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Articles Related to GEn

Piriformospora indica: in Relation with Nitrogen and Phosphorus Uptake Mitigate the Effect of Drought and Heavy metal Ions in Plants

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Screening of Carica Papaya x Vasconcellea Cauliflora Hybrids for Resistance to Papaya Ring Spot Virus (PRSV)

Carica papaya x vasconcelleacauliflora and intergeneric F1 hybrids of these species were screened for resistance to severely infected papaya ringspot virus isolates of papaya ringspot virus. Artificial screening for papaya ringspot virus was carried out 27 days after sap inoculation. Out of twenty-nine F1 hybrid plants of CO 7 x Vasconcelleacauliflora, only six plants were found free from PRSV symptoms. Similarly, out of fifty-five F1 hybrid plants of PusaNanha x Vasconcelleacaulifloraonly twenty-three were found free from the symptoms and seventy plants out of 335 plants of CP50 x Vasconcelleacauliflora were found free from PRSV symptoms. The resistance of the hybrids and parents and their hybrids viz, CO 7 x Vasconcelleacauliflora, PusaNanha x Vasconcelleacauliflora and CP50 x Vasconcelleacauliflora were subjected to DAS ELISA test. Molecular marker viz, ISSR markers were used to check and verify the hybridity. ISSR markers showed confirmity on three hybrid progenies viz, CO7V3, CO7V5 and CO7V6 from CO 7 xVasconcelleacauliflora.
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Machine Learning Prediction of Response towards Anti-VEGF Injections in Patients with DME: Prediction of Post-Injection CST

Diabetic macular edema (DME) has become one of the most potential complications that results in loss of vision in patients with diabetic retinopathy. Treatment outcomes that have been predicted directly with advent of machine learning (ML) methods after the initial anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (anti-VEGF) injection, has become extremely vital in the management of DME. Purpose: The aim of this study is to analyze the efficiency of the ML regression models which were developed and validated to predict the possible post-injection central subfield thickness (CST) value and distant vision best corrected visual acuity (DV BCVA) in eyes with DME before the anti-VEGF injection is administered at either treatment initiation or during treatment monitoring. Methods: This retrospective study was conducted in Medical Research Foundation, Chennai, India from January 2010 to December 2020. The model development emphasized on an ensemble ML system consisting of four ML models that were developed and trained independently using the clinical parameters to predict the post injection CST value. The dataset consisting of 906 patients with total of 1874 samples [Optical coherence tomography (OCT) images and clinical parameters] were divided into trained and test set, and the model was validated on test dataset. The predicted CST values was then compared against the respective sample’s post injection actual CST value. The comparative results were measured in terms of Correlation Coefficient and Mean Absolute Relative Error (MARE). Results: On evaluation, we found that Support Vector Regression (SVR) with linear kernel performed best among the other models with four different scenarios in term of both CST and DVBCVA prediction with correlation coefficient of 0.65, 0.73, 0.75, 0.85 and 0.83, 0.87, 0.89 and 0.92 respectively.
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Evaluation of The Viability and Phenotipe of Adipose Derived Cells Harvested Using Different Harvesting and Processing Procedures: A Pilot Study

Abstract Background: Clinical studies demonstrated the efficacy of therapies based on the autologous grafting of adult mesenchymal stem cells to accelerate the healing and regenerative processes of the skin and mesenchymal tissues therefore, this is considered a valuable approach in the aesthetic rejuvenation treatment to give volume restoration and skin regeneration effects. Objective: The aim of this project consists of the evaluation of the cell viability of adipose tissue (AT) harvested using the Superficial Enhanced Fluid Fat Injection (SEFFI) procedure standardized by the Authors (AG, FPB). The harvesting procedure was performed using two different cannulas having 0.8 mm and 1 mm side-port holes, respectively. Cells phenotype and ability to adhere to the plastic surface have been analysed. The results have been compared to those recorded in adipose tissue harvested using a liposuction system and processed with enzymatic digestion (collagenase). Methods: This study was performed on adipose tissues harvested from 7 patients (6 females and 1 male) with an average age of 48.5 years with two different techniques and three different cannulas. We compared the cell vitality of every sample at T0 and T72. Moreover, the samples were analysed to determine the phenotype: cells were incubated with antibodies anti human against CD90-FITC, CD73-PeCy7, CD44-PE, CD31-PECy5, CD235a- PECy7, CD34-FITC, CD45-FITC and CD146-FITC and read using the flow cytometer s3e Cell Sorter, BioRad. Results were analysed using the software Flow Jo.
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Leptin Receptor Gene Variant Rs1137101 and Ghrelin Gene Variant Rs696217 are Associated with Body Mass Index in Brazilian Population: A Case-Control Study

Introduction: Obesity is a multifactorial condition influenced by environment and genetic factors. Controlling appetite and satiety involves complex interactions between the hypothalamus, which is responsible for homeostasis regulation energy, and hormones that regulate appetite including leptin and ghrelin. Leptin plays an important role in the regulation of food intake and energy expenditure, generating an increase in energy burning and decreasing food intake. And ghrelin is directly involved in the regulation of short-term energy balance. Objectives: To verify frequency, biochemical profile and Body Mass Index (BMI) variations according to SNPs in LEPR and GHRL gene. Subjects and Methods: 163 both genders subjects were classified into Study Group (SG): 103 subjects with obesity; Control Group (CG): 60 non-obese. Blood samples were collected to perform DNA extraction and biochemical profile analysis. Statistical significance was established at p < 0.05. Results: The genotype and allele frequency were similar between groups for both polymorphisms. The _/A genotype of the GHRL rs696217 polymorphism was associated to increased BMI in SG compared CG (p = 0.003) and increased triglycerides (TG) and very low density lipoprotein (VLDLc) values in CG (p < 0, 05). The _/A genotype was also associated with increased fasting glucose compared to CC genotype only in CG (p = 0.031). Considering the LEPR rs1137101 polymorphism, AA genotype subjects presented higher BMI compared to _/G genotype subjects (p = 0.024). No difference between biochemical profile variables related to LEPR rs1137101 polymorphism was found. Conclusion: AA genotypes of the LEPR rs1137101 polymorphism and _/A of the GHRL rs696217 polymorphism suggest being risk factors for BMI and the latter is associated with fasting glucose, VLDLc and TG variation.
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Identification of Novel De-Novo 12q14 -12q22 Gene Mutations and MTHFR C677T Gene Polymorphism Increase Genetic Susceptibility in Hirschsprung Disease - A Rare Case Report

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Prevalence of Significant Ocular Surface Symptoms and Its Relation to Polypharmacy Among In-Patients in A General Internal Medicine Department

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Evaluation of Weather Conditions as Well as NO2 and PM 2.5 Levels in the Urban Areas of South Brazil in Different Seasons

Due to the ever-increasing importance of studying pollution effects on environment and population, the development of methodologies for the evaluation of atmospheric pollutants has allowed great advances concerning air quality monitoring. Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and fine particulate matters (PM2.5) have as major sources vehicle engine exhausts and industrial processes. In the municipality of Pelotas, the economical and industrial growth allied to the expansion of the local vehicle fleet have brought several impacts on human health and environment. For this region, there are few studies concerning air pollution monitoring and dispersion. Data were collected seasonally (summer, autumn, winter and spring) in eight points (Porto, Areal, Centro, Fragata, Simões Lopes, Três Vendas, Laranjal,and Capão do Leão) over the city area, aiming to have a picture of the city as a whole. Annual mean ± standard deviation of the PM2.5 measurements are: Porto 48.95±6.28, Areal 3.29±4.56, Centro 39.56±7.05, Fragata 30.28±3.59,Simões Lopes9.5±.9, Três Vendas 3.4±3.80, Laranjal 29.79±2.34, Capão do Leão 24.25±3.2 and annual mean ±standard deviation for NO2 were: Porto 9.06±.5, Areal 0.49±0.94, Centro 4.3±0.89, Fragata 2.44±0.56, Trem 7.20±0.99, Três Vendas 2.94±.22, Laranjal 8.83±.97, Capão do Leão 6.77±0.76. We conclude that there are significant differences in different places of the city, mainly due to traffic and human activities characteristics of each point. On the other hand, meteorological factors act similarly in all sites concerning the pollution dispersion.
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Biomarkers of Microbial Dysbiosis as Causative Agent of Acute Diarrhea in Dogs

Dysbiosis is microbial imbalance and mostly common in gastrointestinal tract [1]. There is a significant different of microbial communities in diarrheic cases more than healthy dogs’ comparison of gender & clinical signs. Clostridium species is mostly commonly genus found infectious animal cases of diarrhea and moreover in dog in other hand unclassified genus of Ruminococcaceae Bacteroidetes and Faecali bacterium were isolated. The microbiome functional gene content of (PICRUSt) with elevation gastric enzymes & increase titers infra structural proteins in acute diarrhea. Studies and data for dysbiosis with different intestinal disorders in dog associated with acute diarrhea or chronic is very limited. Current study to evaluate microbial dysbiosis. The fecal microbiome, characterized by 655 pyrosequencing of the different genes, AU/CG. There was lower range of bacterial isolates from cases of acute diarrhea compared to animal variation with statistical analysis. Altered microbial imbalance in gut occur with the microbial communities for gastric infection.
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Evaluation of System Usability Scale as A Marker of Non-Human Computer Interface’s Usability: A Sanitizer Container-Based Study

The use and the production of sanitizers have increased in the post-pandemic situation to prevent the further spread of COVID-19. Usability assessment of sanitizer containers is essentially required to evaluate the effectiveness, efficiency, and satisfactory use of the sanitizer containers. This study aimed to evaluate the system usability scale (SUS) as a marker of perceived usability of non-human computer interfaces, such as - sanitizer containers. The perceived usability of three types of sanitizer containers was evaluated using SUS. The authors have measured the reliability, convergent, and discriminant validity to evaluate SUS as a marker of usability of sanitizer containers. The result showed that SUS lacks convergent validity though it has a higher reliability coefficient. Thus, this is not the best measure of usability for non-human computer interfaces like-sanitizer containers. The SUS was applied on the flip cap, finger-pressure pump, and spray-type sanitizer containers. The finger-pressure pump container has exhibited a higher SUS score than others. The results of this study have given an idea about the usability of three different kinds of sanitizer containers. This research provides an overview of the application of SUS on non-Human computer interfaces like sanitizer containers. This study provides limitations like lack of convergent validity and ideas to overcome common method bias.
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Optical Depth Measurement of Self-Reversed Line Emitted from In-Homogenous Plasma in Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy

In this work, an original method is proposed and used for measurement of the optical depth of a self-reversed spectral line. A theoretical approach is utilized in an in homogenous laser induced plasma at local thermodynamic to simulate self-reversed line and then to get the main line profile without self-absorption. In this research, the spatial and temporal evolution of optical depth of two spectral lines of Ca II at 393.4 nm and 396,9 nm is studied. Furthermore, the variation of optical depth versus the concentration of species emitter inside of plasma plume is investigated. In addition, the validity of this method is affirmed during comparison with results obtained by other techniques.
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Forensic Examination of Heroin and Its Cutting Agents

In order to successfully counter the ever-growing drug problem, there is an increasing need, to identify conspiracy links and trafficking routes and to gather background intelligence concerning both the number of sources of drugs and whether those sources are within a country or are “internationally” based and also the points of distribution and distribution networks. A scientific tool to complement routine law enforcement investigative work in this field is the characterization and impurity profiling and cutting agents of seized drugs. Drug characterization studies have shown that it is possible to link samples, to classify material from different seizures into groups of related samples and to identify the origin of samples. Such information can be used for evidential (judicial, court) purposes or it can be used as a source of intelligence to identify samples that may have a common origin or history.
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The Presence of Minority HIV Drug Resistance Variants in The Protease and Gag Regions Confers Poor Response to Therapy Among Subtype A And D Patients

Objective: To determine the prevalence of minority drug resistance variants in the protease and Gag regions among patients failing a protease inhibitor (PI) based regimen with or without a susceptible genotype based on Sanger sequencing technology. Methods: Samples were obtained from patients who were failing on a protease inhibitor-based regimen (n = 500). Sanger based sequencing was performed as part of the standard of care. Mutation analysis was performed using the Stanford HIV drug Resistance database. A subset of these patient samples was grouped into two categories: those failing a PI based with mutations in the protease region (n = 100) and those failing on a PI based regimen without mutations in the protease region (n = 128). These samples were then analyzed in the protease and Gag regions using Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) technology and analysis of the drug resistance mutations was performed at the 20% and 1% cutoffs. Results: An initial analysis of the protease region for patients failing with drug resistance mutations revealed that most patients harbored mutations that confer resistance to Lopinavir and Atazanavir, but these mutations had little effect on Darunavir. Furthermore, NGS revealed that in patients failing with and without drug resistance mutations, minority drug resistance mutations were present at each of the drug resistance codons and at codons that confer multi-drug resistance to protease inhibitors. Further analysis of the Gag gene revealed more genetic diversity among patients failing with no mutations in the protease as evidenced by the proportion of polymorphisms at each codon. Conclusion: Based on Sanger sequencing, a proportion of patients fail a PI based regimen with a susceptible genotype. However, these patients harbor minority variants in the protease and numerous polymorphisms in the Gag region which when combined these could explain their poor response to therapy. Therefore, in order to improve patient care in low resource settings, there is need to adapt NGS as the standard genotyping technique so that minority variants are captured much earlier. In addition, since mutations in the Gag region also play a role in response to PIs, this region should be included in the routine monitoring for response to therapy in patients on a PI based regimen.
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Psychoactive Drugs Induced DNA Damage: A Review

Psychoactive substances, also known as psychotropic substances are substances that alter the mental state of a person by affecting the way the nervous system and brain work [1]. Psychoactive substances can cause intoxication and this is generally the major reason why most individuals engage in their use. Individuals who take psychoactive substances experience changes in brain function which alter their mood, consciousness, and/or perceptions. Psychoactive substances are present in different medications, alcohol, plants, and animals [2], many, but not all of which are addictive [1]. The most common psychoactive drugs used by people to alter their mental state are caffeine and alcohol [3]. Although they are available legally, yet, they are harmful both psychologically and physically when used in excess. Usually, the decision of how and when to use these psychoactive drugs is left to the individuals [3], however, in certain situations, the drugs are used for exploitation of others by the alteration of their mental state. For example, Rohypnol has been used as a date-rape [4]. Some of the psychoactive drugs are very unpleasant making the users quit their use. This is the case in certain classic psychedelics (e.g., psilocybin), powerful dissociatives (e.g., Salvia divinorum), and deliriants (e.g., Jimson weed) [5]. Addiction and dependence resulting from the misuse of psychoactive drugs have led to moral debate and legal measures, while governmental controls on prescription, supply, and manufacture have been efforts made to minimize the additive use of these drugs. Also, ethical concerns exist about the marketing of these drugs by manufacturers and their clinical over-use. However, in some countries, there are ongoing popular campaigns geared towards legalizing and decriminalizing the use of some recreational drugs such as cannabis. Many individual, genetic and environmental factors have been reported to work individually or synergistically to decrease or increase the probability that an individual will use a psychoactive drug and to what extent [6]. This review aimed at updating information on the different uses of various psychoactive drugs by humans, the different effects on the biological system, and their reported DNA damaging potential in simulated and real-life scenarios.
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A Review Study on Gender Determination with the Help of Bite Marks Analysis

Bite marks are commonly observed in cases such as slaughter, sexual assault, child abuse cases, and during sports events. Bitemark is a type of ‘patterned injury’ which played an important role as evidence in judicial system. Bite marks can find on various body parts and various edible leftovers at the Crime Scene which can be used as evidence for identification of the criminals. Teeth impression shows sexual dimorphism and therefore helps in gender estimation. The various dental characteristics are individual-specific. A piece of exhaustive information and examination of indentations can help in the vindication of the guiltless as well as give decisive proof to the conviction of criminals. In certain violations, indentation proof is the main proof on which conviction has been accomplished, especially in rape and kid abuse cases. The present review describes the importance of bite mark analysis, estimation of gender through bite marks, and stability of teeth impression in diverse conditions. This article can give a better comprehension of the methodology used in forensic dentistry when investigating dental impressions.
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Anodic Porous Alumina Array for Cyanine Fluorophore Cy3 Confinement

Self-organized anodic porous alumina films with hexagonal pore lattice have attracted a considerable attention for biological arrays and confinement of various organic probes dyes in solutions. A molecular structure with axial symmetry in bis-heterocyclic indole chains and conjugate system, such as cyanine fluorophore Cy3 dye, was investigated here with respect to its fluorescence when loaded in the anodic alumina pores.
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Editorial Board Members Related to GEn

J. Philip Boudreaux

Department of Surgery
Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center
United States

Eugene S. Kim

Associate Professor
Department of Surgery
University of Southern California
United States


Associate Professor
Department of Biomedical and Molecular Sciences
Queen’s University


Department of Anesthesia and Critical Care
Hanoi Medical University

Ibrahim El-Sherbiny

Associate Professor
Department of Nanomaterials Science
University of Science and Technology

Majeda Al-Farajat

Quality and Patient Safety
Prince Sultan Cardiac Center
Saudi Arabia

Ranjana Bhattacharjee

Molecular Geneticist
Bioscience Center
IITA, Ibadan

Khue Vu Ngyen

Departments of Medicine and Pediatrics
University of California

Anthony Joseph Berdis

Assistant Professor
Departments of Chemistry and Biology
Cleveland State University
United States

Kelly A Brayton

Associate Professor
Department of Veterinary Microbiology & Pathology
Washington State University
United States
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