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Articles Related to Esophagus

Radiation Dose to Oesophagus in Breast Cancer Patients Receiving Radiation Therapy: A Retrospective Study

Background: Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women worldwide. Management of Breast cancer requires multidisciplinary team approach (viz, Surgery, Chemotherapy, Radiation therapy, Hormonal therapy & Targeted therapy). Radiotherapy reduces the risk of breast cancer mortality for women after breast conserving surgery and for women after mastectomy for node-positive disease. One of the organs at risk in breast cancer therapy is esophagus. As such, there is potential to expose greater volumes of esophagus to radiation. This may result in increased frequency and severity of acute radiation esophagitis during treatment. Aims and Objectives: To evaluate dosimetric parameters such as mean dose (Dmean) maximum dose (Dmax) which may influence the incidence and severity of esophagitis in breast cancer patients receiving radiotherapy. Material and Methods: Treatment plans of post mastectomy patients who had already received adjuvant RT of dose 50 Gy in 25 # over 5 weeks to the chest wall along with Supraclavicular field (SCF) using 3-Dimensional Conformal Radiation Therapy (3D CRT) and Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy (IMRT) were selected. Mean dose (Dmean) and maximum dose (Dmax) to esophagus was assessed. Results: Dosimetric parameters assessed are Dmean and Dmax. Dmean assessed up to less than or equal to 11Gy and Dmax assessed upto less than or equal to 34Gy. The average of Dmean in this study is 8.34Gy which is within normal limits of prescribed dose. The mean Of Dmax in this study is 24.80Gy which is in limits of prescribed dose. Conclusion: Increased dose to esophagus in observed when IMRT is used especially when supraclavicular or internal mammary nodes are involved. Routine contouring of esophagus and planning accordingly may reduce oesophageal dose and acute oesophageal toxicity.
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Ulcer with Fatal Perforation of A Gastric Blind Pouch: A Rare and Un-Expected Complication After A Salvage Reconstruction for Esophagus

We present a case of total esophageal reconstruction with a free Jejunal flap in a patient with a history of esophagectomy and two previous failed attempts at reconstruction. Despite the technique here described offers a reliable option when the stomach and colon are not available, the success of the reconstruction might be compromised by the onset of a perforated ulcer at the gastric blind pouch related to previous failed gastric pull-up (GPU) After a major reconstructive surgery of long hours, gastric pouch may develop ulcer with perforation and fatal empyema due to stress, although the severe complication is rare.
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Persisting Cough as the Single Presenting Symptom of an Intrathoracic Tumor in a Nine-Month-Old Child with Adenovirus Airway Infection

We report on a nine-month-old girl who presented with persisting cough, and diminished ventilation of the left hemithorax. Viral pneumonia was suspected after Adenovirus detection by PCR, but chest X-rays showed a persistent shadowing of the left hemithorax and persistent coughing despite clinical improvement. Because of the discrepancy between clinical and radiological signs further investigations by ultrasound and CT scan were performed, which visualized an intrathroracic tumor. Histopathology confirmed diagnosis of a teratoma.
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Helicobacter pylori Infection and its Potential Association with Idiopathic Hypercalciuric Urolithiasis in Pediatric Patients

A total of 150 patients categorized into 100 cases (urolithiasis-positive) with urinary stone disease, aged from 5 to 18 years, and met the characteristics of idiopathic urolithiasis in children as well as 50 controls (urolithiasis-negative) that had relatively similar demographic criteria except for idiopathic urolithiasis.
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Duodenal Contents Reflux can Induce Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma as Well as Adenocarcinoma

Esophageal carcinoma is the eighth most common cancer, and the sixth most common cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. Esophageal carcinomas in developing nations account for more than 80% of the total cases and deaths. Esophageal cancer can arise as esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) or esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC), which have distinct etiological and pathological characteristics. ESCC is the most common histological type of esophageal cancer in the Eastern world, and its incidence remains stable. In contrast, the epidemiology of esophageal cancer in developed nations has dramatically changed over the past 40 years. Forty years ago, ESCC accounted for more than 90% of esophageal cancer cases in the United States. However, adenocarcinoma has now become the leading type of esophageal cancer in the United States, representing 80% of cases.
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Drug Tolerability and Outcomes in Kidney Transplant Recipients Treated with Two Formulations of Mycophenolic Acid

Mycophenolic Acid (MPA) is one of the most widely used immunosuppressive agents in kidney transplantation. This study was designed to compare the safety, tolerability and efficacy of two formulations of mycophenolic acid, Mycophenolate Mofetil (MMF) and Enteric-Coated Mycophenolate Sodium (EC-MPS), in renal transplant recipients.
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Editorial Board Members Related to Esophagus

JOEL E. RICHTER

Professor
Department of Medicine
University of South Florida
United States

AARON P. THRIFT

Assistant Professor
Department of Medicine
University of Baylor College of Medicine
United States
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