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The Combined Effect of 2,4-Epibrassinolide and Chilling Stress on Tomato Cultivars Differing in Maturity

Low temperature (but above-freezing) during germination and early seedling growth of chilling-sensitive crop is one of the most significant limiting factors in the productivity. 2,4-Epibrassinolide (24-EB) is one of the most active forms of brassinosteroids are multifunctional plant hormones that can regulate development and respond to abiotic stresses. The effect of seed-pretreatment with 24-EB (12.5 μg/L) on photosynthetic characteristics, membrane permeability, lipid peroxidation and antioxidant activities under chilling stress were investigated in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) cultivars: Kulon (early ripening) and Yakhont (mid-early). Results showed that the use of 24-EB led to more pronounced changes in the pigment composition in Yakhont in the absence of a stress factor, whereas in Kulon under chilling stress (2 o C for 24 h). 24-EB pretreatment minimized the damage to cell membranes in tomato plants caused by chilling stress. The tolerance to chilling stress in Yakhont was higher than Kulon (by electrolyte leakage and content of malondialdehyde assay). Under these conditions, oxidative processes in plants of Yakhont did not show significant difference. We have not established the effect of 24-EB on the level of low molecular weight antioxidants in tomato cultivars (measured by inhibition of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl free radical method). The antioxidant activity of leaf extracts in Yakhont was twice as high as in Kulon under all experimental conditions (with/without 24-EB, 22/2 o C). It was concluded that the less pronounced reaction of plants of Yakhont to the use of 24-EB and chilling stress is due to their genetically determined higher cold resistance than that of Kulon.
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Medial Meniscus Dislocation: One Case Report and Literature Review

We present rare case of medial meniscus dislocation, in a 25 years old female patient who was admitted in emergency department. With painful locked left knee. Arthroscopy was done next day showing isolated dislocation of medial meniscus with the absence of any medial meniscus tear. Only reduction of the medial meniscus was done. Postoprative MRI confirmed the diagnosis and showed no tears in the medial meniscus. Physiotherapy and clinical follow up were done with good results and no recurrence for 4 months postoperative.
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An Innovative Look at Buckling of Cracked Ghraphene Nano Sheets Using Novel Extended Molecular Mechanics Method

In this paper, we take a creative look at the effect of cracking on the buckling of graphene sheets. We introduced a significant improvement in molecular mechanical calculations that more accurately examine the behavior of atomic bonds during the instability of nanostructures in the presence of defects. A molecular mechanics method based on the modified couple stress (MCS) theory to consider the size effect on the graphene plate is introduced. Primary cracks with different lengths, orientations, and numbers were examined. For each crack, buckling parameters such as critical load and buckling modes of graphene sheets were investigated. This model has better computational performance and less computational compactness than other models. Our studies show that cracks perpendicular to the load direction have a greater effect on buckling parameters, including modes and critical buckling load than cracks aligned to the critical load. Increasing the crack length will further reduce the critical buckling load. The effect of the number of cracks in two directions in buckling parameters was investigated. Increasing the number of cracks always decreases a critical buckling load. Increasing the number of cracks affects the first buckling mode more than others. The study of the eccentricity of cracks shows that with increasing the eccentricity distance, in cracks perpendicular to the loading direction, the critical buckling load will be further reduced. However, for cracks aligned with the load direction, increasing the eccentric distance has less effect on reducing the critical buckling load.
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German Dentists’ Knowledge About How to Proceed in Cases of Suspected Child Abuse and Neglect

Introduction: Studies from several countries have shown that there is a lack of knowledge related to child protection among dentists and their teams. So far, there are no data available about the situation in Germany. Aim of this study is to describe the perception of the role of German dentists in terms of child abuse and neglect. Material and Methods: A questionnaire previously used by other studies regarding the role of dentists in child protection was adapted to German terminology and provided online. The internet address has been shown in different German dentists’ association journals addressing dentists only. The participation was voluntary. Results: A total of 251 (79.68%) dentists completed the questionnaire with valid data, 62.5% reported to have had a sus- picion of child abuse or neglect. Of these, 21,7% had reported their suspicion to the social services. Dentists specialized in pediatric dentistry reported their suspicion more often. Most frequently reported barriers towards contacting social services were uncertainty about diagnosis, fear of violence towards the child and the lack of knowledge in terms of referral procedures. Most of the participants expressed a need for further education. Conclusion: Dentists in Germany are not able to fill their role in child protection matters sufficiently and show a need for undergraduate and continuing postgraduate training.
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Evaluation of Weather Conditions as Well as NO2 and PM 2.5 Levels in the Urban Areas of South Brazil in Different Seasons

Due to the ever-increasing importance of studying pollution effects on environment and population, the development of methodologies for the evaluation of atmospheric pollutants has allowed great advances concerning air quality monitoring. Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and fine particulate matters (PM2.5) have as major sources vehicle engine exhausts and industrial processes. In the municipality of Pelotas, the economical and industrial growth allied to the expansion of the local vehicle fleet have brought several impacts on human health and environment. For this region, there are few studies concerning air pollution monitoring and dispersion. Data were collected seasonally (summer, autumn, winter and spring) in eight points (Porto, Areal, Centro, Fragata, Simões Lopes, Três Vendas, Laranjal,and Capão do Leão) over the city area, aiming to have a picture of the city as a whole. Annual mean ± standard deviation of the PM2.5 measurements are: Porto 48.95±6.28, Areal 3.29±4.56, Centro 39.56±7.05, Fragata 30.28±3.59,Simões Lopes9.5±.9, Três Vendas 3.4±3.80, Laranjal 29.79±2.34, Capão do Leão 24.25±3.2 and annual mean ±standard deviation for NO2 were: Porto 9.06±.5, Areal 0.49±0.94, Centro 4.3±0.89, Fragata 2.44±0.56, Trem 7.20±0.99, Três Vendas 2.94±.22, Laranjal 8.83±.97, Capão do Leão 6.77±0.76. We conclude that there are significant differences in different places of the city, mainly due to traffic and human activities characteristics of each point. On the other hand, meteorological factors act similarly in all sites concerning the pollution dispersion.
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Socio-Demographic, Clinical Characteristics and Blood Lipid profiles of Type 1 Diabetic Patients Followed in Regional Hospitals in The Northern Zone of Cameroon

Background and Objective: In Cameroon, given the galloping growth in the prevalence of diabetes, in particular type 1 diabetes in the northern regions, we undertook this study, with the objective to improve the management of type 1 diabetes by determining the socio-demographic, clinical characteristics and lipid profiles of the patients followed in the care centers of regional hospitals of Maroua, Garoua and Ngaoundere. Methods: We undertook a descriptive cross-sectional study from 07 August 2018 to 07 May 2019 in the care centers of the regional hospitals. Sociodemographic and clinical data were collected by interview to consent patient through structured questionnaires in the survey sheet. Anthropometric data were also determined during the survey, and the blood was collected in referred laboratory for determination of some lipid profiles parameters. Results: On a sample of 467 Patient suffering from diabetes, 68 were of type 1, representing a prevalence of 26%. Type 1 diabetes Patients were mostly female (61.8%) and the mean age was 20.72 ± 3.4 years with a high percentage between 20-30 years (51.5%). More than half of our patients were pupils and students, many of them practiced Muslims as religion (58.8%). In most of cases (51.3%), the disease was diagnosed after one year as a result of illness. The majority of our patients were non-smokers (98.5%) and less athletic (32.4%). The mean Body Mass Index (BMI) was 23.03 ± 2.7 kg /m2 with an average waist circumference of 80.26 ± 9.23 cm in men and 82.15 ± 10.45 in women. Their treatment was based essentially on insulin therapy, mainly using regular and intermediate insulins. More than half of the subjects had high blood glucose (78.1%), high triglyceride (34.1%) and HDL-cholesterol (29.3%) levels. Most of the patients suffered from overweight/obesity, high blood pressure, arthritis, kidney failure and other diseases (malaria, jaundice, stomach ache). No significant relation was found between clinical and the sociodemographic and blood lipid profiles. Conclusion: It emerges from this study that type 1 diabetes represent high proportions of diabetes cases in septentrional area of Cameroon, and affect mostly young of less than 30 years old, dominated by women, practicing Muslim as religion. Their clinical profile characterized by high frequency of overweight/obesity, kidney failure and arthritis vary, but not significantly, with neither their sociodemographic nor their blood lipid profiles. Absence of sport, female and less control of their hypoglycemia are factors risks of the progression of the disease.
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Evaluation of System Usability Scale as A Marker of Non-Human Computer Interface’s Usability: A Sanitizer Container-Based Study

The use and the production of sanitizers have increased in the post-pandemic situation to prevent the further spread of COVID-19. Usability assessment of sanitizer containers is essentially required to evaluate the effectiveness, efficiency, and satisfactory use of the sanitizer containers. This study aimed to evaluate the system usability scale (SUS) as a marker of perceived usability of non-human computer interfaces, such as - sanitizer containers. The perceived usability of three types of sanitizer containers was evaluated using SUS. The authors have measured the reliability, convergent, and discriminant validity to evaluate SUS as a marker of usability of sanitizer containers. The result showed that SUS lacks convergent validity though it has a higher reliability coefficient. Thus, this is not the best measure of usability for non-human computer interfaces like-sanitizer containers. The SUS was applied on the flip cap, finger-pressure pump, and spray-type sanitizer containers. The finger-pressure pump container has exhibited a higher SUS score than others. The results of this study have given an idea about the usability of three different kinds of sanitizer containers. This research provides an overview of the application of SUS on non-Human computer interfaces like sanitizer containers. This study provides limitations like lack of convergent validity and ideas to overcome common method bias.
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Evaluation of the Parodontal Health of Schoolchildren from Widou in Ferlo (Senegal)

Introduction: Mechanical disorganization of the bacterial biofilm is the cornerstone of the prevention of gingivitis and periodontitis periodontal diseases. The objective of this study was to evaluate the periodontal health of schoolchildren in Widou, Ferlo. Methodology: This was a descriptive, cross-sectional study of schoolchildren living in Widou in the centre of Ferlo. The survey was exhaustive and concerned the only school in the locality. The epidemiological data collected concerned oral hygiene practice, periodontal health and socio-demographic characteristics such as sex, age and educational level. The degree of hygiene was assessed by the Silness and Loe plaque index (Plaque Index); inflammation and bleeding on probing were assessed by the Loe and Silness gingival index (Gingival Index). Results: In a total of 126 schoolchildren, boys and girls were equally represented and the average age was 10 years +/- 2.16.Sixty-nine percent (69%) of the children examined did not use a toothbrush. Of these, more than 47% reported brushing 3 times a day. The plaque index mean value was 1.23 and 99.2% of the population had a moderate plaque control. The average gingival index was 0.96 and 80.2% of the sample had moderate gingival inflammation. Conclusion: The study showed a relatively low rate of toothbrush use in contrast to the tooth stick and a relatively high rate of periodontal index. Communication-based approaches to behaviour change in children are needed to improve periodontal health.
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Ethnobotanical Study of ARTEMISIA IFRANENSIS J. DIDIER in Timahdite Region (Central Middle Atlas of Morocco)

With the purpose of valorizing the aromatic and medicinal plants, essentielly the Asteraceae family, and ethnopharmacological heritage in the area of Timahdite province of Ifrane, Morocco. An fieldwork has been carried and consists of conducting an ethnobotanical survey on Artemisia ifranensis J. Didier, endemic species, in the region of Timahdite, located in the Moroccan Middle Atlas. The Ethnobotanical study realised in June-July 2012 beside 82 different respondents permitted to describe their medicinal use at the local scale based on the local Known-how, and constitute a source of very precious information for the area studied and for subsequent researches for the domains of the phytochemistry and pharmacology in order to search for new natural substance. In tyhis study, the survey targeted men (70 %) and women (30 %), aged 30 to 50 years and The data Analysis showed that the overall level of schooling of the town was low (64% of the illiterate). The results of the study also had allowed to notice that the leaves was the usual used part (61 %). Most remedies are prepared in decoction (72%). Either, the survey revealed that the medicinal specie was mainly used against diseases of the digestive tract (63%), as well as for other treatment of various diseases as dermatological affection, and for relieving headaches or neuralgia. Moreover, it also comes out from it that the conservation and the sustainable management of the medicinal species identified should be ensured through a management plan.
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Gangliocytic Paraganglioma of the Appendix; A Rare Case Report and Review

Gangliocytic paraganglioma (GP) (nonchromaffin paraganglioma, paraganglioma) is a morphologically distinct tumor most commonly occurring in the second part of the duodenum in the proximity of ampulla of Vater. We herein, present a case report of appendiceal mass in a 16-year-old male who presented with recurrent right iliac fossa pain and steno sing cecal tumor on CT abdomen. He underwent right hemicolectomy and histopathological examination of appendix showed infiltration of appendiceal wall with gangliocytic paraganglioma. To our knowledge this is the first reported case of gangliocytic paraganglioma of appendix in our area.
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Clodronate : A Potential DMOAD in Osteoarthtitis

Osteoarthritis is an inflammatory-degenerative joint disease that affects the osteochondral unit with the concomitant intervention of the immune system; this causes pain and progressive functional limitation. With a varied and complex etiopathogenesis, Osteoarthritis has a subtle outcome and an inexorable evolution towards joint deformity. The therapeutic approach makes use of non-pharmacological and pharmacological aids. Pharmacological therapy consists of symptomatic drugs that act on acute and especially chronic pain, in an attempt to decrease the incidence of any structural damage to the cartilage and subchondral bone. If the anti-resorptive drugs cure the subchondral-epiphyseal osteometabolic pathology, the interventions on the cartilage have not produced important and well evaluable results, even after prolonged therapies. This contribution analyzes the profile of Clodronate, used for the treatment of subchondral bone edema in Osteoarthritis, regarding its potential protective effects in cartilage, like DMOADs.
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An Unexpected Diagnosis of Plasmacytoma of The Thyroid: A Case Report and Review of The Literature

Plasmacytoma is a malignant proliferation of plasma cells that can arise in the bone marrow (osseous) and in the soft tissues. Extramedullary plasmacytomas most commonly occur in the upper respiratory tract. Thyroid involvement is rare. In this report, we describe a new case plasmacytoma of the thyroid gland in a 60-year-old man with a history of multinodular goiter present for several years and an unexpected rapid increase of the mass associated to dysphagia, dyspnea, and dysphonia. Histopathological examination of surgical specimen, along with immunohistochemical studies, unexpectedly led to the diagnosis of plasmacytoma. We also briefly summarize the last 30 years of literature on thyroid plasmacytoma and review the salient characteristics of this rare condition.
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Does Pre-Workout Supplement Consumption Affect Enamel Microhardness?

The aim of this study was to compare in vitro the micro hardness of enamel exposed to the erosive effects of three pre-workout drinks. Forty blocks (4mmx4mm) of bovine enamel were randomly selected and divided among the following pre-workout drinks (n=10): G1: Universal Shock Therapy®, G2: 1.M.R Vortex™, G3: Jack3Dmicro™, G4: Control (distilled water). The enamel microhardness was evaluated before (T1) and after (T2) the in vitro erosive test (5 min/3 times/5 days) using a Vickers digital microduremeter (load 100g/penetration 15s). The data was analyzed using descriptive statistics (mean, ±sd) and for comparison testing, using the Kruskall Wallis test and the t Student test (p≤ 0.05). All groups showed a reduction in micro hardness after the erosive test (p =0.001).1.M.R Vortex™ drink showed a large decrease in micro hardness (%SMH:34,92%). Pre-workout drinks significantly decreased the superficial micro hardness of enamel
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Mattress Coil Spring Fatigue and Support: A Potential Association with Spine Stiffness and Pain

Prolong mattress use compresses the metal coil springs which may ultimately result in a compromised sleeping surface. This coil spring metal fatigue can result in spinal pain and stiffness. The purpose of this study was to compare the amount of metal fatigue of used mattress coil springs from the areas bearing greatest body weight versus areas subjected to little compression to ascertain the. Six weight bearing coil springs (WBS) were extracted from the center the used (range 8-10 yr.) mattresses (N=32) and six non-weight bearing coil springs (NWBS) were extracted from the head/foot are of the same mattresses. To determine spring weakness a special frame and platform was constructed to compare unloaded spring height with compression distance height following placement of a 1,296 g ingot on the platform. Also, a pressure gauge was used to measure the amount of pressure required to compress the coil springs a distance of 2 cm. Comparison between WBS and NWBS data were statistically treated using independent t-tests and a one-way ANOVA. There were no significant group differences in weight or height in unloaded coils. However, there were significant (p<0.05) differences in coil spring compression distance under load (WBS = 2.78 ± 0.34 cm; NWBS = 1.52 ± 0.39 cm) and force gauge compression (WBS = 1090.51 ± 88.42 g; NWBS = 1213.12 ± 71.38 g) between groups. While manufacturers’ recommendations to replace a mattress is ranges between 8 and 10 yrs., these results indicate that coil spring weakness may occur before 8 yrs. of use. Weak springs leads to loss of weight bearing capacity of the mattress thereby resulting in sagging upon use. Such sagging which may compromise sleep posture with accompanying back pain and poor sleep quality and quantity.
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Pharmacodynamic Equivalence of Ovine Enoxaparin to Porcine Enoxaparin (Lovenox®) In Healthy Volunteers: A Randomized, Open-Label, 2-Way Cross-Over, Single Dose Study

Aim: to demonstrate the PK/PD equivalence of an ovine enoxaparin to the reference product, the originator porcine enoxaparin, Lovenox® from Sanofi, and to assess its safety and tolerability in healthy volunteers with s.c. administration. Methods: a randomized, open-label, 2-way cross-over, single-dose study with 7 days wash-out period was conducted in healthy volunteers of both sexes. A single s.c. injection of 6,000 IU ovine enoxaparin from Metiska Farma (the test drug, T) or Lovenox® from Sanofi (the reference drug, R) was given randomly to each subject in fasting condition. The PD endpoints measured were anti-FXa and anti-FIIa activities in plasma, whereas the PD parameters determined for these endpoints were AUEC0-t (area under the effect curve from time 0 to the last measured activity (t)) and Amax (maximum activity). Bioequivalence (BE) is based on anti-FXa activity, the 90% CIs for GMR T/R (geometric means ratio of Test/ Reference) of AUEC0-t and Amax must fall within the BE limits of 80.00 – 125.00%. The anti-FIIa data are in vivo supportive evidence only. Results: a total of 23 healthy volunteers completed this study. The 90% CIs for GMR T/R of AUEC0-t and Amax for anti-FXa were 107.55 – 116.33% and 110.17 – 117.68%, respectively, while those for anti-FIIa were 100.93 – 122.56% and 105.19 – 124.44%, respectively. All parameters fell within the BE criteria of 80.00 – 125.00%. One AE (adverse event) occurred in one volunteer after s.c. injection of ovine enoxaparin, i.e. bruising which disappeared after a few days. Conclusions: the ovine enoxaparin from Metiska Farma was bioequivalent to the reference porcine enoxaparin (Lovenox®) from Sanofi. Both enoxaparin products were shown to have high safety and tolerability after a single dose in healthy volunteers. This is the first study showing BE of a nonporcine enoxaparin to the reference porcine enoxaparin in Indonesia, a Moslem country
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Anodic Porous Alumina Array for Cyanine Fluorophore Cy3 Confinement

Self-organized anodic porous alumina films with hexagonal pore lattice have attracted a considerable attention for biological arrays and confinement of various organic probes dyes in solutions. A molecular structure with axial symmetry in bis-heterocyclic indole chains and conjugate system, such as cyanine fluorophore Cy3 dye, was investigated here with respect to its fluorescence when loaded in the anodic alumina pores.
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Anodizing for Design and Function

Two basic reactions occur during the anodizing of aluminum: 1) the aluminum is consumed and 2) an oxide grows. By accepting this statement as true, the anodizing process can be viewed as a corrosion process, and anodizing can be modeled using the Tafel Equation. Anodizing process parameters of electrolyte chemistry and concentration, temperature, aluminum substrate resistance and current density are presented as they relate to the Tafel Equation and how they impact the anodic aluminum oxide structure and properties. Understanding this relationship is consequent in making anodizing an engineering process, one that enables tuning the structure such that it yields distinct characteristics to fulfill design and application requirements.
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Electronic-nose Applications in Forensic Science and for Analysis of Volatile Biomarkers in the Human Breath

The application of electronic-nose (E-nose) technologies in forensic science is a recent new development following a long history of progress in the development of diverse applications in the related biomedical and pharmaceutical fields. Data from forensic analyses must satisfy the needs and requirements of both the scientific and legal communities. The type of data collected from electronic-nose devices provides a means of identifying specific types of information about the chemical nature of evidentiary objects and samples under investigation using aroma signature profiles of complex gaseous mixtures containing volatile organic compounds (VOCs) released from manufactured products and parts of the human body. E-nose analyses also provide useful qualitative information about the physicochemical characteristics and metabolic conditions of human subjects without the need for time-consuming analyses to identify all chemical components in human-derived volatile mixtures.
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Characteristic Human Scent Compounds Trapped on Natural and Synthetic Fabrics as analyzed by SPME-GC/MS

The collection of human odor volatiles is of interest to forensic applications as a path to investigate canine scent discriminations in legal investigations. A study using a selected array of previously identified human odor compounds has been conducted to determine the retention and release capabilities of five (5) natural and synthetic fabric types, cotton (mercerized fabric and gauze matrix), polyester, rayon and wool.
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The Effects of the Film Thickness and Roughness in the Anodization Process of Very Thin Aluminum Films

The anodization of aluminum foils having micrometer thickness is a common process and results in hexagonally self-ordered alumina membranes. However, anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) membranes fabricated from nanometer-thin films present new challenges to the anodization process, since aluminum films adheres poorly on supporting substrates and the smoothness of the film is highly related to the kind of substrate.
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Anodic Oxidation of Titanium in Sulphuric Acid and Phosphoric Acid Electrolytes

Anodisation of pure titanium has been carried out in sulphuric and in phosphoric acid solutions at potentials ranging from 50 to 150V. The SEM and AFM morphological analysis indicates that, within this potential range, oxidation in sulphuric acid solution produces better developed mesoporous oxide layers.
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Preparation of Large Area Anodic Alumina Membranes and their Application to Thin Film Fuel Cell

The design of an electrochemical reactor for the preparation of self-supported comparatively thin (up to 10 μm) and large area (up to 50 cm2) anodic alumina membranes is described allowing growth of porous alumina at high applied potential (up to 150 V) without burning.
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Fabrication and Luminescence of Anodic Alumina with Incorporated Vanadyl Citrate Chelate Anions

Anodic aluminum oxide doped with vanadyl citrate chelate complex anions was formed by a two-step self-organized anodization in 2 wt. % sulfuric acid containing 0.04 M V2O5 and 0.08 M citric acid at voltage range 13-23 V, and at 0 and 15 oC. The combination of two temperatures and at least four voltages (depending on the applied temperature) was applied as the operating conditions of anodization.
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Editorial Board Members Related to NE

Sheila Crewther

Professor
School of Psychological Science
Univerity of La Trobe
Australia

Xiao-Jian Yao

Associate Professor
Department of Medical Microbiology
University of Manitoba
Canada

Hongyuan Zhao

Professor
Department of Material Science and Engineering
Henan Institute of Science and Technology
China

Huangui Xiong

Professor
Department of Pharmacology and Experimental Neuroscience
University of Nebraska Medical Center
United States

George Goulielmos

Associate Professor
Department of Internal Medicine
University of Crete
Greece

Mirosław Kwiatkowski

AGH University of Science and Technology
Faculty of Energy and Fuels
Poland

Lars Larsson

Professor
Department of Clinical Neurophysiology
Karolinska Institutet
Sweden

Tzi Bun NG

Professor
School of Biomedical Sciences
Faculty of Medicine
The Chinese University of Hong Kong
Hong Kong

Baodan Tian

Associate professor
School of science
Southwest University of Science and Technology
China

James Tao

Associate Professor
Department of Neurology
The University of Chicago
United States
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