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Identification of Pyrrolidinophenone-type Designer Drugs by Gas Chromatography/ Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry

Use of gas chromatography (GC) combined with time-of –flight mass spectrometry (TOFMS) with soft ionization generated with three different plasma gases (i.e., Xe, Kr, Ar) was evaluated for the identification of several pyrrolidinophenone-type designer drugs that are commercially available.
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Tame to Torture: Psychosexual Correlations of Sex, Violence and Torture

This paper discusses the psychosexual correlations and psychological consequences related to torture and behavioral acts that are fundamentally torturous. The influence of participation by learning and the relationship of acts to thought and thought to acts are further discussed to raise awareness to the effects of torture on the torturer. Theories from multiple disciplines are presented in an integrated context to examine the correlation between fundamental psychological principles associated with acts that are torturous in nature and, therefore, innately evil.
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Programming Scripts for Simple and Complex Paternity Testing based on Open-Source Programming Language from the R Project

Programming scripts were written for the statistical analysis of genetic data from simple cases and complex cases of undetermined paternity. The methods presented here involve algorithms constructed with R, an open-source and increasingly popular programming language used for calculations and statistics; these methods also involve conditional probability analysis, Bayes’ Theorem, and pedigree analysis.
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Stature Estimation from the Anthropometric Measurements of Footprint in Iban Ethnics of East Malaysia by Regression Analysis

A person’s stature is an identifying characteristic that is often used in forensic investigation. Footprint is the one of the valuable physical evidence encountered in the crime scenes and examination of barefoot impressions is important especially in developing countries like India, Malaysia where majority of the rural population like to walk barefooted because of socio-economic and climatic reasons.
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The Flesh Fly Sarcophaga (Liopygia) crassipalpis Macquart 1839 as an Invader of a Corpse in Calabria (Southern Italy)

We present an indoor forensic case that occurred in spring 2013 in Cosenza (southern Italy). The entomological evidence collected at the scene consisted of Calliphoridae (Calliphora vicina, Lucilia sericata), Sarcophagidae (Sarcophaga crassipalpis), Fanniidae (Fannia scalaris) and Muscidae (Hydrotaea ignava).
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NMR Assignment of N-(1-adamantyl)-1-pentyl-1H-indazole-3-carboxamide Seized as Herbal Incense for the First Time in Italy

The synthetic cannabinoid, N-(1-adamantyl)-1-pentyl-1H-indazole-3-carboxamide, known also as AKB48 and/or APINACA, has been detected for the first time in herbal incense seized in Italy. Its structural characterization has been performed through gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and high-resolution nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis. In order to favor an easier and faster identification of AKB48 in future investigations, NMR assignments in deuterated methanol and chloroform is also reported.
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The Perception of a Woman’s Love in a Relationship with a Prisoner is Erotic and Altruistic

Studies have reported the effects of imprisonment on the wives and girlfriends of prisoners, but have not investigated how these women perceive love and commitment. This study analyzes four different styles of love: eros (romantic love), storge (amicably love), mania (possessive love), and agape (altruistic love) in a sample of 96 women who are in relationships with prisoners.
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The Fatal Alcoholic Ketoacidosis as a Dilemma in the Differential Diagnosis in Unexpected Deaths

48-years old man was found dead at home, lying in his bed. There was a bucket with liquid vomited remnants with no addition of fresh or digested blood found near the bed and an empty bottle of alkaline mineral water often used to attenuate the gastric pain.
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Headspace GC-MS Detection of Carbon Monoxide in Decomposed Blood and Hepatic Tissues

Here in a systematic, accurate and reliable method, Head-Space Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (HS-GC/MS) was developed to determine blood carboxyhemoglobin (COHb%), in order to investigate deaths related to CO exposure especially involving blood and hepatic tissues.
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Identification of Designer Drugs using Gas Chromatography High-Resolution Mass Spectrometry and a Soft-Ionization Source

Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) with electron ionization (EI) or chemical ionization (in positive or negative mode) plays an important role in the forensic analysis of designer drugs.
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Law & Psychiatry in India: An Overview

The application of legal knowledge to psychiatry and of psychiatric knowledge to the legal issues is the subspecialty of psychiatry know as forensic psychiatry. In India, forensic psychiatry is still in its infancy. The legal issues pertaining to the mental health care in India appeared only after British Rule, with very minimal changes occurring post independence.
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Improvement in Latent Fingermark Detection on Thermal Paper using 5,6-Dimethoxy-1,2-indandione/PVP

A new method for improvement of 1,2-indandione-treated latent fingermarks on thermal paper will be described in this paper. Treatment with conventional techniques like ninhydrin in petroleum ether or DFO solution produces a black color on the thermosensitive side of thermal paper.
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Legal Medical Age Estimation in Portuguese Adult Cadavers: Evaluation of the Accuracy of Forensic Dental Invasive and Non-Invasive Methods

Age estimation of unknown human cadavers is important in setting a crime investigation, such as homicide, suicide or in mass disaster because it can guide forensic investigators to the correct identity among a large number of possible matches. More and more the courts ask for medico-legal age estimations of unknown human cadavers by forensic dentistry.
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The Impact of Advances in Post-Mortem Imaging on Forensic Practice

Post-mortem imaging in the form of plain X-ray films has been in use for many years as an adjunct or occasionally as a substitute for autopsy. However, in the last two decades there has been increasing interest and investigation into the use of advanced techniques such as Computed Tomography (CT) and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) in death investigation.
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The Infanticide: Some Forensic and Ethical Issues

Forensic investigation and clinical treatment of infanticide mother is an occasion to reflect about the social stigma associated with this crime. The forensic-psychiatric assessment must be anchored on an authentic and meaningful clinical relationship to criminal mother, without misinterpretation and countertransferal dynamics, such as emotional reactions of mistrust and stigmatization of the offender.
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Recent Developments in Human Odor Detection Technologies

Human odor detection technologies have drawn attention due to the wide possibility of potential applications they open up in areas such as biometrics, criminal investigation and forensics, search for survivors under rubble, and security checkpoint screening. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) has been the most successful and powerful analytical approach developed to date for human odor analysis, and hundreds of human odorants have been identified using this tool.
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Electronic-nose Applications in Forensic Science and for Analysis of Volatile Biomarkers in the Human Breath

The application of electronic-nose (E-nose) technologies in forensic science is a recent new development following a long history of progress in the development of diverse applications in the related biomedical and pharmaceutical fields. Data from forensic analyses must satisfy the needs and requirements of both the scientific and legal communities. The type of data collected from electronic-nose devices provides a means of identifying specific types of information about the chemical nature of evidentiary objects and samples under investigation using aroma signature profiles of complex gaseous mixtures containing volatile organic compounds (VOCs) released from manufactured products and parts of the human body. E-nose analyses also provide useful qualitative information about the physicochemical characteristics and metabolic conditions of human subjects without the need for time-consuming analyses to identify all chemical components in human-derived volatile mixtures.
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Analysis of Sweat Simulant Mixtures using Multiplexed Arrays of DNA-Carbon Nanotube Vapor Sensors

Carbon nanotube (NT) based electronic vapor sensors were tested against synthetic sweat solutions, consisting of 13 volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in saline, in order to probe the device ability to analyze and differentiate vapors derived from complex biological samples.
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Characteristic Human Scent Compounds Trapped on Natural and Synthetic Fabrics as analyzed by SPME-GC/MS

The collection of human odor volatiles is of interest to forensic applications as a path to investigate canine scent discriminations in legal investigations. A study using a selected array of previously identified human odor compounds has been conducted to determine the retention and release capabilities of five (5) natural and synthetic fabric types, cotton (mercerized fabric and gauze matrix), polyester, rayon and wool.
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