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Articles Related to Materials

Encapsulation Applications and Production Techniques in the Food Industry

The encapsulation method is a process applied to increase the shelf life of the active food components, ensure their stability, perform their controlled release and improve their functional properties. Active particles such as fatty acids, peptides, vitamins and probiotics are coated with coating materials such as starch derivatives, gelatin, gum arabic to eliminate external effects.
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Remineralization Activities of Bioactive Materials and Nanotechnological Products Used in Pediatric Dentistry

Tooth decay is a progressive disease caused by acid fermentation of carbohydrates by pathogenic microorganisms in the mouth, leading to demineralization of teeth.
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Changing of Charge Carriers Concentration in a Diffusion-Junction Rectifier with Variation of Radiation Processing of Materials

In this paper we analyzed changing of dynamics of redistribution of dopant during manufacturing of diffusion-junction rectifier in a heterostructure due to radiation processing.
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Preparation and Performance Analysis of High Temperature Resistant and High Strength Alcohol Soluble Phosphate/Phenolic Hybrid Adhesive

A kind of alcohol-soluble phosphate adhesive was prepared by using phosphate solution as raw material. A hybrid high temperature and high strength adhesive was prepared by adding phenolic resin. The wetting condition of water-soluble and alcohol-soluble phosphate adhesive on the surface of hydrophobic material, the composition and mechanical properties of the adhesive were analyzed by means of liquid drop shape analyzer (DSA), X-ray diffraction instrument and universal tensile force machine. The results show that the alcohol-soluble phosphate adhesive has good wetting effect on hydrophobic materials and has excellent high temperature resistance and mechanical properties.
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A Review of the Economist’s Approach to Pollution and Its Control

Pollution, being a social and environmental problem, has been a subject of inquiry by environmental economists. Environmental economists see pollution as an externality problem or a market failure, and have therefore investigated factors affecting pollution and its control.
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Biomaterials Characterization for Orthopedic Orthoses: a Systematic Revi

The term biomaterial is used for materials used in medical implants, extracorporeal and disposable devices, and must have compatible biological, physical, chemical and mechanical characteristics for use in humans. Objective: to identify and characterize the biomaterials used for the preparation of orthopedic orthoses.
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Palynological and Lithological Investigation of Forensic Materials at the University of Lagos, Nigeria: First Experimental Palynological Approach in Nigeria

Security agencies are always saddled with huge responsibilities of trying to establish evidences to link a suspect to a particular crime. But in most cases, there are always very limited physical evidences due to the complexity of the crime. However, forensic palynology provides a very good option, because pollen and spores from plants are very minute, ubiquitous in distribution and are seldom useful in recovery of vegetation of a certain locality. This present study aims to assess the feasibility of pollen, spores, and sand grains as associative evidences recovered from a suspect linked with a crime scene. Forensic materials including soil samples from foot wear, dirt from clothes, earlobes and nostrils were retrieved from the body of a suspect at a particular location in Nigeria. The retrieved materials were subjected to standard laboratory palynological, biochemical and lithological procedures. The dionex analysis (anion) and atomic absorption spectrometry (cation) shows great similarity in the results obtained with an exception to Zinc. A considerable similarity was observed in the potential of hydrogen and salinity values of soil samples from both the suspect and crime scene. The lithological data reveals a great correlation in the colour, grain size, grain sorting, and grain texture and grain shape of these two different soil samples. The palynological analysis yielded a recovery of palynomorphs including pollen of Elaeis guineensis, Alchornea cordifoliia, Cassia fistula, Syzygium guineense, Cyperus papyrus, Pteris species and Nephrolepis biserrata were also recovered. This reveals the potential of retrieved materials from the body of a suspect as good sources of pollen and spores. It is however important to corroborate the use of palynomorphs and sand grains with other lines of evidences in solving crime-related disputes.
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A Review of the Production and Upgrading of Biofuel; Raw Materials, Processes and Products

The increase in the population of the planet and the rapid economic growth and, consequently, the high consumption of energy has created many environmental problems. Due to these reasons and the lack of renewability of these fossil fuels, there has been a steep trend towards the production of renewable fuels, one of which is the production of energy from biomass. In this study, biofuel production from biomass has been investigated using the pyrolysis method, a method that reduces the production of oil from millions of years to a few seconds, and is the most industrialized thermochemical method for producing fuel from biomass. This research focuses on thermochemical processes, pyrolysis principles, specifications, chemical composition and applications of biofuels, and the devices and equipment needed for it. This research is the A new approach for research and study on bio-refineries in the future.
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The In Vitro Evaluation of Calcium and Bioactive Glass Based Pulp Capping Materials

Vital pulp preservation in the treatment of deep caries is challenging due to sealing issue. The aim of this study was to compare the physicochemical properties and radiopacity of various light curing pulp capping materials. In this study, SEM-EDS analysis and the radiopacity of four different pulp capping materials including ThereCal LC, Biner LC, Calci Plus LC, and Activa-Bioactive were evaluated. Each material was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and chemical composition of each material was analyzed by energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopic (EDS) analysis. The diskshaped specimens (8 mm diameter and 1 mm thickness) were prepared from each material and exposed to a digital x-ray along with an aluminum step wedge for the radiopacity assay. The statistical analysis was performed with ANOVA and Duncan’s post-hoc test.
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The Effect of Different Surface Treatments and Cement Materials on the Bonding between Dentine and Restorative Materials

The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of different surface treatments and cement materials on the bonding between dentine and restorative materials. In this study, 135 extracted third human molars, three different restorative materials (Cr-Co alloys, composite and zirconia) were used. Acid etching and sandblasting were used the surface of materials and one group was identified to control group. After the surface treatments, restorative materials were bonded to dentine with three cement materials (self-adhesive resin cement, conventional resin cement and glass ionomer cement). The shear bond strength (SBS) test was applied by using a universal testing machine. The statistically analysis of obtained data were performed with use n-way analysis of variance test.The result of n-way analysis of variance test showed that there were statically significant differences either surface treatments or luting cements on the bonding dentine to restorative materials (p=0.001). The results showed that the lowest shear bond value (3.24±3.62 N) was identified in control group of zirconia materials bonded to dentine with glass ionomer cement. The highest shear bond value (94.66±68.36 N) was identified in acid etched composite materials bonded to dentine with conventional resin cement.
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Characterization of the Resin Luting Materials: Percentage, Morphology and Mechanical Properties

The purpose of this study was: 1) to determine the percentage of fillers by weight of the investigated materials by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), to examine their fillers morphology using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), 2) and to evaluate the mechanical properties of these materials.
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Health Food and Traditional Chinese Medicine in China

Like a drug for a purpose of treating or preventing a disease, a health food has to be scientifically evaluation and officially approved before it legally is marketed in China.
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A Non-Contact Passive Approach for the Effective Collection of Target Explosive Volatiles for Canine Training Aid Development

The use of real explosive materials for canine training involves inherent dangers, toxicity risks exposure, and often limited availability of the training material all of which may affect the reliable training of canine teams. For this reason, the development of a training aid suitable for daily operations is beneficial to provide safe and effective explosive detection training that can provide for enhanced detection capabilities.
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Serum Haptoglobin Responses following Rumenotomy in the Sahel Goat

Fifteen Sahel goats were randomly allocated into three groups A, B and C to evaluate Serum Haptoglobin (Hp) profiles following rumenotomy as markers of surgical stress using Quantitative ELISA.
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Characterization of Screen-Printed Nickel Oxide Electrodes for p-type Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

Mesoporous NiO films obtained via screen-printing deposition of a newly formulated paste containing preformed NiO-nanospheres have been employed as nanostructured photocathodes of p-type dye-sensitized solar cells (p-DSCs).
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Ordered Growth of Anodic Aluminum Oxide in Galvanostatic and Galvanostatic-Potentiostatic Modes

The results are presented of obtaining anodic aluminum oxide with an ordered pore arrangement by employing two anodizing modes - galvanostatic mode and combined (galvanostatic + potentiostatic) mode, at high values of the current density and voltage. Use has been made of an oxalate electrolyte and a complex electrolyte comprising oxalic acid and phosphoric acid. Scanning electron microscopy has been used to investigate the surface morphology of the barrier and porous layers and to determine pore sizes and inter-pore distance.
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Anodic Porous Alumina Array for Cyanine Fluorophore Cy3 Confinement

Self-organized anodic porous alumina films with hexagonal pore lattice have attracted a considerable attention for biological arrays and confinement of various organic probes dyes in solutions. A molecular structure with axial symmetry in bis-heterocyclic indole chains and conjugate system, such as cyanine fluorophore Cy3 dye, was investigated here with respect to its fluorescence when loaded in the anodic alumina pores.
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Anodizing for Design and Function

Two basic reactions occur during the anodizing of aluminum: 1) the aluminum is consumed and 2) an oxide grows. By accepting this statement as true, the anodizing process can be viewed as a corrosion process, and anodizing can be modeled using the Tafel Equation. Anodizing process parameters of electrolyte chemistry and concentration, temperature, aluminum substrate resistance and current density are presented as they relate to the Tafel Equation and how they impact the anodic aluminum oxide structure and properties. Understanding this relationship is consequent in making anodizing an engineering process, one that enables tuning the structure such that it yields distinct characteristics to fulfill design and application requirements.
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The Effects of the Film Thickness and Roughness in the Anodization Process of Very Thin Aluminum Films

The anodization of aluminum foils having micrometer thickness is a common process and results in hexagonally self-ordered alumina membranes. However, anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) membranes fabricated from nanometer-thin films present new challenges to the anodization process, since aluminum films adheres poorly on supporting substrates and the smoothness of the film is highly related to the kind of substrate.
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Anodic Oxidation of Titanium in Sulphuric Acid and Phosphoric Acid Electrolytes

Anodisation of pure titanium has been carried out in sulphuric and in phosphoric acid solutions at potentials ranging from 50 to 150V. The SEM and AFM morphological analysis indicates that, within this potential range, oxidation in sulphuric acid solution produces better developed mesoporous oxide layers.
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Fabrication of Ordered Arrays of Anodic Aluminum Oxide Pores with Interpore Distance Smaller than the Pitch of Nano-pits formed by Ion Beam Etching

We investigated a method for preparation of ordered nanopore arrays with the interpore distance of 60 nm by guided self-organization of anodic aluminum oxide with a prepatterned array of pits in the starting Al film.
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Preparation of Large Area Anodic Alumina Membranes and their Application to Thin Film Fuel Cell

The design of an electrochemical reactor for the preparation of self-supported comparatively thin (up to 10 μm) and large area (up to 50 cm2) anodic alumina membranes is described allowing growth of porous alumina at high applied potential (up to 150 V) without burning.
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Fabrication of Vertical Cu2ZnSnS4 Nanowire Arrays by Two-Step Electroplating Method into Anodic Aluminum Oxide Template

Vertical Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) nanowire arrays have been synthesized via two-step electroplating method into anodized aluminum oxide template. For deposition of CZTS nanowires, anodized aluminum oxide (AAO) was used as the growth mask for the growth of the nanowires. AAO templates with hole sizes of 70 nm in diameter were used in the experiments.
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Fabrication and Luminescence of Anodic Alumina with Incorporated Vanadyl Citrate Chelate Anions

Anodic aluminum oxide doped with vanadyl citrate chelate complex anions was formed by a two-step self-organized anodization in 2 wt. % sulfuric acid containing 0.04 M V2O5 and 0.08 M citric acid at voltage range 13-23 V, and at 0 and 15 oC. The combination of two temperatures and at least four voltages (depending on the applied temperature) was applied as the operating conditions of anodization.
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Synthesis of BaTiO3 Nanowires via Anodic Aluminum Oxide Template Method Assisted by Vacuum-and-Drop Loading

In this paper, we report on the synthesis of BaTiO3 nanowires via the anodic aluminum oxide template method. To fill in the precursors of BaTiO3 into anodic aluminum oxide templates, the vacuum and drop loading method developed in our previous study was used. Ba(CH3COO)2 (barium acetate) and C12H28O4Ti (tetraisopropyl orthotitanate) were used as Ba and Ti sources, respectively. Anodic aluminum oxide membranes with the through-hole diameter of ~200 nm were used as the template for BaTiO3 nanowires.
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Editorial Board Members Related to Materials

Marisa Di Sabatino Lundberg

Associate Professor
Department of Materials Science and Engineering
Norwegian University of Science and Technology
Norway

Hui-Ru Shih

Professor
Department of Technology
Jackson State University
United States

Suresh Valiyaveettil

Associate Professor
Department of Chemistry
National University of Singapore
Singapore

Ibrahim El-Sherbiny

Associate Professor
Department of Nanomaterials Science
University of Science and Technology
Egypt

Mo SONG

Professor
Department of Materials
Loughborough University
United Kingdom

HARRY E. RUDA

Professor
Department of Materials Science and Engineering
University of Toronto
Canada

RAFFAELE MAROTTA

Associate Professor of Industrial Chemistry
Department of Chemical Engineering, Materials and Industrial Production
University of Naples Federico II
Italy

Fatima Machado

Forensic Scientist
Forensic Science Lab
Portugal

Rosana Goldbeck

Assistant Professor
Department of Food Engineering
Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona (UAB)
Brazil

Hao Yi

Assistant Professor
Department of Materials Science and Engineering
Chongqing University
China
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