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Psychosocial Flag Signs in Patients with Compensable Occupational Lumbar Spine Injuries

Purpose: The purposes of this study were to examine the prevalence of psychological flag signs (yellow, black and blue) in workers who had sustained a low back injury and to examine the relationship between the presence and number of these signs and the level of pain, disability, anxiety, depression and ability to work. Methods: This study involved a review of the electronic files of injured workers with an active work-related claim related to the lumbar spine. The information on demographics, presence and number of psychosocial and workplace risk factors, level of disability as measured by the Roland Morris Disability Questionnaire (RMDQ), pain intensity as measured by the numeric pain rating scale (NPRS), and anxiety and depression as measured by the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) was extracted from standardized forms.
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The Development of the Prognostat Tool for Survival Prediction in Palliative Care Patients

Since a common question arises toward the end of life about prognosis and that clinicians vary widely in the accuracy of their survival predictions, it is important that advancements be developed, one of which is to design or improve prognostic tools. To test the reliability of the new Prognostat tool for survival. Prospective multi-site mixed methods study with data collection, survey, and focus groups. prediction in palliative care patients. Prognostat form completed during first assessment by a palliative physician or nurse on admission to a palliative care unit or first ward or home consult.
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Exercise and Eating Habits in Relation to BMI in Female College Students of Almareefa Colleges in Ad Diriyah

The benefits of exercise have been known a long time ago, physical activity is an important factor to reduce the risk of unhealthy weigh. Certain types of foods, eating habits have been linked to weight and BMI. The purpose of the study was to identify the relationship between exercise, eating habits and BMI. This was an observational descriptive cross-sectional university-based study of 100 female medical students of Almaarefa Colleges from level 3 to 8, participants were chosen randomly and questionnaires were distributed among them and anthropometric measurements were taken for BMI calculations. Out of 100 female medical students, 52% were of a normal weight category at level 5-6. Obesity was only seen among level 3-4 (12%).57% of normal weight participants don’t eat very fast. 52% of normal weight participants exercise and 35% of them exercise 3 times or more a week. No obese participants were seen in those who exercise 3 times a week or more. 60% of overweight/obese participants exercise 2 times or less a week. This study revealed a strong association between physical activity and BMI, also fast eating was found to be associated with obesity.
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Malignant Soft Tissue Sarcoma at the Site of Corticosteroid Injection in a Dog

An 11-year-old spayed female dog was presented for a large mass on the left proximal pelvic limb. The mass appeared three months prior to presentation in the location of a previous corticosteroid injection, Kenalog (0.05 mg/kg triamcinolone, CAS# 76-25-5). No vaccinations or injections had been previously given in this area. The mass spanned from the left stifle to the coxofemoral joint and was firm, circular, non-moveable, and diffusely mixed within the musculature of the thigh. A left external complete hemipelvectomy was performed. Histopathology was consistent with a Grade III fibromyxosarcoma. The dog died naturally at home five months after surgery. This is the first account of association of a corticosteroid injection with formation of a fibromyxosarcoma in a dog.
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The Association Between Strength, Balance and Physical Function with the Body Mass Index in Dyslipidemia

The coexistence of chronic diseases has led to greater negativity in patients than the negativity of diseases individually speaking. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of the body mass index on metabolic profile, isometric and isokinetic muscle strength, static and dynamic balance, and anaerobic capacity in dyslipidemia patients, as well as to emphasize what exercises should be recommended for recovering the experienced functional loss of the patients. Forty five patients (26 women, 19 men) between 40 and 75 years of age and who were newly diagnosed as dyslipidemia were enrolled into this study. The patients were divided into two groups according to their body mass indexes (BMI): group 1 (n:18) or those whose BMI was lower than 25 kg/m2, and group 2 (n:27) or those whose BMI was higher than 30 kg/m2. Biochemical blood sampling was done. The Get Up and Go, single leg stance, anaerobic capacity, and isometric as well as isokinetic muscle strength tests were performed in order to evaluate functional capacities. There were no statistically significant differences shown at gender distribution, age, or height (p>0.05) between groups. The weight and BMI’s between the groups were statistically significantly different (p<0.05). The fasting glucose levels and triglyceride levels of group 2 was statistically significantly higher than group 1 (p<0.05), whereas other biochemical parameters showed no differences (p>0.05). The static balance tests results between groups have shown no statistically significant differences (p<0.05); however the dynamic balance test results for group 2 was statistically significantly worse than those of group 1 (p<0.05). The parameters of the results of the anaerobic testing, alongside those of the isometric and isokinetic testing for group 1 patients were statistically significantly higher than those of group 2 (p<0.05). Obesity negatively affects dyslipidemic patients’ metabolic and functional capacities. An exercise program for dyslipidemic patients with a high BMI should include strengthening and balance as well as dynamic balance exercises in order to positively influence both their metabolic profiles and functional status.
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Effect of Cold Wet sheet Pack on Body Temperature among Healthy Individuals - Result of a Single Arm Study

Hydrotherapy, as the name suggests is the most ancient method of treating diseases by using water in its various forms. The use of water for therapy has been around for hundreds of years. The cold wet sheet pack is one of the common hydrotherapy techniques used for reducing body weight. There have been no documented studies conducted to scientifically evaluate this effect. This study is an attempt to examine the effect of cold wet sheet pack on body temperature. Application of cold wet sheet pack for particular duration increases the body temperature by utilization of calories thus may leads to reduction of bodyweight. Thirty healthy volunteers were randomly selected from medical students enrolled in a naturopathic programme. The participants were of both sexes aged between 18 and 25 years under normal Body mass index (18.5-25). A cold (20 oC± 1 oC) wet sheet pack has given to each of the participants for one hour duration. The outcome measures were resting blood pressure, body temperature and pulse rate. 30 Participants were successfully completed the study, all participants have shown a raise in body temperature after intervention which was statistically significant (P=0.003). There is no significant change in blood pressure and pulse rate. Also there was a week positive correlation between body mass index and body temperature. A cold wet sheet pack for one hour has shown a raise in body temperature, which indicate that the cold wet sheet pack have a role in reducing body weight by utilizing the calories. However, these observations are based on a short term single arm pre-post design on healthy students. A cold wet sheet pack has been demonstrated in this study to have a significant effect in increasing body temperature and shows perspiration by utilization of calories. Large scale randomized control trials in obese patients over a longer period are warranted to conform the results which was uncovered in this study.
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An Application: Representations of Some Systems on Non-Deterministic EEG Signals

In this paper, we introduce the notion of a complex interval which is significant for interval-valued data and interval-based signal processing. First, we present the space of complex intervals and investigate the quasilinear structure of the space of complex intervals. We observe that this space is Hilbert quasilinear space with a set-valued inner product.
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Does the Level of Chlamydia Serology Titre Correlate to the Degree of Tubal Disease at Laparoscopy? A Retrospective Controlled Study

In order to detect if there is any correlation between the level of total and specific Chlamydia serology titre and the degree of tubal disease at laparoscopy in sub fertile women and to compare the results with a control group. A retrospective controlled clinical study was conducted in a hospital setting (both inpatient and outpatient clinic). A total of hundred and twenty two sub fertile women who underwent laparoscopy/tubal surgery in the period between January 2011-January 2014 were included. This included 40 women with positive Chlamydia Trachomatis specific titre (group 1), 40 with positive Chlamydia serology total titre only (group 2) and 42 women with negative Chlamydia serology titre (control group). Chlamydia serology titre was measured by ELISA. The differentiated Chlamydia specific titres were measured using Microscopic Immunofluorescence Assay (MIF) to determine the immunity status. The Chlamydia Trachomatis IgG titres were classified for the purpose of the study into normal (<1/16), Mild (1/16), Moderate (1/32), and severe (>=1/64). Laparoscopic grading of tubal disease was performed into grades 1-3 according to the severity of the tubal damage which was compared to the Chlamydia titre. Pearson`s correlation test was used as a descriptive measure.
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Metaphysical Analysis of the Nutritional and Therapeutic Value of Baobab (Adansonia Digitata L.)

Realistic assessment of the yield and nutritional value of baobab as well as the elucidation of its inhibitory action against oxidative stress were the targets of the study. An average baobab tree can yield 80kg fruits, 14kg pulp, 23kg seeds and 130kg leaves per year. Despite considerable variability, the leaves outstrip in mean Ca (1241 mg/100g dry sample), Fe (40mg/100g dry sample) and ß-carotene (135μg/100g dry sample) content.
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B-Lines on Chest Ultrasound Predicts Elevated Left Ventricular Diastolic Pressures

Background: Echocardiography and lung ultrasound are important tests for assessing left the ventricular function in patients presented to the emergency department with acute pulmonary edema. Chest ultrasound is becoming an important tool in diagnosing acute pulmonary edema. Aim: To investigate the relationship between the B profile on ultrasound chest and Spectral tissue Doppler echocardiography (E/e’ratio) in patients presented with the suspicion of acute pulmonary edema. Methods: This paper reports a prospective observational study of 61 consecutive patients, which was presented with symptoms and signs of pulmonary edema and B - profile detected by echocardiography with a 5 MHz curvilinear probe. Critical care physicians trained in ultrasound examination performed echocardiography and chest ultrasounds.
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Magnetic Moment of Zigzag CuO Nanotubes at Different Temperature and Size: Ab-Initio Study

Temperature and size dependence magnetic moment of zigzag (n, 0) (n= 4, 6, 8, 10) copper oxide nanotubes (CuO NTs) have been computed by using a standard density functional theory. The computational work carried out by employing spin polarized generalized gradient approximation with revised Perdew Burke Ernzerhoff type parameterization along ab-initio approach. Bond length, binding energy and total magnetic moment have been analyzed and found that the bond length decreases at first and become saturated with increasing size of the nanotube.
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Two-Dimensional Infrared Correlation Spectroscopy, Linear Two-Dimensional Infrared Spectroscopy and Non-Linear Two-Dimensional Infrared Spectroscopy Comparative Study on Malignant and Benign Human Cancer Cells and Tissues under Synchrotron Radiation with the Passage of Time

In the current study, we have experimentally and comparatively investigated and compared malignant human cancer cells and tissues before and after irradiating of synchrotron radiation using Two-Dimensional Infrared Correlation Spectroscopy, Linear Two-Dimensional Infrared Spectroscopy and Non-Linear Two-Dimensional Infrared Spectroscopy.
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United States Air Force Academy: Identifying Areas at Risk for the Persistence of Plague using the Bioagent Transport and Environmental Modeling System (BioTEMS)

Introduction: Yersinia pestis, the etiologic agent of plague, has caused major pandemics in human history and continues to be both a natural and bioterrorist threat to human populations. Plague exists in nature in either an epidemic or enzootic state. Geographic models of the epidemic state have primarily been developed using flea and reservoir species, however little is known of the enzootic state and potential cryptic reservoir species and few endemic models have been produced.
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Cell Culture, Cytopathic Effect and Immunofluorescence Diagnosis of Viral Infection

Viruses are obligate intracellular parasites that require living cells in order to replicate. Cell culture for propagation and identification of viruses is an important component of the clinical virology laboratory. In general, diagnostic tests can be grouped into three categories: direct detection, virus isolation and serology. Direct examination methods can usually give a result either within the same or the next day. Immunofluorescence is widely used for the rapid diagnosis of virus infections by detection of virus antigen in clinical specimens and detection of virus-specific antibodies.
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Complete Clinical Response after Induction Chemotherapy Followed by Chemoradiotherapy in Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma: Impact on Oncologic Outcomes

Objective: Concomitant chemoradiation (RCT) represents the standard of care for locally-advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC).Nevertheless induction chemotherapy (IC) followed by RCT is currently an attractive approach. Some trials showed a survival benefit of this therapeutic strategy. The aim of this study was to analyze complete clinical response (CCR) after IC and to assess its impact on disease control and survival.
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Introduction to the special issue on ‘Nanostructures by Valve Metal Anodization’

With this special issue of JMSN we are pleased to present significant contributions to a fascinating topic in the field of materials nanostructing, which is the anodization of valve metals. By this treatment porous oxides of controlled geometry can be grown on the respective metal surfaces. To date, aluminum (Al) has been used most often, as confirmed in this special issue where nine out of ten contributions deals with its anodization.
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Ordered Growth of Anodic Aluminum Oxide in Galvanostatic and Galvanostatic-Potentiostatic Modes

The results are presented of obtaining anodic aluminum oxide with an ordered pore arrangement by employing two anodizing modes - galvanostatic mode and combined (galvanostatic + potentiostatic) mode, at high values of the current density and voltage. Use has been made of an oxalate electrolyte and a complex electrolyte comprising oxalic acid and phosphoric acid. Scanning electron microscopy has been used to investigate the surface morphology of the barrier and porous layers and to determine pore sizes and inter-pore distance.
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Anodizing for Design and Function

Two basic reactions occur during the anodizing of aluminum: 1) the aluminum is consumed and 2) an oxide grows. By accepting this statement as true, the anodizing process can be viewed as a corrosion process, and anodizing can be modeled using the Tafel Equation. Anodizing process parameters of electrolyte chemistry and concentration, temperature, aluminum substrate resistance and current density are presented as they relate to the Tafel Equation and how they impact the anodic aluminum oxide structure and properties. Understanding this relationship is consequent in making anodizing an engineering process, one that enables tuning the structure such that it yields distinct characteristics to fulfill design and application requirements.
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Recent Developments in Human Odor Detection Technologies

Human odor detection technologies have drawn attention due to the wide possibility of potential applications they open up in areas such as biometrics, criminal investigation and forensics, search for survivors under rubble, and security checkpoint screening. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) has been the most successful and powerful analytical approach developed to date for human odor analysis, and hundreds of human odorants have been identified using this tool.
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Electronic-nose Applications in Forensic Science and for Analysis of Volatile Biomarkers in the Human Breath

The application of electronic-nose (E-nose) technologies in forensic science is a recent new development following a long history of progress in the development of diverse applications in the related biomedical and pharmaceutical fields. Data from forensic analyses must satisfy the needs and requirements of both the scientific and legal communities. The type of data collected from electronic-nose devices provides a means of identifying specific types of information about the chemical nature of evidentiary objects and samples under investigation using aroma signature profiles of complex gaseous mixtures containing volatile organic compounds (VOCs) released from manufactured products and parts of the human body. E-nose analyses also provide useful qualitative information about the physicochemical characteristics and metabolic conditions of human subjects without the need for time-consuming analyses to identify all chemical components in human-derived volatile mixtures.
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Analysis of Sweat Simulant Mixtures using Multiplexed Arrays of DNA-Carbon Nanotube Vapor Sensors

Carbon nanotube (NT) based electronic vapor sensors were tested against synthetic sweat solutions, consisting of 13 volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in saline, in order to probe the device ability to analyze and differentiate vapors derived from complex biological samples.
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Characteristic Human Scent Compounds Trapped on Natural and Synthetic Fabrics as analyzed by SPME-GC/MS

The collection of human odor volatiles is of interest to forensic applications as a path to investigate canine scent discriminations in legal investigations. A study using a selected array of previously identified human odor compounds has been conducted to determine the retention and release capabilities of five (5) natural and synthetic fabric types, cotton (mercerized fabric and gauze matrix), polyester, rayon and wool.
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The Effects of the Film Thickness and Roughness in the Anodization Process of Very Thin Aluminum Films

The anodization of aluminum foils having micrometer thickness is a common process and results in hexagonally self-ordered alumina membranes. However, anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) membranes fabricated from nanometer-thin films present new challenges to the anodization process, since aluminum films adheres poorly on supporting substrates and the smoothness of the film is highly related to the kind of substrate.
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Anodic Oxidation of Titanium in Sulphuric Acid and Phosphoric Acid Electrolytes

Anodisation of pure titanium has been carried out in sulphuric and in phosphoric acid solutions at potentials ranging from 50 to 150V. The SEM and AFM morphological analysis indicates that, within this potential range, oxidation in sulphuric acid solution produces better developed mesoporous oxide layers.
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Fabrication of Ordered Arrays of Anodic Aluminum Oxide Pores with Interpore Distance Smaller than the Pitch of Nano-pits formed by Ion Beam Etching

We investigated a method for preparation of ordered nanopore arrays with the interpore distance of 60 nm by guided self-organization of anodic aluminum oxide with a prepatterned array of pits in the starting Al film.
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Preparation of Large Area Anodic Alumina Membranes and their Application to Thin Film Fuel Cell

The design of an electrochemical reactor for the preparation of self-supported comparatively thin (up to 10 μm) and large area (up to 50 cm2) anodic alumina membranes is described allowing growth of porous alumina at high applied potential (up to 150 V) without burning.
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Fabrication of Vertical Cu2ZnSnS4 Nanowire Arrays by Two-Step Electroplating Method into Anodic Aluminum Oxide Template

Vertical Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) nanowire arrays have been synthesized via two-step electroplating method into anodized aluminum oxide template. For deposition of CZTS nanowires, anodized aluminum oxide (AAO) was used as the growth mask for the growth of the nanowires. AAO templates with hole sizes of 70 nm in diameter were used in the experiments.
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Synthesis of BaTiO3 Nanowires via Anodic Aluminum Oxide Template Method Assisted by Vacuum-and-Drop Loading

In this paper, we report on the synthesis of BaTiO3 nanowires via the anodic aluminum oxide template method. To fill in the precursors of BaTiO3 into anodic aluminum oxide templates, the vacuum and drop loading method developed in our previous study was used. Ba(CH3COO)2 (barium acetate) and C12H28O4Ti (tetraisopropyl orthotitanate) were used as Ba and Ti sources, respectively. Anodic aluminum oxide membranes with the through-hole diameter of ~200 nm were used as the template for BaTiO3 nanowires.
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Editorial Board Members Related to CT

HALEH SANGI-HAGHPEYKAR

Associate Professor
Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology
Baylor College of Medicine
United States

Andrew Beng Jin Teoh

Associate professor
School of Electrical and Electronics Engineering
Yonsei University
South Korea

Lingjun Zhao

Associate Research Professor
Institute for Molecular Virology
Saint Louis University School of Medicine
United States

Mahesh Goel MS

Associate Professor
Department of Surgical Oncology
Tata Memorial Hospital
India

Angela Myracle

Assistant Professor
School of Food and Agriculture
University of Maine
United States

PUNAM OHRI-VACHASPATI

Associate Professor
School of Nutrition and Health Promotion
Arizona State University
United States

Esam Hosney Ali Ibraheem

Professor
Department of Botany and Microbiology
Assiut University
Egypt

Steve A. Maxwell

Associate Professor
Department of Molecular and Cellular Medicine
Texas A&M Health Science Center
United States

GEORGE DINOS

Associate Professor
Department of Biochemistry
University of Patras
Greece

Radha Nagarajan

Associate Professor
Division of Biomedical Informatics
University of Kentucky
United States
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