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Articles Related to Carbon

Carbon-Dioxide Emissions Due to Fossil Fuels Consumption

A majority of Carbon-dioxide including smaller amounts of methane and nitrous are emitted from the consumption of fossil fuels around the world to meet the sustainable development goals and global prosperity. Studies have shown that the increase in greenhouse gases has negative effects on human health, and the environment around us. Emissions from the consumption of fossil fuels in factories and industries either to produce electricity or transport people, goods and services cause the release of CO2 and other pollutants into the atmosphere. The majority of industrial energy is supplied by nonrenewable energy resources, which mainly consist of fossil fuels. Currently, fossil fuels are the main source of energy and are concentrated in some regions of the world, therefore direct contamination occurs in areas where they are stored or processed. A majority of electricity consumed by cities and countries across the world is produced from fossil fuels, which accounts for the highest percentage of overall CO2 production in that particular country. People will share the common global environmental problems, either it is local or regional, hence immediate actions are needed to tackle problems at national and regional and global levels. Fortunately, with the advent of new technologies and intervention strategies, it is possible to reduce pollution and reduce the rate of rising global temperature that might result in better economy and ecological systems as well as providing sustainable energy resources. In this research the data on nonrenewable energy sources, fossil fuel reserves in different regions, production and consumption rate of fossils have been identified and reviewed. Additionally, mathematical calculation has been done to find the carbon dioxide emission amounts, both international and national legislations as well as further recommendations have been provided to reduce or prevent emissions.
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Carbon Emission Efficiency and Emission Permit Allocation of China’s Fire Power Industry: An Emission Permit Trading Perspective

The emissions trading system is an important tool to combat climate change, which uses the “cap and trade” principle to reduce carbon dioxide emissions. This paper first adopts production technology considering carbon emission permit trading and proposes a data envelopment analysis (DEA) model to evaluate carbon emission efficiency of Chinese fire power industry from 2013 to 2017. Further, a new zero sum gains DEA(ZSG-DEA)considering carbon emission permit trading model is proposed based on efficiency principle to adjust the initial allocation of carbon emission permits (considering fairness principle) among regional fire power industries in 2030. The new approach enables us to investigate the carbon emission efficiency and emission permit allocation problem from an emission permit trading perspective. Theoretical analysis show that organizations have higher potential in reducing carbon emissions and greater potential in improving inputs and outputs after introducing emitting permit trading. Empirical results show that the southeastern fire power industries have higher carbon emission efficiencies and permitted emission levels. Under the background of carbon emission permit trading, the allocation level of carbon emissions permit in inefficient areas is limited and given greater responsibility for reducing emissions considering fairness and efficiency principles. This could promote active carbon emissions reduction in various regions so as to realize China’s carbon emissions [1] reduction targets in a faster pace.
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The Efficiency of Functional Activated Carbon Non-woven Fabric Filters for Fine Dust Reduction

Particulate matter (PM) concentrations are significantly higher in urban railway tunnels (178.1 μg/m3) than in metropolitan areas (49 μg/m3). Nitrogen oxide (NOx) concentrations, which are a direct cause of lung disease, have been found to exceed the atmospheric standard of the Ministry of Environment in tunnels in Korea. Dust generated by trains is scattered at high speed along tunnels, making filtration difficult. The development of filters that can be used in tunnels is urgently required. In this study, the results of using an activated carbon filter (ACF) were analyzed and compared with the laboratory-scale PM adsorption using functional activated carbon non-woven fabric filters (Cerebasel, Cerecore) that can be manufactured in Korea. The fine PM concentration, filter depth, and flow rate in the tunnel were the experimental variables. We compared PM concentrations before and after the filter experiments, and calculated the PM removal efficiency to determine the optimal conditions.
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Source Distribution and Variation of Atmospheric di-carbonyl Compounds in Wanqingsha, Pearl River Delta, South China, from 2008 to 2011

Glyoxal (G) and methylglyoxal (MG) have received cautions for their roles in the atmospheric chemistry and formation of secondary organic aerosol. Mostly they come from the photochemical transformation of precursors like isoprene, aromatic compounds, acetylene and acetone etc. Here these two compounds were studied in Wanqingsha, the central sector of Pearl River Delta (PRD), south China, in deep-autumn from 2008-2011.
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Adsorption Kinetics and Mass Balance Mathematical Model of Monoethanolamine Surface-Modified Palm Shell Activated Carbon for Carbon Dioxide Dynamic Adsorption in Fixed Bed Column

Dynamic adsorption kinetics results indicated that monoethanolamine-carbon dioxide (MEA-CO2) reaction in fixed bed column packed with MEA-impregnated activated carbon (AC) particles is pseudo first order reaction.
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Safety Concerns of Glaucoma Chemotherapy among G6PD Deficient Glaucoma Patients: A Pilot Study

The aim of this study was to assess the potential acute adverse effects associated with the use of anti-glaucoma medications among glaucoma patients with Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase deficiency.
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To Analyze the Casual Effect of Economic Growth, Energy Use on Fossil Fuel Consumption in Sub Saharan Africa with Structural Breaks

The study seeks to investigate the casual effect of the efficient energy use and GDP (economic growth) on fossil fuel consumption (Nonrenewable) for the sub Saharan Africa for the period 1980 to 2014. The study also seeks to investigate solutions to environmental issues. Zivot-Andrews unit root test with a structural break, Phillips and Perron unit root test with structural break revealed that the investigated variables become stationary at first-differences. The Gregory-Hansen cointegration test with a structural break shows efficient energy use, economic growth and energy consumption are co-integrated. The long-run estimates obtained from the VECM model indicate that in account of the changes in the structure of the economies, the environmental Kuznets curve does not exist due to validity of a U shaped curve. An increase in output growth (GDP) and efficient energy use positively affect environmental pollution. Based on the findings of this study, the study recommends investment in green technology as the economy growths.
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Computer Modeling of Convective Mass Transfer of Glucose, Oxygen and Carbon Dioxide in the Neurovascular Unit

Glucose and oxygen are obligatory energy substrates for the brain and their continuous supply to the neurons, as well as the elimination of the end product – carbon dioxide, is of paramount importance for brain physiology and survival. Transport of these substrates from the brain capillaries to the neurons presents a challenging issue.
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Effect of Measurement of Total Organic Carbon Compounds to Improve Water Quality in the Shortest Time

One of the challenges and concerns of water industry experts and practitioners is to ensure that there is no bacterial contamination in water samples, especially drinking water samples. The second is to find out if there is a microbial biofilm layer in water resources such as wells, storage tanks, and even water distribution networks. The presence of biofilms in water resources and reservoirs reduces the quality of water.
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Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons Separation from Oil-Contaminated Soil Using Supercritical and Subcritical Water

Finding an environmental-friend and an affordable method to remove contaminated soils from polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) is now an attractive field for researchers. PAHs are slightly soluble, thus hardly dissolve in organic compounds, and also biological and chemical degradation processes are not effective to remove them, and the process of extracting these pollutants from soil is a complex process. Super-critical fluid extraction is an innovative process in the field of contaminated soil treatment. Extraction with super-critical fluid is a simple and rapid extraction process which uses supercritical fluids as solvents. This method addresses extraction methods using supercritical and subcritical fluid. The results showed that the supercritical fluid process is very suitable to remove the pollutants such as PHCs, PAHs, PCBs, dioxins, Furans, phenols, Chlorophenols, insecticides, metals and radioactive substances. The supercritical fluid extraction using CO2 also has the ability to effectively eliminate organic and inorganic compounds present in different contaminated soils. Moreover, this method is more economical for polluted soil treatment compared to other available methods. On the other hand, using this method that uses water is environment-friendly and has lower cost and a higher safety level. Research has also shown that pressurized hot water extraction (SWE) is a better way to extract PAHs. In this method, the extraction process can be improved by combining the SWE process with the oxidation process by adding oxidants such as air, oxygen, hydrogen peroxide, etc.
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On Similarity of Pressure Head and Bubble Pressure Fractal Dimensions for Characterizing Permo-Carboniferous Shajara Formation, Saudi Arabia

Pressure head was gained from the distribution of pores to characterize the sandstones of the Shajara reservoirs of the permo-Carboniferous Shajara Formation. The attained values of pressure head were employed to calculate the pressure head fractal dimension. Based on field observations in addition to the acquired values of the pressure head fractal dimension, the sandstones of Shajara reservoirs were divided here into three units. The obtained units from base to top are: Lower Shajara Pressure Head Fractal Dimension Unit, Middle Shajara Pressure Head Fractal Dimension Unit and Upper Shajara Pressure Head Fractal Dimension Unit.
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Investigation of Graphene Oxide in Diesel Soot

NanotechnologyAbstractIntroductionGraphene has emerged as a potential material in various scientific disciplines, ranging from material science, engineering, and more recently biomedicine. The paper describes the investigation of the presence of graphene and graphene oxide (GO) in the carbon soot of internal combustion diesel engines. The UV-Visible, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), X- ray diffraction (XRD), Photoluminescent (PL) and Raman spectroscopic analysis of the sample provided a conclusive evidence of the formation of graphene and GO. The Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM) and Energy Dispersive Spectrum (EDX) of the sample show carbon nanoparticles (CNPs) of size less than 50nm.
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Bioequivalence Study of Two Oral-Capsule Formulations of Omeprazole 20 mg in Combination with Sodium Bicarbonate in Healthy Mexican Adult Volunteers

In Mexico, the immediate-release formulation of omeprazole 20 mg in combination with 1100 mg of sodium bicarbonate (oral capsules) is indicated for patients over 18 years for the treatment of gastritis, reflux, heartburn and the sensation of emptiness caused by the excessive acid production.
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A Review on Nanoprobes for Sensing, Imaging and Disease Detection

This review focuses on imaging, visualization and detection of diseases using nanoprobes. Several currently available nanoprobes such as fluorescent nanoprobes, upconversion nanoparticle probes, supermagnetic iron oxide nanoprobes, and polymer- and liposome based nanoprobes are discussed.
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Assessment of Rumen Microbial Adaptation to Garlic Oil, Carvacrol and Thymol Using the Consecutive Batch Culture System

Although plant derivatives have shown promise in reducing enteric methane (CH4) emissions from ruminants in short-term studies, investigation on possible rumen microbial adaptation to these compounds is still limited. The objective of this study was to assess the possibility of mixed rumen microbial adaptation to antimethanogenic plant derivatives over relatively long-term in vitro incubation. Treatments were: garlic oil, carvacrol and thymol, each at a final concentration of 300 mg/l.
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Analysis of Sweat Simulant Mixtures using Multiplexed Arrays of DNA-Carbon Nanotube Vapor Sensors

Carbon nanotube (NT) based electronic vapor sensors were tested against synthetic sweat solutions, consisting of 13 volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in saline, in order to probe the device ability to analyze and differentiate vapors derived from complex biological samples.
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Characteristic Human Scent Compounds Trapped on Natural and Synthetic Fabrics as analyzed by SPME-GC/MS

The collection of human odor volatiles is of interest to forensic applications as a path to investigate canine scent discriminations in legal investigations. A study using a selected array of previously identified human odor compounds has been conducted to determine the retention and release capabilities of five (5) natural and synthetic fabric types, cotton (mercerized fabric and gauze matrix), polyester, rayon and wool.
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Editorial Board Members Related to Carbon

Antoine Trzcinski

Lecturer in Water and Environmental Engineering
Faculty of Engineering
University of Southern Queensland
Australia

RAVINDRA K. MALIK

Professor
Natural and Forensic Sciences Department
Albany State University
United States

Daniela Iannazzo

University Researcher
Department of Electronic Engineering, Industrial Chemistry and Engineering
University of Messina
Italy

Hongyuan Zhao

Professor
Department of Material Science and Engineering
Henan Institute of Science and Technology
China

Hani Mansour

Associate Professor
Department of Water Relations & Field /irrigation
National Research Center
Egypt

Moinuddin Sarker

Natural State Research Inc.
Stamford, Connecticut
United States

Robert Kinobe

Senior Lecturer
Physiology and Pharmacology
School of Veterinary and Biomedical Sciences
Australia

Domenico Rubello

Director
Department of Nuclear Medicine and PET/CT Centre
Santa Maria della Misericordia Hospital
Italy

Mo SONG

Professor
Department of Materials
Loughborough University
United Kingdom

Inbo Han

Associate professor
Department of Neurosurgery
CHA University
South Korea
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