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Effects of Long-Acting Injectable Progesterone Given Two Days after Luteolysis on Estrus Suppression in Mares

Administration of exogenous progesterone or progestin can suppress estrous behavior in mares. Compounded long-acting formulations of progesterone are widely available. The objective of this study was to determine if a long-acting injectable progesterone formulation would suppress behavioral estrus in mares. Five mares were monitored daily by rectal palpation and transrectal ultrasonography to insure that all mares were cycling normally. Endogenous progesterone was removed through lysis of the corpus luteum seven days post-ovulation with prostaglandin F2 alpha (PGF2α). Two days following PGF2α administration, mares received 2 g of long-acting progesterone intramuscularly. Estrous behavior was determined daily by individually exposing mares to a stallion beginning two days before injection of long-acting progesterone until ovulation occurred. Serum progesterone concentrations were significantly elevated (>2 ng/mL) for 10 days following treatment with a long-acting injectable progesterone. Behavioral estrus suppression during this period was minimal and not significant. All mares developed local injection site reactions and half the mares developed febrile responses following treatment. In conclusion, the long-acting compounded formulation of progesterone elevates progesterone concentrations for 10 days but does not suppress estrous behavior to a stallion. Due to the side effects associated with this treatment, long-acting formulations of injectable progesterone are not appropriate for use in performance horses.
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Preliminary Investigation of the Interaction of Misoprostol and Phenylbutazone on Bone Response to Injury in Horses

Phenylbutazone (PBZ) is commonly used in equine patients for treatment of orthopedic injuries. Phenylbutazone may adversely affect bone healing because of suppression of prostaglandin production. We hypothesized that administration of the prostaglandin analog misoprostol would enhance bone healing and mitigate the untoward effects of PBZ on bone response to injury in horses. The objectives of this study were to determine whether the administration of misoprostol would enhance bone healing and whether concurrent administration of PBZ and misoprostol would mitigate the untoward effects of phenylbutazone. Twenty horses were randomly assigned to one of four groups (n=5 per group): Group 1 (untreated control), Group 2 (phenylbutazone alone), Group 3 (misoprostol, alone), or Group 4 (concurrent treatment with phenylbutazone and misoprostol). A 4.5-mm diameter uni-cortical bone defect was created in one metacarpal III bone of all horses. Fluorochromic bone labels were administered intravenously on Days 0, 7, and 14. Computed tomographic osteoabsorptiometry and histomorphometric analyses were performed on the harvested metacarpal bones. Phenylbutazone treatment caused a decrease in endosteal new bone formation. Administration of misoprostol appeared to mitigate the magnitude of the PBZ effect on new bone formation (endosteal in-growth, p<0.06). Bone specific alkaline phosphatase serum activity decreased throughout the 14-day period of stall confinement. Mineral apposition rates increased in all groups during the period from 7 to 14 days after bone injury. Further research is needed to determine if this effect is significant. The administration of misoprostol may be beneficial to lessen the undesired impact of phenylbutazone on bone healing in horses.
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Effect of Planting Space on Carotenoid Content and Carotenoid Profile of Two Orange Fleshed Sweet Potato Varieties

In this study, the effect of planting spacing (20, 30 and 40 cm) on the carotenoid contents and carotenoid profile of orange flesh sweet potato (OFSP) was evaluated. The carotenoid profiles of two sweet potato species, planted at different spacing distances were compared. Lutein, zeaxanthin, β-cryptoxanthin, α-carotene, 13-cis-β-carotene, trans-β-carotene, 9-cis-β-carotene and total beta carotene were all determined.
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Surveillance of Phytophthora Spp Disease on Pineapple at Specific District of Ethiopia

One of the tropical fruits with high economic value is pineapple. Smooth cayenne (smooth leaf) and Red Spanish (Rough leaf) are the two cultivars of pineapple grown in the world. They grow in the soil and resemble epiphytes in that their roots are intolerant of poor soil aeration.
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Phytochemical Study on Ticodendron incognitum (Ticodendraceae) and Determination of its Antimalarial Activity in Vitro

Ticodendron incognitum the only species of the Ticodendraceae family was discovered in Costa Rica in 1989 and currently there are no reports on its chemical composition or biological activity.
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The Combined Effect of Organic and Inorganic Fertilizer on Yield and Yield Component of Cabbage (Brassica Oleracea) at Dedebit Central Tigray, Ethiopia

The use of organic fertilizer as an alternative to inorganic fertilizer increased among subsistence farmers in rural areas in meremieti. Despite the fact that, no clear recommendation exist for the application of rate of organic fertilizer on vegetable. Field experiment was conducted to evaluate the different combination of organic and inorganic fertilizer on yield and yield component of cabbage.
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Consumption of Gnetum Africanum and Effects on Dislipidemia in Diabetic Rats

Part of the study was to assess the concentration of secondary metabolic (total: phenolic, flavonoid, and proanthocyanidin, tannin) and the antioxidant activities in methanol (MeOH) and methanol-water (MeOH-H2O) extract of GnA.
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The Efficiency and Specificity of Matrix Gel Method from the Forensic Point of View, in Determination of ABO Blood Grouping and Rhesus Factor

In today’s crime investigation world determination of ABO blood grouping is still a very vital and effective precess in the field of forensic crime scenes. This investigation involves the identification of blood group, on the clothes (Accuse, Victim, injured, Complainer) collected from the scene of crime, and its cross comparision with the blood sample send by medical officer. Hence for this purpose total of 200 cases were included in the study having the samples of blood of accuse, victim, injured, complainer consisting of male and female... The determination of ABO/Rh factor was performed by conventional tube method and matrix gel card. The comparison of both techniques shows a very comparative result. As the red blood cells are sensitized with antibody will get agglutinate in the presence of anti human reagent in the matrix gel card and this will be trapped in the gel column this helps for easy analysis of blood group. However spin tube method is an operator-dependent assay, and is more susceptible to handling errors, the results are not more objective. The matrix gel card method requires Small sample volumes, and gives standardized performance with technical ease, and is with ready automation, and increased biosafety; all these factors have made this technology advantageous. In both techniques the reaction strength for ABO grouping and Rh factor is mainly govern by agglutination reaction intensity between red blood cells and anti-human reagent.
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Commitment to the Quality of Global Life and Emotional Function of Women with Cancer in Chemotherapy

To evaluate the quality of life and the impairment of the emotional function of women with breast cancer under chemotherapeutic treatment, in relation to sociodemographic and clinical characteristics. Observational, longitudinal, and analytical research; conducted between 2013 to 2015 with 67 women in three stages of chemotherapy treatment in a public referral teaching hospital in Paraná. Two questionnaires, one for socio-demographic and clinical data, and the Quality of Life Questionnaire-C30 were used for data collection.
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Profile Clinical, Epidemiological of Patients Subject to Sedestation in Intensive Care Unit

The sedestation is defined as an act of sitting is a useful therapy for physiotherapy, have reported pulmonary effects ranging from increased lung compliance to improvement in oxygenation. There is lack of this study as a single therapy in critically ill patients, showing still not well defined.
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Differential Expression of Proteins Associated with Chronic Hepatitis B Virus Infection on HeLa cell lines

Treatment of Hepatitis B infection is available with the help of existing drugs but the eradication of HBV infection is still under the pipeline. The application of novel drugs and gene-based therapies for HBV infection in need of the hour, however, the lack of efficient cell culture system, animal models for viral infection and replication acts as a major obstacle for novel therapies. This not only hampers the progress of HBV research but also stress the need for effective forthcoming therapeutics for Hepatitis B infection. Proteomic studies to understand the protein ubiquitination and to find molecular markers are the effective tools to study the HBV infection, pathogenesis and its control.
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Role of Bilirubin and Albumin in Cord Blood as Predictors for Neonatal Hyperbilirubinemia

Neonatal hyperbilirubinemia is observed during the first week of life in approximately 60% of term infants and 80% of preterm infants. The aim of this study is to evaluate the predictive value of cord blood bilirubin and albumin in identifying neonates for subsequent hyperbilirubinemia. Cord blood samples (3ml) were collected from all newborns that complied with the protocol inclusion criteria. The samples were sent for the assaying of total, unconjugated, conjugated bilirubin, albumin levels and baby’s blood group and rhesus factor.
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Relative Efficiency of Different Sire Procedures in Crossbred Cattle

The records of 1198 crossbred cattle sired by 68 bulls were analyzed to estimate breeding values of sires using animal model Restricted Maximum Likelihood (REML), best linear unbiased prediction (BLUP), least squares methods (LSM) and simple daughter average ( D ) sire evaluation methods. The error variance of breeding values of sires were estimated and used in computing the relative efficiency of different sire evaluation methods. In the present study the least squares methods (LSM) have the lower error variance for Age at First Calving (AFC), First lactation milk yield (FLMY) and Lifetime lactation length (LTLL), while (BLUP) methods have the lower error variance for First lactation period (FLP), First dry period (FDP), First calving interval (FCI), First service period (FSP) and Lifetime milk yield (TLMY) as compared to other methods and accordingly, it was adjudged the most efficient sire evaluation method. In the present study, the higher value of coefficient of variation showing, there was very large variation in the herd for most of the traits under study. It indicated that the BLUP method is the best over the other three methods because estimated value of relative efficiency by BLUP method had smaller values than that of the other three methods. On the basis of the error variances of breeding values of sires the BLUP method was found most efficient sire evaluation method.
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Comparison of Chemical Composition of Pomegranate (Punica Granatum L.) and Grape (Vitis Vinifera L.) Seed Oils Obtained By Extraction

In this study, it was aimed to assess pomegranate (punica granatum L.) and grape (vitis vinifera L.) seed oil by comparing them physically and chemically. The fat output of the pomegranate (punica granatum L.) and grape (vitis vinifera L.) seeds was determined by the standard method of soxhlet extraction.
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Estimation of Pathogen Proportions of Infectious Diseases: Models, Approaches and Evaluations

Attribution of etiology for disease syndromes is critical to guide appropriate public health interventions. Partial latent class analysis model (pLCM) methods have recently been developed to address this area of research; however, model parameters, assumptions, and performance are not well understood for the general etiology problem.
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Introduction to the special issue on ‘Nanostructures by Valve Metal Anodization’

With this special issue of JMSN we are pleased to present significant contributions to a fascinating topic in the field of materials nanostructing, which is the anodization of valve metals. By this treatment porous oxides of controlled geometry can be grown on the respective metal surfaces. To date, aluminum (Al) has been used most often, as confirmed in this special issue where nine out of ten contributions deals with its anodization.
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Ordered Growth of Anodic Aluminum Oxide in Galvanostatic and Galvanostatic-Potentiostatic Modes

The results are presented of obtaining anodic aluminum oxide with an ordered pore arrangement by employing two anodizing modes - galvanostatic mode and combined (galvanostatic + potentiostatic) mode, at high values of the current density and voltage. Use has been made of an oxalate electrolyte and a complex electrolyte comprising oxalic acid and phosphoric acid. Scanning electron microscopy has been used to investigate the surface morphology of the barrier and porous layers and to determine pore sizes and inter-pore distance.
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Anodizing for Design and Function

Two basic reactions occur during the anodizing of aluminum: 1) the aluminum is consumed and 2) an oxide grows. By accepting this statement as true, the anodizing process can be viewed as a corrosion process, and anodizing can be modeled using the Tafel Equation. Anodizing process parameters of electrolyte chemistry and concentration, temperature, aluminum substrate resistance and current density are presented as they relate to the Tafel Equation and how they impact the anodic aluminum oxide structure and properties. Understanding this relationship is consequent in making anodizing an engineering process, one that enables tuning the structure such that it yields distinct characteristics to fulfill design and application requirements.
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Recent Developments in Human Odor Detection Technologies

Human odor detection technologies have drawn attention due to the wide possibility of potential applications they open up in areas such as biometrics, criminal investigation and forensics, search for survivors under rubble, and security checkpoint screening. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) has been the most successful and powerful analytical approach developed to date for human odor analysis, and hundreds of human odorants have been identified using this tool.
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Electronic-nose Applications in Forensic Science and for Analysis of Volatile Biomarkers in the Human Breath

The application of electronic-nose (E-nose) technologies in forensic science is a recent new development following a long history of progress in the development of diverse applications in the related biomedical and pharmaceutical fields. Data from forensic analyses must satisfy the needs and requirements of both the scientific and legal communities. The type of data collected from electronic-nose devices provides a means of identifying specific types of information about the chemical nature of evidentiary objects and samples under investigation using aroma signature profiles of complex gaseous mixtures containing volatile organic compounds (VOCs) released from manufactured products and parts of the human body. E-nose analyses also provide useful qualitative information about the physicochemical characteristics and metabolic conditions of human subjects without the need for time-consuming analyses to identify all chemical components in human-derived volatile mixtures.
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Analysis of Sweat Simulant Mixtures using Multiplexed Arrays of DNA-Carbon Nanotube Vapor Sensors

Carbon nanotube (NT) based electronic vapor sensors were tested against synthetic sweat solutions, consisting of 13 volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in saline, in order to probe the device ability to analyze and differentiate vapors derived from complex biological samples.
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Characteristic Human Scent Compounds Trapped on Natural and Synthetic Fabrics as analyzed by SPME-GC/MS

The collection of human odor volatiles is of interest to forensic applications as a path to investigate canine scent discriminations in legal investigations. A study using a selected array of previously identified human odor compounds has been conducted to determine the retention and release capabilities of five (5) natural and synthetic fabric types, cotton (mercerized fabric and gauze matrix), polyester, rayon and wool.
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The Effects of the Film Thickness and Roughness in the Anodization Process of Very Thin Aluminum Films

The anodization of aluminum foils having micrometer thickness is a common process and results in hexagonally self-ordered alumina membranes. However, anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) membranes fabricated from nanometer-thin films present new challenges to the anodization process, since aluminum films adheres poorly on supporting substrates and the smoothness of the film is highly related to the kind of substrate.
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Anodic Oxidation of Titanium in Sulphuric Acid and Phosphoric Acid Electrolytes

Anodisation of pure titanium has been carried out in sulphuric and in phosphoric acid solutions at potentials ranging from 50 to 150V. The SEM and AFM morphological analysis indicates that, within this potential range, oxidation in sulphuric acid solution produces better developed mesoporous oxide layers.
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Fabrication of Ordered Arrays of Anodic Aluminum Oxide Pores with Interpore Distance Smaller than the Pitch of Nano-pits formed by Ion Beam Etching

We investigated a method for preparation of ordered nanopore arrays with the interpore distance of 60 nm by guided self-organization of anodic aluminum oxide with a prepatterned array of pits in the starting Al film.
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Preparation of Large Area Anodic Alumina Membranes and their Application to Thin Film Fuel Cell

The design of an electrochemical reactor for the preparation of self-supported comparatively thin (up to 10 μm) and large area (up to 50 cm2) anodic alumina membranes is described allowing growth of porous alumina at high applied potential (up to 150 V) without burning.
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Fabrication of Vertical Cu2ZnSnS4 Nanowire Arrays by Two-Step Electroplating Method into Anodic Aluminum Oxide Template

Vertical Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) nanowire arrays have been synthesized via two-step electroplating method into anodized aluminum oxide template. For deposition of CZTS nanowires, anodized aluminum oxide (AAO) was used as the growth mask for the growth of the nanowires. AAO templates with hole sizes of 70 nm in diameter were used in the experiments.
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Synthesis of BaTiO3 Nanowires via Anodic Aluminum Oxide Template Method Assisted by Vacuum-and-Drop Loading

In this paper, we report on the synthesis of BaTiO3 nanowires via the anodic aluminum oxide template method. To fill in the precursors of BaTiO3 into anodic aluminum oxide templates, the vacuum and drop loading method developed in our previous study was used. Ba(CH3COO)2 (barium acetate) and C12H28O4Ti (tetraisopropyl orthotitanate) were used as Ba and Ti sources, respectively. Anodic aluminum oxide membranes with the through-hole diameter of ~200 nm were used as the template for BaTiO3 nanowires.
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Editorial Board Members Related to CT

Yaguang Xi

Assistant Professor
Mitchell Cancer Institute
University of South Alabama
United States

Shuhui Li

Director of Renewable Energy Systems Laboratory
Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering
The University of Alabama
USA

Chong Lee

Associate Professor
School of Nutrition & Health Promotion
Arizona State University
United States

Arvind prasad dwivedi

Lecturer
Department of Chemistry
Govt. Sanjay Gandhi Smrati College
India.

Shigemi Matsuyama

Associate Professor
Division of Hematology/Oncology
School of Medicine
Case Western Reserve University

United States

Arcady Putilov

Chief Researcher
Research Institute for Molecular Biology and Biophysics
Russia

SHAMSUN NAHAR

Professor
Department of Family & Community Medicine
King Khalid University
Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

Nicola Balato

Associate Professor
Department of Dermatology
School of Medicine
University of Naples Federico II
Italy

Giuseppe Lanza

Department of Neurology
University of Catania
Italy

Leonardo Roever

Research Assistant
Department of Clinical Research
Federal University of Uberlandia
Uberlandia
Brazil
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