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Profile of Tumor-Associated Cytokines among Breast Cancer Patients: A Preliminary Study

The link between disease and the oral cavity represent clinically important factors that have given rise to the interest in using saliva as a diagnostic fluid for systemic diseases. The objective of this study was to detect and quantify cancer related cytokines in the saliva of women with breast cancer and compare their concentrations to a healthy cohort.
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Are Insects a Good Alternative in Human Food?. Nutritional Value

Entomophagy refers to the dietary intake of insects and supplements practiced by millions of people worldwide. It has always been present in the eating behaviours of regions in Asia, Africa, and Latin America. Entomophagy is on the rise both in the feeding of humans and in animal feed. Insects are powerful bio converters that can transform the low quality biomass of nature into proteins of high nutritional value. The recent introduction of the consumption of insects in new types of restaurants and supermarket chains in Western cultures has led us to conduct a review of the subject to see if the myths our Western conceptions can be overcome.
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Beneficial Effects of Vitamin E against Indomethacin-induced Glutathione Depletion, Acetylcholinesterase Activity, (Na+,K+)-ATPase Activity and Osmotic Fragility of Erythrocyte

Indomethacin, is a well-known non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID), a cyclooxygenase inhibitor and extensively used as a medicine to reduce pain, fever, stiffness, swelling or inflammatory responses. Indomethacin inhibits both COX-1 and COX-2, which in turn, inhibits the production of prostaglandins in the gastrointestinal tract and disrupts the mucosal lining in the gastrointestinal tract leading to intestinal bleeding and perforation.
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Antibiotic Resistance Patterns of Pathogens Isolated from Surgical Site Infections at Public Health Facilities in Belize

Surgical site infections are amongst the leading cause of morbidity, mortality and cost due to increased hospital stay by patients. A study was conducted to understand antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of major pathogens isolated from surgical site infections in Belize.
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Urinary Tract Endometriosis: Case Reports

The incidence of urinary tract endometriosis ranges from 0.3 to 12% of all women affected by endometriosis. Endometriosis has been successfully treated at General Surgery Department of National Medical Research Center of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Perinatology named after V.I. Kulakov in Moscow. In the 2012-2016 period, we performed 23 bladder resections, ureterolysis in 35 patients, 3 ureteral resections with reimplantations, 3 ureteral resections and uretero-ureteral anastomosis. All these procedures were performed for urinary tract endometriosis. We present 2 cases of urinary tract endometriosis in women of reproductive age. The possibilities of hormonal therapy in the treatment of endometriosis are limited. Surgical intervention with complete removal of endometrial tissue is the most effective; however, the probability of recurrence still remains high, especially in young patients.
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The In Vitro Evaluation of Calcium and Bioactive Glass Based Pulp Capping Materials

Vital pulp preservation in the treatment of deep caries is challenging due to sealing issue. The aim of this study was to compare the physicochemical properties and radiopacity of various light curing pulp capping materials. In this study, SEM-EDS analysis and the radiopacity of four different pulp capping materials including ThereCal LC, Biner LC, Calci Plus LC, and Activa-Bioactive were evaluated. Each material was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and chemical composition of each material was analyzed by energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopic (EDS) analysis. The diskshaped specimens (8 mm diameter and 1 mm thickness) were prepared from each material and exposed to a digital x-ray along with an aluminum step wedge for the radiopacity assay. The statistical analysis was performed with ANOVA and Duncan’s post-hoc test.
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New Technologies of Crystallization of Sucrose as Fundamental Factor of Increase in Economic Efficiency of Sugar Branch

In recent years sugar industry of the Russian Federation violently develops, showing positive effect in development of finished product. The modern crystallization of sucrose is based on two fundamental processes: periodic and continuous boiling of sugar massecuites. A traditional (typical) crystallization of sugar for these years undergone serious modernization as from the point of view of the technology, and equipment.
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Rheological, Antioxidant and Sensory Properties of Sodium Reduced Wheat Flour Bread with Mahaleb (Prunus mahaleb L.)

20% and 40% reduction of sodium content of wheat bread and the effects of addition of mahaleb kernel powder (Prunus mahaleb L.) were examined in order to determine the quality characteristics of the wheat flour dough and bread. The rheological properties of dough and antioxidant, sensory properties of sodium reduced wheat bread made with different levels of mahaleb kernel powder were determined.
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Bacteriology and Antibiogram of pathogens isolated from wound infections at Cheshire Hall Medical Laboratory, Turks and Caicos Islands

To identify pathogens that are frequently isolated from wound infections in the Turks and Caicos Islands and formulate antibiogram based on their patterns of antimicrobial susceptibility. Bacteriology and antimicrobial susceptibility data from 1343 wound swabs cultured at the Cheshire Hall Medical Laboratory between January 2013 and November 2015 were retrospectively analyzed. The Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion technique was used to perform antimicrobial susceptibility testing. 79.1% of the 1343 swabs cultured were positive yielding a total of 1687 bacterial isolates. Frequently isolated bacteria included Staphylococcus aureus which accounted for 27.6% of isolates, approximately a third of which were methicillin resistant, Pseudomonas spp. (12.1%), Proteus spp. (8.2%), Enterococcus spp. (7.8%), E. coli (7.2%), Streptococcus agalactiae (6.1%), Klebsiella spp. (5.5%), Acinetobacter spp. (4.3%), coagulase negative Staphyloccus (4.0%) and Enterobacter spp. (3.7%). The overall highest resistance rates were seen among tetracycline (46.3%), erythromycin (37.6%) and ceftriaxone (34.2%). Imipenem, penicillin, meropenem and vancomycin had sensitivity rates ranging from 92.3% to 99.5%. Individual resistance rates varied among isolates, some differing significantly from overall rates. When tested against antibiotics routinely used to treat Pseudomonas spp., resistance rates ranged from 1.4-55.5%.
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The Effect of Salbutamol Nebul Treatment on Systolic Pulmonary Artery Pressure in Newly Diagnosed Patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmoner Disease

The occurrence of pulmonary hypertension [PHT] in patients with chronic obstructive pulmoner disease [COPD] usually indicates progression of the disease and poor prognosis. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of oxygen and bronchodilator treatment on systolic pulmonary artery pressure induced by exertion test in patients with COPD.
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His Bundle Pacing: Short Review of Literature and Technical Aspects

History of pacing has evolved from the primitive state of temporary transvenous pacing by a large fixed machine to leadless modern technology. The pacing site has also been changed from traditional right ventricular apex to various other sites. The concept behind such experiment was due to several complications in the long term from traditional Right Ventricular Apical Pacing (RVAP). The His Bundle pacing results in conduction and contraction similar to and more often called physiological pacing. This mini-review describes the short history of the evolution of the concept of His Bundle pacing and its technical aspects of successful implantation.
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Early Spondyloarthritis Presenting as Premenopausal Osteoporosis and Multiple Vertebral Fractures: A Case Report

We report a 30-year-old woman who presented during pregnancy with mechanical type backache due to non-traumatic multiple vertebral fractures. In-depth the assessment revealed multiple risk factors for osteoporosis, including adolescent steroid use for asthma, prolonged breastfeeding, and vitamin D deficiency. She also had persistently elevated inflammatory markers with radiological evidence of early inflammatory Sacro-ileitis. The rheumatoid factor and HLA B27 were negative. She was successfully managed with NSAIDS, zoledronic acid, and calcium supplementation. This is an example of early inflammatory arthritis in the background of multiple risk factors causing osteoporosis severe enough to cause fragility fractures. This signifies the importance of screening for multiple risk factors in pre-menopausal osteoporosis even in the presence of one or two identified risk factors.
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Impact of Eating Habits on Cellular Regeneration and Weight Balance in the Central African Republic

Food compound has an impact on cell regeneration and body mass index. Studies of observations conducted between 2015 and 2017 among men in the CAR show a similarity in eating habits and in the way of consuming food. Of 148 people from different households with different incomes observed, 79 or 53.38% were male and 69 or 46.32% were female. The median age was 28 years (18-45). In group 1 or G1, 115 (77.7%) retained the African food habit. In addition, 33 people or 22.3% adopted a western-style eating habit and have a preference for fried foods and dairy products with a high-fat content (group 2 or G2). This G2 had more overweight or obesity phenomena than the G1 which presented some weight loss cases with a significant difference. The composition of the African food habit has certainly an influence on the body mass and cellular regeneration thus tissue.
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Impacts of Climate Change on Livestock Production and Productivity and Different Adaptation Strategies in Ethiopia

This review work was conducted to explore the likely impacts of climate change on livestock production and productivity and different adaptation strategies in Ethiopia. National average temperature has increased by 1 °C since the 1960s. Most of the livestock owners in the country perceive there are a climate change impacts on Livestock production and productivity. The major effects of climate change on livestock production include feed shortage, shortage of water, livestock genetic resources loss, reduced productivity, and decreased mature weight and/or longer time to reach a mature weight in their order of importance. Higher temperatures resulting from climate change may increase the rate of development of certain pathogens or parasites that have one or more life cycle stages outside their animal host.
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Study of Enzymes in Myocardial Infarction

The term Myocardial infarction signifies sudden necrosis or death of a portion of cardiac muscle due to an inadequate blood supply. Myocardial infarction results from prolonged myocardial coronary thrombus at the site of a preexisting atherosclerotic stenosis. The major cause of acute myocardial infarction is atherosclerosis. It is three to four times more frequent among men than w]omen.
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Introduction to the special issue on ‘Nanostructures by Valve Metal Anodization’

With this special issue of JMSN we are pleased to present significant contributions to a fascinating topic in the field of materials nanostructing, which is the anodization of valve metals. By this treatment porous oxides of controlled geometry can be grown on the respective metal surfaces. To date, aluminum (Al) has been used most often, as confirmed in this special issue where nine out of ten contributions deals with its anodization.
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Ordered Growth of Anodic Aluminum Oxide in Galvanostatic and Galvanostatic-Potentiostatic Modes

The results are presented of obtaining anodic aluminum oxide with an ordered pore arrangement by employing two anodizing modes - galvanostatic mode and combined (galvanostatic + potentiostatic) mode, at high values of the current density and voltage. Use has been made of an oxalate electrolyte and a complex electrolyte comprising oxalic acid and phosphoric acid. Scanning electron microscopy has been used to investigate the surface morphology of the barrier and porous layers and to determine pore sizes and inter-pore distance.
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Anodizing for Design and Function

Two basic reactions occur during the anodizing of aluminum: 1) the aluminum is consumed and 2) an oxide grows. By accepting this statement as true, the anodizing process can be viewed as a corrosion process, and anodizing can be modeled using the Tafel Equation. Anodizing process parameters of electrolyte chemistry and concentration, temperature, aluminum substrate resistance and current density are presented as they relate to the Tafel Equation and how they impact the anodic aluminum oxide structure and properties. Understanding this relationship is consequent in making anodizing an engineering process, one that enables tuning the structure such that it yields distinct characteristics to fulfill design and application requirements.
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Recent Developments in Human Odor Detection Technologies

Human odor detection technologies have drawn attention due to the wide possibility of potential applications they open up in areas such as biometrics, criminal investigation and forensics, search for survivors under rubble, and security checkpoint screening. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) has been the most successful and powerful analytical approach developed to date for human odor analysis, and hundreds of human odorants have been identified using this tool.
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Electronic-nose Applications in Forensic Science and for Analysis of Volatile Biomarkers in the Human Breath

The application of electronic-nose (E-nose) technologies in forensic science is a recent new development following a long history of progress in the development of diverse applications in the related biomedical and pharmaceutical fields. Data from forensic analyses must satisfy the needs and requirements of both the scientific and legal communities. The type of data collected from electronic-nose devices provides a means of identifying specific types of information about the chemical nature of evidentiary objects and samples under investigation using aroma signature profiles of complex gaseous mixtures containing volatile organic compounds (VOCs) released from manufactured products and parts of the human body. E-nose analyses also provide useful qualitative information about the physicochemical characteristics and metabolic conditions of human subjects without the need for time-consuming analyses to identify all chemical components in human-derived volatile mixtures.
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Analysis of Sweat Simulant Mixtures using Multiplexed Arrays of DNA-Carbon Nanotube Vapor Sensors

Carbon nanotube (NT) based electronic vapor sensors were tested against synthetic sweat solutions, consisting of 13 volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in saline, in order to probe the device ability to analyze and differentiate vapors derived from complex biological samples.
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Characteristic Human Scent Compounds Trapped on Natural and Synthetic Fabrics as analyzed by SPME-GC/MS

The collection of human odor volatiles is of interest to forensic applications as a path to investigate canine scent discriminations in legal investigations. A study using a selected array of previously identified human odor compounds has been conducted to determine the retention and release capabilities of five (5) natural and synthetic fabric types, cotton (mercerized fabric and gauze matrix), polyester, rayon and wool.
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The Effects of the Film Thickness and Roughness in the Anodization Process of Very Thin Aluminum Films

The anodization of aluminum foils having micrometer thickness is a common process and results in hexagonally self-ordered alumina membranes. However, anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) membranes fabricated from nanometer-thin films present new challenges to the anodization process, since aluminum films adheres poorly on supporting substrates and the smoothness of the film is highly related to the kind of substrate.
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Anodic Oxidation of Titanium in Sulphuric Acid and Phosphoric Acid Electrolytes

Anodisation of pure titanium has been carried out in sulphuric and in phosphoric acid solutions at potentials ranging from 50 to 150V. The SEM and AFM morphological analysis indicates that, within this potential range, oxidation in sulphuric acid solution produces better developed mesoporous oxide layers.
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Fabrication of Ordered Arrays of Anodic Aluminum Oxide Pores with Interpore Distance Smaller than the Pitch of Nano-pits formed by Ion Beam Etching

We investigated a method for preparation of ordered nanopore arrays with the interpore distance of 60 nm by guided self-organization of anodic aluminum oxide with a prepatterned array of pits in the starting Al film.
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Preparation of Large Area Anodic Alumina Membranes and their Application to Thin Film Fuel Cell

The design of an electrochemical reactor for the preparation of self-supported comparatively thin (up to 10 μm) and large area (up to 50 cm2) anodic alumina membranes is described allowing growth of porous alumina at high applied potential (up to 150 V) without burning.
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Fabrication of Vertical Cu2ZnSnS4 Nanowire Arrays by Two-Step Electroplating Method into Anodic Aluminum Oxide Template

Vertical Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) nanowire arrays have been synthesized via two-step electroplating method into anodized aluminum oxide template. For deposition of CZTS nanowires, anodized aluminum oxide (AAO) was used as the growth mask for the growth of the nanowires. AAO templates with hole sizes of 70 nm in diameter were used in the experiments.
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Synthesis of BaTiO3 Nanowires via Anodic Aluminum Oxide Template Method Assisted by Vacuum-and-Drop Loading

In this paper, we report on the synthesis of BaTiO3 nanowires via the anodic aluminum oxide template method. To fill in the precursors of BaTiO3 into anodic aluminum oxide templates, the vacuum and drop loading method developed in our previous study was used. Ba(CH3COO)2 (barium acetate) and C12H28O4Ti (tetraisopropyl orthotitanate) were used as Ba and Ti sources, respectively. Anodic aluminum oxide membranes with the through-hole diameter of ~200 nm were used as the template for BaTiO3 nanowires.
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Editorial Board Members Related to CT

Makobetsa Khati

Department at CSIR Biosciences
Pretoria
South Africa

William J Winslade

Professor
Department of Preventive Medicine and Community Health
The University of Texas Medical Branch
United States

SIBYLLE KRANZ

Associate Professor
Department of Nutrition Science
Purdue University
United States

Marianne Oropeza

Associate Professor
Department of Production Animal Medicine
Norwegian School of Veterinary Science
Norway

Sheila Barrett

Assistant Professor
Department of Nutrition
Northern Illinois University
United States

DONALD K. INGRAM

Adjunct Professor
Pennington Biomedical Research Center
Louisiana State University
United States

HONGYU LI

Associate Professor
Department of Gastroenterology
Shenyang Northern Hospital
China

Massimo Dominici

Assistant Professor
Head Laboratory of Cell Biology and Advanced Cancer Therapies
Department of Medical and Surgical Sciences for Children & Adults
University Hospital of Modena and Reggio Emilia
Italy

Meric Koksal Akkoc

Professor
Faculty of Pharmacy
Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry
Yeditepe University
Turkey

S. Vasudevan

Principal Scientist & Professor
Electroinorganic Chemicals Division
Central Electrochemical Research Institute
India
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