiopathic menorrhagia (n=91), who visited the Gynecology and Obstetrics Clinic of the hospital. The index of female sexual function (IFSF) questionnaire and the international consultation on incontinence modular questionnaire short form (ICIQ-UI) were used to evaluate sexual and urinary system functions, respectively, pre-, and 6 and 12 months post-LNG-IUS insertion. The IFSF scores were (mean ± SD) 27.1 ± 6.9, 30.0 ± 7.2, and 32.7 ± 7.5 at pre-, and 6 and 12 months post-LNG-IUS insertion, respectively (p<0.001). Compared with pre-LNG-IUS use among 91 patients, the IFSF score (symptoms improved) was increased in 47 and 60 patients and decreased (worsening symptoms) in 10 and 8 patients at 6 and 12 months post-LNG-IUS use, respectively. The ICIQ-UI scores were 4.9 ± 4.4, 3.7 ± 4.0, 2.8 ± 3.0 in pre-, 6, and 12 months post-LNG-IUS insertion, respectively (p<0.001). Compared with pre-LNG-IUS use, the ICIQ-UI score decreased (symptoms improved) in 33 women either in 6 or 12 months post-LNG-IUS use and increased (symptoms worsened) in 11 and 4 patients at 6 and 12 months post-LNG-IUS insertion, respectively.
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Treatment of Cerebral Mucormycosis with Prolonged Liposomal Amphotericin B (>1000 days)

Mucormycosis is a rare but invasive and potentially lethal infection caused by ubiquitous fungi of the order Mucorales. The primary mode of infection is inhalation of fungal spores. Rhinocerebral and pulmonary infections are most common, however, other organ systems including the central nervous system can be affected, presumably by occult fungemia. We describe the prolonged treatment course (>1000 days) of a patient with cerebral mucormycosis using liposomal amphotericin B (LAMB). Two different attempts were made to replace LAMB with posaconazole, but each occasion resulted in therapeutic failure. This case represents the longest course of LAMB reported in the literature.
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Is an IOC Still Necessary during Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy?

Routine intraoperative cholangiogram (IOC) during laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) helps to confirm biliary anatomy and reduce bile leaks. It also allows identification of common bile duct stones intraoperatively which in selected patients can be cleared transcystically in the same procedure which is much less morbid than through post-operative endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP). Despite this, some surgeons only selectively perform IOC or forgot it all together.
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Anti-Diabetic Activity of Lycopene Niosomes: Experimental Observation

The lycopene is a known bioactive constituent of Lycopersicum esculentum and its application in diabetes is an active area of research. The lycopene has disadvantages such as susceptible to light, heat, and oxidants, which limit its therapeutic applications. In the present investigation, we reported lycopene niosomes formulation which can enhance its anti-diabetic application. The niosome formulation was prepared to preserve lycopene activity.
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A Study on Perceived Stress among Undergraduate Medical Students of Bahir Dar University, Bahir Bar, North West Ethiopia, 2016: Institutional Based Cross Sectional Study

Tertiary education has always been regarded as highly stressful environment to students. Medical and health science training further add to the already stressful environment. Awareness of the existence of stress in medical students by physicians will help in diminishing student’s experience of stress. Therefore, identifying additional stressors in the clinical context is very crucial for providing measures to minimize students’ stress to a tolerable level and helping them to cope better. And the aim of this study is to assess perceived stress and factors associated with it among Bahir Dar University medical students, North West Ethiopia, 2016.
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Introduction to the special issue on ‘Nanostructures by Valve Metal Anodization’

With this special issue of JMSN we are pleased to present significant contributions to a fascinating topic in the field of materials nanostructing, which is the anodization of valve metals. By this treatment porous oxides of controlled geometry can be grown on the respective metal surfaces. To date, aluminum (Al) has been used most often, as confirmed in this special issue where nine out of ten contributions deals with its anodization.
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Ordered Growth of Anodic Aluminum Oxide in Galvanostatic and Galvanostatic-Potentiostatic Modes

The results are presented of obtaining anodic aluminum oxide with an ordered pore arrangement by employing two anodizing modes - galvanostatic mode and combined (galvanostatic + potentiostatic) mode, at high values of the current density and voltage. Use has been made of an oxalate electrolyte and a complex electrolyte comprising oxalic acid and phosphoric acid. Scanning electron microscopy has been used to investigate the surface morphology of the barrier and porous layers and to determine pore sizes and inter-pore distance.
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Anodizing for Design and Function

Two basic reactions occur during the anodizing of aluminum: 1) the aluminum is consumed and 2) an oxide grows. By accepting this statement as true, the anodizing process can be viewed as a corrosion process, and anodizing can be modeled using the Tafel Equation. Anodizing process parameters of electrolyte chemistry and concentration, temperature, aluminum substrate resistance and current density are presented as they relate to the Tafel Equation and how they impact the anodic aluminum oxide structure and properties. Understanding this relationship is consequent in making anodizing an engineering process, one that enables tuning the structure such that it yields distinct characteristics to fulfill design and application requirements.
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Recent Developments in Human Odor Detection Technologies

Human odor detection technologies have drawn attention due to the wide possibility of potential applications they open up in areas such as biometrics, criminal investigation and forensics, search for survivors under rubble, and security checkpoint screening. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) has been the most successful and powerful analytical approach developed to date for human odor analysis, and hundreds of human odorants have been identified using this tool.
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Electronic-nose Applications in Forensic Science and for Analysis of Volatile Biomarkers in the Human Breath

The application of electronic-nose (E-nose) technologies in forensic science is a recent new development following a long history of progress in the development of diverse applications in the related biomedical and pharmaceutical fields. Data from forensic analyses must satisfy the needs and requirements of both the scientific and legal communities. The type of data collected from electronic-nose devices provides a means of identifying specific types of information about the chemical nature of evidentiary objects and samples under investigation using aroma signature profiles of complex gaseous mixtures containing volatile organic compounds (VOCs) released from manufactured products and parts of the human body. E-nose analyses also provide useful qualitative information about the physicochemical characteristics and metabolic conditions of human subjects without the need for time-consuming analyses to identify all chemical components in human-derived volatile mixtures.
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Analysis of Sweat Simulant Mixtures using Multiplexed Arrays of DNA-Carbon Nanotube Vapor Sensors

Carbon nanotube (NT) based electronic vapor sensors were tested against synthetic sweat solutions, consisting of 13 volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in saline, in order to probe the device ability to analyze and differentiate vapors derived from complex biological samples.
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Characteristic Human Scent Compounds Trapped on Natural and Synthetic Fabrics as analyzed by SPME-GC/MS

The collection of human odor volatiles is of interest to forensic applications as a path to investigate canine scent discriminations in legal investigations. A study using a selected array of previously identified human odor compounds has been conducted to determine the retention and release capabilities of five (5) natural and synthetic fabric types, cotton (mercerized fabric and gauze matrix), polyester, rayon and wool.
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The Effects of the Film Thickness and Roughness in the Anodization Process of Very Thin Aluminum Films

The anodization of aluminum foils having micrometer thickness is a common process and results in hexagonally self-ordered alumina membranes. However, anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) membranes fabricated from nanometer-thin films present new challenges to the anodization process, since aluminum films adheres poorly on supporting substrates and the smoothness of the film is highly related to the kind of substrate.
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Anodic Oxidation of Titanium in Sulphuric Acid and Phosphoric Acid Electrolytes

Anodisation of pure titanium has been carried out in sulphuric and in phosphoric acid solutions at potentials ranging from 50 to 150V. The SEM and AFM morphological analysis indicates that, within this potential range, oxidation in sulphuric acid solution produces better developed mesoporous oxide layers.
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Fabrication of Ordered Arrays of Anodic Aluminum Oxide Pores with Interpore Distance Smaller than the Pitch of Nano-pits formed by Ion Beam Etching

We investigated a method for preparation of ordered nanopore arrays with the interpore distance of 60 nm by guided self-organization of anodic aluminum oxide with a prepatterned array of pits in the starting Al film.
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Preparation of Large Area Anodic Alumina Membranes and their Application to Thin Film Fuel Cell

The design of an electrochemical reactor for the preparation of self-supported comparatively thin (up to 10 μm) and large area (up to 50 cm2) anodic alumina membranes is described allowing growth of porous alumina at high applied potential (up to 150 V) without burning.
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Fabrication of Vertical Cu2ZnSnS4 Nanowire Arrays by Two-Step Electroplating Method into Anodic Aluminum Oxide Template

Vertical Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) nanowire arrays have been synthesized via two-step electroplating method into anodized aluminum oxide template. For deposition of CZTS nanowires, anodized aluminum oxide (AAO) was used as the growth mask for the growth of the nanowires. AAO templates with hole sizes of 70 nm in diameter were used in the experiments.
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Synthesis of BaTiO3 Nanowires via Anodic Aluminum Oxide Template Method Assisted by Vacuum-and-Drop Loading

In this paper, we report on the synthesis of BaTiO3 nanowires via the anodic aluminum oxide template method. To fill in the precursors of BaTiO3 into anodic aluminum oxide templates, the vacuum and drop loading method developed in our previous study was used. Ba(CH3COO)2 (barium acetate) and C12H28O4Ti (tetraisopropyl orthotitanate) were used as Ba and Ti sources, respectively. Anodic aluminum oxide membranes with the through-hole diameter of ~200 nm were used as the template for BaTiO3 nanowires.
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Editorial Board Members Related to CT

Jian Yang

Associate Professor
Department of Bioengineering
Pennsylvania State University
United States

Carol A. DeNysschen

Associate Professor
Department of Nutrition & Dietetics
Buffalo State College, SUNY
United States

Vincenzo Cuomo

Professor
Department of Pharmacology
University of Rome
Italy

Charles Wang

Professor
Director Center for Genomics
School of Medicine
Loma Linda University
United States

HELENA MALTEZOU

Paediatrician
Hellenic Centre for Disease Control and Prevention
Athens
Greece

AYMAN ELTAIRY MAHMOUD MAHDY

Associate Professor
Division of Urology
University of Cincinnati
United States

Marc G. Sturgill

Associate Professor and Chair
Department of Pharmacy Practice & Administration
Ernest Mario School of Pharmacy
Rutgers University
United States

David Ilki Min

Professor
Pharmacy Practice and Administration
Western University of Health Sciences
United States

Annapaola Zito

Professor
Cardiovascular Diseases Section
University of Bari
Italy

Jodi L. Tinkel

Asssistant Professor
Cardiovascular Medicine
University of Toledo
United States
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