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Articles Related to EI

Endothelial Cells May Have Tissue-Specific Origins

Endothelial heterogeneity reflects many functions performed by endothelial cells (ECs) in various tissues. However, the origin of this heterogeneity is unclear. Here, we report that tissue-specific ECs in lungs, brain, and liver co-expressed the lineage markers of their coordinating tissue-specific cells at very early stages. Specifically, we found that the pulmonary EC population was significantly suppressed after pulmonary epithelial-specific (Nkx2.1-Cre mediated) deletion of fetal liver kinase-1 (Flk1). Together, the results suggest that tissues-specific ECs may originate from the same progenitor cells as tissue-specific cells.
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Giemsa Staining and Antibody Characterization of Colpodella sp. (Apicomplexa)

Colpodella species are free-living alveolates that possess an apical complex used for attaching to eukaryotic prey protists for ingestion of the cytoplasmic contents of the prey. Colpodella sp. are the closest relatives of the Apicomplexa, a phylum that includes the important human pathogens Plasmodium falciparum, Toxoplasma gondii and Cryptosporidium parvum. In this study, we investigated morphological characteristics of Colpodella (ATCC 50594) in a diprotist culture containing Bodo caudatus as prey in order to identify features differentiating both protists. The level of apical complex protein conservation among free living alveolate relatives of apicomplexans and intracellular apicomplexan pathogens is unknown. Antibodies against proteins of the apical complex in Colpodella sp. are currently unavailable. We performed staining and immunological characterization of Colpodella in a diprotist culture containing B. caudatus to aid routine differentiation of predator and prey in culture. Staining revealed distinguishing morphological features of both protists. The kinetoplast in B.caudatus was identified using Giemsa staining and was used to differentiate B. caudatus from Colpodella sp. trophozoites.
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Overweight and Obesity among Adults Aged 18-45 Years Residing in and around Giyani Town in Mopani District of Limpopo Province, South Africa

Objective: To describe the prevalence of overweight and obesity among adults aged 18-45 years residing in and around Giyani town. Methods: This study included 100 participants recruited from a location in Greater Giyani Municipality of Mopani district, Limpopo Province, South Africa. This Municipality was purposively selected and convenience sampling was used to choose study participants. Body weight and height were measured using standard techniques. Waist circumference, systolic, diastolic, glucose, cholesterol and body fat levels were also assessed.
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Tracing Echinococcosis in Portugal - The Role of the Abattoirs in North Douro Region

The occurrence of cystic echinococcosis (CE) at a national level or in large regional areas is an issue difficult to determine in a cost-effective way, integrating both human and animal data, and thus leading to effective control measures. In Portugal, the abattoirs in north Douro region receive a large percentage of heads of cattle from the whole country which makes them ideal places for the implementation of a surveillance system for this zoonosis. Data was obtained for cattle slaughtered in 9 abattoirs in north region of Douro River, with visible CE-like cysts at meat inspection. An excel database was constructed with the records of condemned viscera due to hydatid cysts in cattle for 2008, 2009, 2010, and the first half of 2011. Most of the cysts were found in the lungs and livers (23.5%), only in livers (21.5%) or only in lungs (18.1%). Individual information concerning each animal contributed to the depiction of a distribution map by regions of the occurrence of positive cases in Portugal. From the 149 cases registered, it was possible to identify the place of infection in 93 cases (62.4%), in which the rate of distribution was 21 (22.6%) in the north, 14 (15.1%) in the center, 57 (61.3%) in Alentejo and 1 case (1.1%) in Algarve. This distribution of cases coincides with the location of human and animal cases reported before, with special focus on the Alentejo and in the northeast of the country.
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Effect of Cold Wet sheet Pack on Body Temperature among Healthy Individuals - Result of a Single Arm Study

Hydrotherapy, as the name suggests is the most ancient method of treating diseases by using water in its various forms. The use of water for therapy has been around for hundreds of years. The cold wet sheet pack is one of the common hydrotherapy techniques used for reducing body weight. There have been no documented studies conducted to scientifically evaluate this effect. This study is an attempt to examine the effect of cold wet sheet pack on body temperature. Application of cold wet sheet pack for particular duration increases the body temperature by utilization of calories thus may leads to reduction of bodyweight. Thirty healthy volunteers were randomly selected from medical students enrolled in a naturopathic programme. The participants were of both sexes aged between 18 and 25 years under normal Body mass index (18.5-25). A cold (20 oC± 1 oC) wet sheet pack has given to each of the participants for one hour duration. The outcome measures were resting blood pressure, body temperature and pulse rate. 30 Participants were successfully completed the study, all participants have shown a raise in body temperature after intervention which was statistically significant (P=0.003). There is no significant change in blood pressure and pulse rate. Also there was a week positive correlation between body mass index and body temperature. A cold wet sheet pack for one hour has shown a raise in body temperature, which indicate that the cold wet sheet pack have a role in reducing body weight by utilizing the calories. However, these observations are based on a short term single arm pre-post design on healthy students. A cold wet sheet pack has been demonstrated in this study to have a significant effect in increasing body temperature and shows perspiration by utilization of calories. Large scale randomized control trials in obese patients over a longer period are warranted to conform the results which was uncovered in this study.
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Immunogenicity of Multiple Antigenic Peptides (MAP) Based on B and T cell Epitopes of E2 Glycoprotein of Chikungunya Virus in Murine System

Chikungunya is a viral disease caused by positive sense single stranded RNA virus. High fever, myalgia, arthralgia, body rashes are the characteristic features of Chikungunya transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes. We aim to demonstrate that dominant epitopes of envelope E2 protein can be used for diagnostic purposes as well as vaccine design. Multiple Antigenic Peptide (MAP) approach was used based on B and T cell epitopes of E2 protein. Humoral and cell mediated responses were studied in outbred and inbred H-2d mice. Different groups of mice were immunized intramuscularly with or without adjuvant (CpG ODN and murabutide) in PLGA microspheres. MAP entrapped in microspheres with CpG ODN showed highest IgG peak titer (2,98,000) with IgG subclass, mostly IgG2a/2b distribution. MAP’s antisera showed significant immunoreactivity with individual peptides. During thymidine incorporation assay for T cells, all the MAPs showed high lympho-proliferative response. Cytokine profile was dominated by Th1 and Th17 response. Thus, all the MAPs showed high humoral and cell mediated response with CpG/ murabutide adjuvant. MAP’s antisera showed significant in vitro neutralization of CHIKV strain in vero cells.
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Mucinous Adenocarcinoma of the appendix with Retroperitoneal and Pelvic Bone Extension - A Case Report and Literature Review

The Appendiceal mucocele (AM) was considered as a rare dilation of the appendiceal lumen. Four different types of AMs are defined according to the cause of obstruction, for both benign and malignant, including retention cysts, epithelial hyperplasia, mucinous cystadenoma, and mucinous cystadenocarcinoma.
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Stress-Induced Laboratory Eating Behavior in Obese and Normal-Weight Women

Inconsistent results of stress induced eating behavior in obesity have been reported. In order to describe the effect of stress on eating behavior in detail, we investigated microstructural aspects of food intake in a controlled laboratory experiment. Eating behavior of 43 obese women and 42 normal weight controls between 18 and 30 years was assessed twice (one time after participating in the Trier Social Stress Test and one time after a control session). A universal eating monitor was used to obtain cumulative intake curves with pudding as laboratory food. Compared to controls, obese showed inhibited eating behavior after stress. The results are interpreted and discussed with regard to restrained eating.
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Photogram - Image Comparison and Identification

A human being is having physical and biological body structure, even though each and every individual is having his own blood group, hair color, retina color, skin complexes, height, breadth etc. that result in his own bodily structure that differentiates with the other individual. After the certain age of subject nearly about twenty years, height or length of his organs or limbs are not increases and fixed bodily structure is built up.
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Epiphyseal Closure of Femur, Tibia and Fibula of the Paca (Cuniculus Paca, Linnaeus, 1766)

After capybara, paca (Cuniculus paca) is the largest rodent in the neotropical region and the body weight varies from 5 to 10 kg, and may reach up to 14 kg. They are animals that reach sexual maturity at around 10 months of age. The aim of this research is to examine, through radiography, the femur, tibia and fibula of the paca. The animals were anaesthetized for radiographic exams. At 6 months of age, the growth line of the femoral proximal epiphysis ceases to perform its functions. At 12 months of age, there is the closure of the line growth of distal femoral epiphysis. At the paca’s tibia, at 12 months old, there was the closure of the growth of the proximal epiphysis. In the distal epiphysis, the closure of the line growth also occurred at 12 months old. At the paca’s fibula, the bone activity of proximal epiphysis ceases with only 23 months old. The distal fibular epiphysis ends its development with 15 months. There are similarities and differences relative to the closure of the pacas’ epiphysis femur, tibia and fibula comparing with dogs and cats.
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Hyperkinetic Manifestation in a Patient with Hippocampal Atrophy

Describes a case of a patient that presents with hippocampal atrophy leading to hyperkinetic crises of parietal-occipital origin
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Physician and Patient Perspective to Weight Gain in Pregnancy

Gaining weight outside of the Institute of Medicine guidelines puts a woman and her foetus at an increased risk. Limited or incorrect information is being provided to women during antenatal care. Research shows that physicians do not perceive this as an important issue. We aimed to assess both physician and patient perspective to weight gain in pregnancy as well as assessing physicians current practice to weight management. 71% of women want to be given a target weight to gain during pregnancy; 87% want to be told if they are gaining an inappropriate amount of weight. 87.5% of physicians believe that weight management is important; 31.2% advise patients about weight gain.
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Upper Oesophageal Foreign Body with Acute Drooling in a Child with Congenital Hypotonia

Foreign body ingestion and aspiration commonly affect children. The most vulnerable age is early childhood when children tend to explore new objects with their mouths or by an accident by elder siblings. A 2-year-old female child who is known to have congenital hypotonia, status post laparoscopic fundoplication and gastrostomy tube feeding (G- tube) inserted at age one year. Then she was in stable condition till when presented with acute unexplained drooling of frothy whitish secretions, mild cough and difficulty breathing with hypoxemia. X-ray chest and upper abdomen revealed normal. She underwent flexible bronchoscopy revealed normal and then direct laryngoscopy was extracted a covering plastic of the feeding tube in the upper end cervical oesophagus by Magill forceps technique. Subsequently her symptoms resolved completely. To increase the likelihood of identifying foreign body ingestion and aspiration, healthcare professionals should maintain a high index of suspicion even in children with neuromuscular disorder.
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A Study on Perceived Stress among Undergraduate Medical Students of Bahir Dar University, Bahir Bar, North West Ethiopia, 2016: Institutional Based Cross Sectional Study

Tertiary education has always been regarded as highly stressful environment to students. Medical and health science training further add to the already stressful environment. Awareness of the existence of stress in medical students by physicians will help in diminishing student’s experience of stress. Therefore, identifying additional stressors in the clinical context is very crucial for providing measures to minimize students’ stress to a tolerable level and helping them to cope better. And the aim of this study is to assess perceived stress and factors associated with it among Bahir Dar University medical students, North West Ethiopia, 2016.
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Perceived Barriers to Maintaining Healthy Body Weight among Saudi Women of Reproductive Age in Jeddah City

Maintaining a healthy body weight is important for overall health and can help prevent and control many chronic conditions. However, the information surrounding the barriers to healthy eating (HE) and physical activity (PA) for weight maintenance among Saudi women of reproductive age is insufficient to design and develop intervention programs. To explore personal, social, and physical environmental factors that act as barriers to maintaining a healthy weight and how these barriers vary by socio-demographic and weight status. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 2014 using a stratified two-stage cluster sampling design comprising 408 Saudi women attending 12 Jeddah Primary Health Centers (JPHCCs). Data was collected using a structured questionnaire consisting of socio-demographic factors, eating habits (EHs), PA, and perceived barriers to a maintenance of healthy weight maintenance. Body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) data also were obtained.
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Characteristic Human Scent Compounds Trapped on Natural and Synthetic Fabrics as analyzed by SPME-GC/MS

The collection of human odor volatiles is of interest to forensic applications as a path to investigate canine scent discriminations in legal investigations. A study using a selected array of previously identified human odor compounds has been conducted to determine the retention and release capabilities of five (5) natural and synthetic fabric types, cotton (mercerized fabric and gauze matrix), polyester, rayon and wool.
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Anodic Oxidation of Titanium in Sulphuric Acid and Phosphoric Acid Electrolytes

Anodisation of pure titanium has been carried out in sulphuric and in phosphoric acid solutions at potentials ranging from 50 to 150V. The SEM and AFM morphological analysis indicates that, within this potential range, oxidation in sulphuric acid solution produces better developed mesoporous oxide layers.
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Preparation of Large Area Anodic Alumina Membranes and their Application to Thin Film Fuel Cell

The design of an electrochemical reactor for the preparation of self-supported comparatively thin (up to 10 μm) and large area (up to 50 cm2) anodic alumina membranes is described allowing growth of porous alumina at high applied potential (up to 150 V) without burning.
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Editorial Board Members Related to EI

Asma Amleh

Assistant Professor
Department of Biology
American University in Cairo

Sandeep Kumar Kar

Assistant Professor
Department of Cardiac Anaesthesiology
Institute of Postgraduate Medical Education & Research

Hung-Ming Chang

Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology
College of Medicine
Taipei Medical University

Hazem Aqel

College of Applied Medical Sciences
King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences
Saudi Arabia


Associate Professor of Division of Radiologic Sciences
Department of Radiology
Wake Forest School of Medicine
United States

Tao Liu

Children's Cancer Institute
University of New South Wales

Baojun Xu

Associate Professor
Division of Science and Technology
Beijing Normal University-Hong Kong Baptist University
United International College


Associate Professor
Department of Medicine
Boston University
United States

Keith Murphy

Department of Biological Sciences
North Dakota State University
United States

Perambur Neelakantaswamy

Department o Electrical and Bio-Engineering
Florida Atlantic University
United State
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