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Articles Related to HIV

The Presence of Minority HIV Drug Resistance Variants in The Protease and Gag Regions Confers Poor Response to Therapy Among Subtype A And D Patients

Objective: To determine the prevalence of minority drug resistance variants in the protease and Gag regions among patients failing a protease inhibitor (PI) based regimen with or without a susceptible genotype based on Sanger sequencing technology. Methods: Samples were obtained from patients who were failing on a protease inhibitor-based regimen (n = 500). Sanger based sequencing was performed as part of the standard of care. Mutation analysis was performed using the Stanford HIV drug Resistance database. A subset of these patient samples was grouped into two categories: those failing a PI based with mutations in the protease region (n = 100) and those failing on a PI based regimen without mutations in the protease region (n = 128). These samples were then analyzed in the protease and Gag regions using Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) technology and analysis of the drug resistance mutations was performed at the 20% and 1% cutoffs. Results: An initial analysis of the protease region for patients failing with drug resistance mutations revealed that most patients harbored mutations that confer resistance to Lopinavir and Atazanavir, but these mutations had little effect on Darunavir. Furthermore, NGS revealed that in patients failing with and without drug resistance mutations, minority drug resistance mutations were present at each of the drug resistance codons and at codons that confer multi-drug resistance to protease inhibitors. Further analysis of the Gag gene revealed more genetic diversity among patients failing with no mutations in the protease as evidenced by the proportion of polymorphisms at each codon. Conclusion: Based on Sanger sequencing, a proportion of patients fail a PI based regimen with a susceptible genotype. However, these patients harbor minority variants in the protease and numerous polymorphisms in the Gag region which when combined these could explain their poor response to therapy. Therefore, in order to improve patient care in low resource settings, there is need to adapt NGS as the standard genotyping technique so that minority variants are captured much earlier. In addition, since mutations in the Gag region also play a role in response to PIs, this region should be included in the routine monitoring for response to therapy in patients on a PI based regimen.
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Liquorice-Induced Pseudohyperaldosteronism with Severe Hypokalaemia in a Young Patient Living with HIV: A Rare Case Presentation and Literature Review

HIV-1 infection treatment has greatly improved with the availability of combined antiretroviral therapy (cART). Unlike Tenofovir Disoproxil Fumarate, Tenofovir Alafenamide has a more favourable renal profile, even if proximal tubulopathy and electrolyte disturbances have been reported. As earlier as 4000 years ago, liquorice root was used for some medical treatments. Excessive liquorice intake is described to cause a state of mineralocorticoid excess. However, liquorice-induced hypokalaemia usually occurs with mild clinical manifestations and a severe presentation is rare.
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The Clinical, Bacteriological and Therapeutic Characteristics of Tuberculosis in Patients Infected with HIV (about 42 Cases)

Tuberculosis still remains a public health priority, especially with the emergence of HIV. It is more and more revealing of the HIV infection. The objective of this study is to analyze the clinical, epidemiological, and therapeutic aspect of tuberculosis in patients infected with HIV.
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Two-Years Follow-Up in a Multidrug-Resistant HIV-1-Infected Woman Treated with Ibalizumab

Diarrhoea is a common and diverse aetiology problem in HIV infected patients that can cause deterioration in the quality of life, malnutrition and failure of antiretroviral therapy (ART). Ibalizumab (IBA), a humanized monoclonal antibody that binds to domain 2 of CD4 T lymphocytes receptor, has been recently approved for treating adults infected with multidrug-resistant HIV-1 infection for whom it is otherwise not possible to construct a suppressive antiviral regimen.
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Enteric Pathogens in Patients with Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome from Porto Velho City, Rondonia State, Western Amazon, Brazil

Patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), mainly those who live under poor sanitary and socioeconomic conditions, are often diagnosed with Gastrointestinal (GI) tract diseases. The lowest CD4+ T-cell counts are not found in the plasma, but in the GI tract, the biggest HIV source, thus allowing opportunistic infections. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to identify the epidemiological factors of GI infections and the prevalent pathogens in HIV patients from Porto Velho City, Rondônia State.
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HIV Screening Scenarios and Targets to Achieve 90% Sero-Status Knowledge Over 2021-2025 in Morocco – Pioneer Use Case of the Goals HIV Testing Strategies Model in a Concentrated Epidemic

Morocco applied the Goals testing model, projecting alternative testing scale-up scenarios, varying coverage targets for 13 adult populations. The model was calibrated using program service delivery, spending and surveillance data (2015-2019), integrated bio-behavioural surveys, and national HIV estimates. It projects annual diagnoses by target group from undiagnosed prevalence and testing coverage, allowing for HIV-infected people self-selecting for testing, retesting and transitions between groups. Scenarios were evaluated for knowledge status improvement and cost, focusing on 2023-2025.
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Development of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) in Patients Infected with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)

Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is considered a public health problem and its prevalence increases over the years, in Brazil. Currently, 37 million people are living with HIV and 4 million of these patients infected with the virus may have COPD. However, many of these cases may be underreported. In Brazil, these two clinical situations (HIV infection and COPD) have a high incidence, which causes a great expense for the public health, increased morbidity and mortality of these patients. We observed that, in the national literature, there is a gap on the association between these two scenarios.
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Indeterminate HIV Status during Pregnancy and Delivery: The Perinatal Dilemma

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Determinants of Mother to Child Transmission of HIV Among Infants Born from HIV Positive Women in North Wollo Zone, North East Ethiopia: 2018, Case Control Study

HIV infection has a pandemic aspect and is extremely severe, making it one of the most important current public health problems.
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Multiplicity of HIV Related Risk Behaviour among Injecting Drug Users in South Asian Countries Evidence from Nepal, Bangladesh, and India

Interface of drug abuse, needle sharing and high-risk-sex are potential menace multiplying HIV risk.
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HIV-Associated Oral Kaposi Sarcoma: Case Report and Literature Review

Kaposi sarcoma (KS) is an angioproliferative polymorfic disorder that might be associated with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. In this clinical form, oral manifestation is particularly common and, sometimes, the first manifestation of the retroviral infection. In those cases, KS diagnosis is fundamental as the treatment is based in HIV infection control through an advisable multidisciplinary approach.
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Tumour or Fungus? A Diagnostic Conundrum

Candida, a commensal of the oral and the vaginal cavity, sometimes turns invasive, in immunosuppressed individuals. The resultant lesion, known as invasive or aggressive candidiasis, can be extremely refractory to treatment. This is a case report of an ulcero proliferative lesion in the hard palate that mimicked an intra-oral neoplasm. The clinical picture was confused by the fact that the patient was a chain smoker, and also because the initial MRI images were strongly suggestive of an invasive malignancy. When clinical and radiological signs exactly mimic a malignancy, the picture is confusing.
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Stimulation of IL-16 Release by Cells Exposed to HIV Virion Proteins

The pathogenesis and immune response to a chronic viral infection is multifaceted especially for HIV infection. The effect of HIV on the systemic immunoenvironment of the infected individual is profound and triggered by multiple stimuli. While replication competent viral infection induces a large spectrum of immune responses, such as cytokine release, we focused on what happens when cells are exposed to replication incompetent virions and their components.
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Acceptability of Provider-Initiated HIV Testing and Counseling as an Intervention for Prevention of Mother to Child Transmission of HIV and Associated Factors Among Pregnant Women Attending at Public Health Facilities in Harar Town Eastern Ethiopia 2018

Accepting one’s HIV sero-status is a critical first step in preventing mother to child transmission of HIV. HIV counseling and testing provides an entry point to PMTCT services for pregnant women.
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Knowledge of HIV/AIDS Among General Practitioners in Health Facilities in Brazzaville in Republic of Congo

Despite the growing HIV burden, the disease continues to receive a relatively high public health priority in the Republic of Congo. To establish the knowledge, attitude, and practice on HIV/AIDS among general practitioners working in Brazzaville and to register their actual behavior in the prevention of HIV/AIDS. The study was a descriptive cross-sectional study. The sample size was 35 General Practitioners. A self- administered questionnaire was used to collect data in a four-week period in August 2017. Selected at random, were asked to participate. The data collected was analyzed using the Statistical Program for EpiInfo.
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Editorial Board Members Related to HIV

Sheng-Fan Wang

Associate Professor
Department of Laboratory Science and Biotechnology
Kaohsiung Medical University
Taiwan

Bechan Sharma

Professor
Department of Biochemistry
University of Allahabad
India

Dagmara McGuinness

Research Associate
College of Medical
Veterinary & Life Sciences
Institute of Cancer Sciences
Western Infirmary Glasgow
Scotland

RAJNISH S. DAVE

Associate Scientist
Department of Neuroscience
Temple University
United States

Efimia Papadopoulou-Alataki

Assistant professor
Aristotle University of Thessaloniki
Papageorgiou Hospital
Greece

Makobetsa Khati

Department at CSIR Biosciences
Pretoria
South Africa

HamidReza Naderi

Associate Professor
Department of Infectious Diseases
Imam Reza University Hospital
Iran

Helena Nunes Cabaco

Research associate
Institute of Molecular Medicine
Faculty of Medicine
University of Lisbon
Portugal

Xiao-Jian Yao

Associate Professor
Department of Medical Microbiology
University of Manitoba
Canada

SHITTU RASAQ OLATUNJI

Head of Department of HIV/AIDS and Family Medicine
Kwara State Specialist Hospital
Nigeria
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