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Global Analysis of an Epidemic Mathematical Model in A Chemostat

In this paper, a mathematical five-dimensional dynamical system involving an SVEIR model of infectious disease transmission in a chemostat is proposed. A profound qualitative analysis is given. The analysis of the local and global stability of equilibrium points is carried out. It is proved that if R>1, then the disease-persistence (endemic) equilibrium is globally asymptotically stable. However, if 1≤R, then the disease-free equilibrium is globally asymptotically stable in R5.
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Hemophagocytic Lymphohistiocytosis Secondary to Dermatopathic Lymphadenitis

Dermatopathic lymphadenitis (DL) is considered a benign disease, the symptoms of which can be relieved with only anti–histamine. It can be confused with lymphoma. Here, we report a case of DL, which resulted in hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH). After adequate treatment, remission was obtained at first; however, recurrence with liver failure occurred six months later, which quickly resulted in death. This particular case has not been reported elsewhere. It reminds us that even benign dermatological problems can cause life–threatening syndromes, such as, in this case, HLH. The risk needs to be taken seriously in patients presenting with fever, skin problems, and lymphadenopathy.
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Effect of Methanolic Leaf Extract of Lannea Schimperi on Some Organs Histopathology in Experimentally Induced Coccidiosis in Broiler Chickens

The most pathogenic species of Eimeria that infect chickens is Eimeria tenella. It is a major cause of coccidiosis, a self-limiting infectious disease of the digestive tract of chickens. In view of the resistance to the conventional anticoccidial drugs used in poultry, herbal extracts are often considered as safe alternatives. The present study was aimed at investigating the effects of methanolic leaf extract of Lannea schimperi on histopathological changes in the intestines, liver and kidneys of chicken infected with Eimeria tenella. Seven groups of 4 broilers chickens were used for the experiment.
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Effect of Methanolic Leaf Extract of Lannea Schimperi on Some Organs Histopathology in Experimentally Induced Coccidiosis in Broiler Chickens

The most pathogenic species of Eimeria that infect chickens is Eimeria tenella. It is a major cause of coccidiosis, a self-limiting infectious disease of the digestive tract of chickens. In view of the resistance to the conventional anticoccidial drugs used in poultry, herbal extracts are often considered as safe alternatives. The present study was aimed at investigating the effects of methanolic leaf extract of Lannea schimperi on histopathological changes in the intestines, liver and kidneys of chicken infected with Eimeria tenella. Seven groups of 4 broilers chickens were used for the experiment.
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The Effects of Vitamin D on Obesity, Insulin Resistance and Type 2 Diabetes

Vitamin D is a fat-soluble vitamin. It is also referred to as a steroid hormone with an active form that can bind to receptors. The main way to obtain vitamin D is its synthetization on the skin with the effect of ultraviolet light. It is activated in the body by two hydroxylation reactions in the liver and kidneys. Vitamin D is said to have other effects besides those on the bone metabolism. Vitamin D deficiency is a global social health problem. It is associated with cardiovascular diseases, obesity, metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes, various types of cancer, immune deficiencies and increased mortality. It is frequently observed in obese individuals. A possible molecular mechanism of the relationship between obesity and vitamin D deficiency may be associated with the metabolism in mature adipocytes, oxidative stress, inflammation and the gene expression regulation capacity of vitamin D which is related to the adipogenesis process. Vitamin D may lead to an increase in insulin secretion and a decrease in insulin resistance by regulating the immune system. Inflammatory cytokine production is thought to be one of the mechanisms of action of vitamin D on insulin resistance. Inflammatory cytokines appear to be associated with obesity and insulin resistance. Low levels of vitamin D may cause disruption of insulin secretion. Vitamin D may be involved in β-cell secretion activity and changes in tissue response to insulin. There is a relationship between inadequate 25(OH)D levels and β-cell dysfunction. Vitamin D may have beneficial effects on β-cell function by suppressing the renin-angiotensin system. Based on all this information, it may be concluded that vitamin D is associated with obesity, insulin resistance and diabetes, and vitamin D deficiency may form the basis for these conditions.
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No Evidence for Stress-Induced Sympathetic Activity in Young Women Classified as Restrained Eaters

Obesity has been linked to autonomic dysfunction, which is thought to be one of the main contributors for hypertension, cardiac remodelling and death. The aim of the present study was to investigate stress related changes in autonomous function in subjects at high risk for obesity (Restrained eaters). 33 healthy women aged 18-30 years were recruited through advertisement in local newspapers. Classification in restrained and unrestrained eaters was done according to norm tables from the German version of the Three Factor Eating Questionnaire. Participants were exposed to the Trier Social Stress Test, a standardized laboratory stressor. As an indicator of autonomous function the measurement of heart rate was performed. Restrained eaters did not respond with a significant increase in heart rate after stress. The results are interpreted with respect to consequences for nutritional intake and stress coping.
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Review of the Diagnostic Value of Ultrasound Imaging in Giant Cell Arteritis

Giant cell arteritis (GCA) requires prompt diagnosis as clinical indicators of GCA are non-specific. Temporal artery biopsy (TAB) can be inconclusive and difficult to arrange timely. MR imaging is accurate for showing vessel thickening. However, the availability of MRI remains an issue in many radiology departments.
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Acceptability of Provider-Initiated HIV Testing and Counseling as an Intervention for Prevention of Mother to Child Transmission of HIV and Associated Factors Among Pregnant Women Attending at Public Health Facilities in Harar Town Eastern Ethiopia 2018

Accepting one’s HIV sero-status is a critical first step in preventing mother to child transmission of HIV. HIV counseling and testing provides an entry point to PMTCT services for pregnant women.
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A Preliminary Evaluation Study to Determine the Effectiveness of Infra-Red Photography for the Rapid Visualisation of Gun Shot Residue on Fabric

Infrared (IR) photography has been shown to be a proficient technique for the examination of documents, blood traces and ageing of skin injuries. However, its application in relation to the visualisation of latent Gunshot Residue (GSR) deposits has, until now, been significantly under researched. This paper evaluates the effectiveness of IR photography as a rapid technique for GSR visualisation on different fabric types. The Attestor Forensics Scene View BV800 viewing system was used to visualise GSR deposits, produced by a Glock 17 9x19mm and 9mm Luger ammunition, on four different fabric types and at three firing distances of 50mm, 200mm and 1000mm. The results demonstrate that IR photography can produce comparable results to other GSR visualisation techniques, without the limitations of disturbing the sample’s structure or being obstructed by certain material types.
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Effect of Measurement of Total Organic Carbon Compounds to Improve Water Quality in the Shortest Time

One of the challenges and concerns of water industry experts and practitioners is to ensure that there is no bacterial contamination in water samples, especially drinking water samples. The second is to find out if there is a microbial biofilm layer in water resources such as wells, storage tanks, and even water distribution networks. The presence of biofilms in water resources and reservoirs reduces the quality of water.
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Occurrences of Dairy Calf Mortality and Morbidity and the Associated Risk Factors in Sululta and its Environs, Central Ethiopia

Calf morbidity and mortality are important causes of economic losses on dairy farms worldwide. A cross-sectional study and clinical observation was conducted from November 2016 to April 2017 with the objective of determining calf morbidity and mortality and to investigate the potential risk factors for mortality and morbidity in Sululta and its environs. A total of 312 respondents engaged in market oriented small holder dairying were interviewed using a structured questionnaire survey about their farm and calf management practices and major calf health problems encountered and diseases that causes mortality. The overall magnitude of morbidity and mortality of calves were 31.0% and 58.37%, respectively. The major calf diseases found were diarrhea (69.34%), pneumonia (16.54%), liver fluke (2.4%), bloat (2.0%), joint ill (2.4%) and other cases (8.04%). Risk factors such as weaning age, breed and awareness of colostrums, feeding of calf and overall farm management were included. In this study 80.3% of calf mortality occurs under age 3 month and 19.42% is above 3 month. Based on laboratory examination, Salmonella and E.coli were detected from diarrheic calves. Salmonella found at rate of 2/29 (3.6%) and E.coli found at only genus level. In conclusion, the magnitude of calf morbidity and mortality found in this study were much higher than economically tolerable level and could greatly affect the productivity of the dairy farms through mainly decreasing the availability of replacement stock and production of milk. It is therefore, suggested that implementation of improved calf and farm management practices and proper environmental protection in the study areas would significantly reduce calf mortality and morbidity.
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Cattle Ticks and Tick Borne Haemoparasite Species Identification and Associated Risk Factors in Two Districts of West Arsi Zone, Ethiopia

Different tick species and tick-borne diseases of cattle are present in Ethiopia and they induce huge production loss in livestock industry by creating serious animal health problems. The present study was conducted from November 2017 to April 2018 in Arsi Negele and Asasa districts of West Arsi Zone, Oromia National Regional State, Ethiopia. A cross sectional study design and purposive sampling technique were employed to select 384 study animals so as to identify ticks species and tick-haemoparasite species and also to identify risk factors that affect the prevalence and association of tick born diseases. Tick and haemoparasite identification were carried out by using drect stereomicroscopic and direct thin blood examination. The study identified two tick genera and four tick species. The tick species encountered were Rhipicephalus decoloratus (51.6%) Ambylomma variegatum (46.1%) Ambylomma gemma (20.1%) and Rhipicephalus evertsi evertsi (1.2%). Out of all 384 cattle examined for the presence of tick-born haemoparasites 11.4% (n=44) of them were positive. From this 6.2%, 3.6 %, 1.3% and 0.8% of them were positive for Anaplasma marginale, Babesia bigemina, Babesia bovis and Anaplasma marginale, respectively. Two cattle (0.5%) were found positive for both Anaplasma marginale and Babesia bigemina. The highest prevalence of total tick born haemoparasites (57.1%) was occurred in A. Variegatum, A. gemma and R. decoloratus mixed infestations. In conclusion ticks and tick born haemoparasitic infections were common problems in the study area. Thus, awareness creation for farmers about the impacts of ticks and tick born diseases on livestock production and productivity and also applying appropriate and timely strategic tick control methods by veterinary service providers were advisable.
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Epidemiological Profile of Congenital Cardiopathy Neonatal Revelation in Tehran

Congenital heart disease is the most common congenital disorder in newborns represents a major cause of perinatal death. The prevalence of these malformations is still unrecognized in Tunisia because of the lack of a national register. The aim of this study was describe the epidemiological and clinical aspects of the heart diseases with neonatal diagnosis in Tunisia.
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Ectopic Liver Found on Gall Bladder Wall during Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy

Ectopic liver tissue is an uncommon finding and may be found in multiple abdominal sites, most commonly on the gall bladder. It is usually asymptomatic and is discovered incidentally during cholecystectomy, but there are potential complications. We present a case of an ectopic liver seen on the gallbladder serosa during laparoscopic cholecystectomy being performed for symptomatic cholelithiasis, and briefly review the literature.
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Nigeria’s E-Waste Management: Extended Producer Responsibility and Informal Sector Inclusion

This paper explores the emerging role of the private sector and public-private partnerships for e-waste management in the developing world. We use a combination of two conceptual frameworks, the triple bottom line approach and the sustainable livelihoods approach, to analyze the case study of the Extended Producer Responsibility (EPR) programme in Nigeria, which was launched in 2016. The sustainable livelihoods approach has been adopted in international development for over two decades, but so far it has not been applied for inclusion of informal sector workers in e-waste. Our findings illustrate how the financial and environmental bottom lines have already received considerable attention during the development of the Nigerian EPR programme, but that the social elements, in particular informal sector inclusion, have received less attention. Consequently, based on proven practices of the sustainable livelihoods approach, this paper identifies opportunities and provides recommendations as to how the international and national private sector players and government agencies involved in Nigeria’s e-waste EPR programme can establish a social engagement model to support inclusion of the informal sector. This model would not only help meet the financial and environmental bottom lines, but also address the social bottom line to improve livelihood outcomes for informal e-waste recyclers.
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Introduction to the special issue on ‘Nanostructures by Valve Metal Anodization’

With this special issue of JMSN we are pleased to present significant contributions to a fascinating topic in the field of materials nanostructing, which is the anodization of valve metals. By this treatment porous oxides of controlled geometry can be grown on the respective metal surfaces. To date, aluminum (Al) has been used most often, as confirmed in this special issue where nine out of ten contributions deals with its anodization.
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Ordered Growth of Anodic Aluminum Oxide in Galvanostatic and Galvanostatic-Potentiostatic Modes

The results are presented of obtaining anodic aluminum oxide with an ordered pore arrangement by employing two anodizing modes - galvanostatic mode and combined (galvanostatic + potentiostatic) mode, at high values of the current density and voltage. Use has been made of an oxalate electrolyte and a complex electrolyte comprising oxalic acid and phosphoric acid. Scanning electron microscopy has been used to investigate the surface morphology of the barrier and porous layers and to determine pore sizes and inter-pore distance.
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Anodizing for Design and Function

Two basic reactions occur during the anodizing of aluminum: 1) the aluminum is consumed and 2) an oxide grows. By accepting this statement as true, the anodizing process can be viewed as a corrosion process, and anodizing can be modeled using the Tafel Equation. Anodizing process parameters of electrolyte chemistry and concentration, temperature, aluminum substrate resistance and current density are presented as they relate to the Tafel Equation and how they impact the anodic aluminum oxide structure and properties. Understanding this relationship is consequent in making anodizing an engineering process, one that enables tuning the structure such that it yields distinct characteristics to fulfill design and application requirements.
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Recent Developments in Human Odor Detection Technologies

Human odor detection technologies have drawn attention due to the wide possibility of potential applications they open up in areas such as biometrics, criminal investigation and forensics, search for survivors under rubble, and security checkpoint screening. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) has been the most successful and powerful analytical approach developed to date for human odor analysis, and hundreds of human odorants have been identified using this tool.
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Electronic-nose Applications in Forensic Science and for Analysis of Volatile Biomarkers in the Human Breath

The application of electronic-nose (E-nose) technologies in forensic science is a recent new development following a long history of progress in the development of diverse applications in the related biomedical and pharmaceutical fields. Data from forensic analyses must satisfy the needs and requirements of both the scientific and legal communities. The type of data collected from electronic-nose devices provides a means of identifying specific types of information about the chemical nature of evidentiary objects and samples under investigation using aroma signature profiles of complex gaseous mixtures containing volatile organic compounds (VOCs) released from manufactured products and parts of the human body. E-nose analyses also provide useful qualitative information about the physicochemical characteristics and metabolic conditions of human subjects without the need for time-consuming analyses to identify all chemical components in human-derived volatile mixtures.
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Analysis of Sweat Simulant Mixtures using Multiplexed Arrays of DNA-Carbon Nanotube Vapor Sensors

Carbon nanotube (NT) based electronic vapor sensors were tested against synthetic sweat solutions, consisting of 13 volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in saline, in order to probe the device ability to analyze and differentiate vapors derived from complex biological samples.
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Characteristic Human Scent Compounds Trapped on Natural and Synthetic Fabrics as analyzed by SPME-GC/MS

The collection of human odor volatiles is of interest to forensic applications as a path to investigate canine scent discriminations in legal investigations. A study using a selected array of previously identified human odor compounds has been conducted to determine the retention and release capabilities of five (5) natural and synthetic fabric types, cotton (mercerized fabric and gauze matrix), polyester, rayon and wool.
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The Effects of the Film Thickness and Roughness in the Anodization Process of Very Thin Aluminum Films

The anodization of aluminum foils having micrometer thickness is a common process and results in hexagonally self-ordered alumina membranes. However, anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) membranes fabricated from nanometer-thin films present new challenges to the anodization process, since aluminum films adheres poorly on supporting substrates and the smoothness of the film is highly related to the kind of substrate.
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Anodic Oxidation of Titanium in Sulphuric Acid and Phosphoric Acid Electrolytes

Anodisation of pure titanium has been carried out in sulphuric and in phosphoric acid solutions at potentials ranging from 50 to 150V. The SEM and AFM morphological analysis indicates that, within this potential range, oxidation in sulphuric acid solution produces better developed mesoporous oxide layers.
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Fabrication of Ordered Arrays of Anodic Aluminum Oxide Pores with Interpore Distance Smaller than the Pitch of Nano-pits formed by Ion Beam Etching

We investigated a method for preparation of ordered nanopore arrays with the interpore distance of 60 nm by guided self-organization of anodic aluminum oxide with a prepatterned array of pits in the starting Al film.
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Preparation of Large Area Anodic Alumina Membranes and their Application to Thin Film Fuel Cell

The design of an electrochemical reactor for the preparation of self-supported comparatively thin (up to 10 μm) and large area (up to 50 cm2) anodic alumina membranes is described allowing growth of porous alumina at high applied potential (up to 150 V) without burning.
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Fabrication of Vertical Cu2ZnSnS4 Nanowire Arrays by Two-Step Electroplating Method into Anodic Aluminum Oxide Template

Vertical Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) nanowire arrays have been synthesized via two-step electroplating method into anodized aluminum oxide template. For deposition of CZTS nanowires, anodized aluminum oxide (AAO) was used as the growth mask for the growth of the nanowires. AAO templates with hole sizes of 70 nm in diameter were used in the experiments.
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Synthesis of BaTiO3 Nanowires via Anodic Aluminum Oxide Template Method Assisted by Vacuum-and-Drop Loading

In this paper, we report on the synthesis of BaTiO3 nanowires via the anodic aluminum oxide template method. To fill in the precursors of BaTiO3 into anodic aluminum oxide templates, the vacuum and drop loading method developed in our previous study was used. Ba(CH3COO)2 (barium acetate) and C12H28O4Ti (tetraisopropyl orthotitanate) were used as Ba and Ti sources, respectively. Anodic aluminum oxide membranes with the through-hole diameter of ~200 nm were used as the template for BaTiO3 nanowires.
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Editorial Board Members Related to CT

Catherine Ortega

Department of Physical Therapy
University of Texas Health Science Center At San Antonio
USA

Chandra M Valmikinathan

Department of Biomedical Engineering
Georgia Institute of Technology
United States

Sherifa Ahmed Hamed

Professor
Department of Neurology and Psychiatry
University of Assiut
Egypt

Insop Shim

Professor
Department of Medical Science
College of Korean Medicine
Kyung Hee University
South Korea

QINGRONG HUANG

Professor
Department of Food Science
Rutgers University
United States

Sachin S. Saboo

Assistant Professor
Department of Radiology
UT Southwestern Medical Center
United States

Liang Zhong

Assistant Professor
Cardiovascular & Metabolic Disorders Program
National Heart Centre
Singapore

SALEH A. NASER

Professor of Medicine and Graduate Coordinator
Burnett School of Biomedical Sciences
University of Central Florida
United States

Mohamed A Sabry

Associate Professor
Biochemistry Department
Arabian Gulf University
Bahrain

DENISE J ESTAFAN

Associate Professor
College of Dentistry
New York University
United States
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