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Articles Related to Evolution

Predictors of Delayed Diagnosis and Evolution in Sub-Saharan Immigrants with HIV Infection in a Hospital in Madrid (2004–2013)

The aim of this study was to analyze the delayed diagnosis and evolution of HIV infection in predominantly sub-Saharan immigrants compared to other patients in a hospital in Madrid between 2004 and 2013. We retrospectively analyzed new HIV diagnoses. Late presentation or advanced disease were considered the presence of CD4 lymphocyte counts less than 350 or 200 cells/µl at diagnosis, respectively, or an AIDS-defining disease regardless of the CD4 count. Patients were compared according to their origin and sex.
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Evolution of Bombings against Transportation Infrastructure

Terrorists and insurgents have proven their ability to develop effective improvised explosive devices, with each configuration providing insight into the type of target and type of attack. Across rail systems, bus networks, and aviation infrastructure, transportation targets throughout Africa are plentiful and have come under attack. The targeting of transportation infrastructure can only be seen as a direct attack against civilians. Even though the conveyance may be funded or operated by the government, the civilians who fill the conveyance or conveyance’s ‘fixed’ sites are affected the most.
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Nanotechnology Commercialization: Prospects in India

Nanotechnology manipulates and creates matter to formulate nanometer scale materials and objects. It is an interdisciplinary field that involves a wide range of scientific and engineering disciplines, and has societal implications.
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Functional Protein Domains Evolve Very Specifically Over Mutations

Mutation in a single nucleotide of a gene has the potential to change the structure and/or function of its protein. Albeit simply saying, it is not observed to be a general phenomenon. The effect of mutation is primarily determined by the stereochemical nature of the amino acid which has replaced the previous amino acid, resulting in the residue location being affected. Here we show that despite a change in the frequency of occurrence of a particular amino acid in a particular protein in different types of organisms, the overall function of the protein can still remain unaffected, even when the resultant protein conformation is relatively altered.
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Salmonella Serovars and Their Host Specificity

Salmonella is a causative agent for a wide variety of pathological diseases in humans, cattle, poultry and other farm animals and hence Salmonella infections are a major cause of concern to humans, veterinary animals and to food industry.
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Editorial Board Members Related to Evolution

Massimo Ciccozzi

Department of biostatistics and viruses evolution
National Institute of Health
Rome

Paban K. Dash

Senior scientist
Defence Research & Development Establishment
India

Pei-Chun Liao

Professor
Department of Life Science
National Taiwan Normal University
Taiwan

Nandadulal Bairagi

Associate Professor
Centre for Mathematical Biology and Ecology
Jadavpur University
India

Nagesh Shukla

Infrastructure simulation and modelling team at SMART
University of Wollongong
Australia

Shuvra Kanti Dey

Assistant Professor
Department of Microbiology
Jahangirnagar University
Bangladesh

Alemany Immaculate Arrebola

Professor
Department of Evolutionary Psychology and Education
University of Granada
Spain

SHANKAR M. L. SASTRY

Professor
Department of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science
Washington University, St. Louis
United States

TIFFANY STEWART

Associate Professor
Pennington Biomedical Research Center (PBRC)
United States

Nikolai N. Modyanov

Professor
Department of Physiology and Pharmacology
The University of Toledo College of Medicine
United States
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