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Availability and Knowledge of Iodized Salt at Household Level and Associated Factors at Debre Tabor Town, Northwest Ethiopia

IDDs are among the major public health problems of the world. Nearly two billion individuals worldwide and about 350 million Africans are at risk of iodine deficiency and face many risks from its deficiency and complications. Poor knowledge related to iodine diet and iodized salt utilization were some of the factors. Poor Educational status, Occupation and Sources of Information were frequently cited factors related to Knowledge on iodized salt consumption. Iodized salt is an effective and cheap method to prevent and control iodine deficiency in the community.
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Comparison of Statistical Techniques for Forecasting Malaria Cases in Ghana

Monthly data spanning from January 2008 to December 2017 were obtained from the District Health Information Management System (DHIMS) 2, Ghana Health Service. The four competing forecasting techniques that were applied to the Malaria cases data were the Seasonal Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average (SARIMA), Artificial Neural Network (ANN), Exponential smoothing (ETS) and a Combination technique.
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First Known Case of Juvenile Gigantomachia in the United Kingdom - A Case Report

Gigantomastia is a rare condition which remains poorly understood. There is no universally accepted definition, however breast weight exceeding 3% of total body weight has been proposed. Juvenile gigantomastia, a subtype, involves sudden onset, excessive growth of breast tissue in relation to puberty and can occur before or after the onset of menstruation. This paper reports on the first known case of juvenile gigantomastia seen in the United Kingdom. A 16-year old female presented with a 12-month history of rapid breast growth. She had no other medical problems and no relevant family history. Examination revealed bilaterally enlarged breasts extending to the level of the anterior superior iliac spine, with enlarged superficial veins, ill-defined areola and areas of skin ulceration. A range of hormone and autoimmune tests were performed with all results found to be normal. After MDT discussion, the treatment of choice was reduction mammoplasty with an inferior pedicle technique and free nipple grafting if necessary. The total volume of tissue removed weighed 10.9 kg; 6.6 kg from the right breast, 4.3 kg from the left breast. Initial post-operative results demonstrate a highly satisfactory reduction with minimal scarring and no further growth of breast tissue. Histology showed a benign pattern secondary to extensive proliferation of glandular and stromal tissue. The tissue tested positive for both oestrogen and progesterone receptors and so the decision was made to treat the patient with tamoxifen until the age of 21 years in order to prevent recurrence. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of juvenile gigantomastia in the UK.
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Epidemiology of Bronchiolitis: Multicentric Study Policlinico-Garibaldi-Bronte-Caltagirone-Siracusa

Bronchiolitis is the most common infection of the lower airways of the 1st year. Infants with severe respiratory distress (2-3%) require hospital care. The aim of the study is to evaluate the frequency of Respiratory Virus (VRS) infection, the usefulness of the diagnostic score, the ventilatory support and the protective effect of vaccinations.
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Cemento-Ossifying Fibroma: A Case Report

Cemento-ossifying fibroma (COF) is a benign bone neoplasm; it’s considered that its origin is the periodontal ligament. Presents a slow-growing lesion and could cause deformation of affected area. A case of incidental finding in a 20-year-old patient is presented; it was found in a control examination of post-orthodontic treatment, located in the canine area of the jaw. Early diagnosis requires the integration between the clinic, the radiology and the anatomo-pathological study of the lesion; this allows early applying an adequate therapy. It is important to follow up the treated patients; in this case, it’s allowed to identify incidental findings. The interdisciplinary work was fundamental for the diagnosis and treatment of this pathology. The objective of this work is to present an incidental finding of a cemento-ossifying fibroma.
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Urticaria Pigmentosa: Clinical and Dermoscopic Features

We present the case of 18-month-old boy with Urticaria Pigmentosa. Clinical feature was presented as generalized eruption of multiple brown maculopapular lesions on trunk and limbs of one year and 5 months duration. No subjective symptoms were present. First skin lesion occurred in the First month of life. Darier’s sign was positive. Dermoscopy showed a pigment network and a light-brownish blot. Diagnosis of mastocytosis was confirmed by histopathology.
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A Clinical Case Study of Paratesticular Rhabdomyosarcoma of Young Adult

Para-testicular rhabdomyosarcoma (RPT) is a rare tumor of children and adolescents. The diagnosis is made by the anatomopathological study. The treatment must be multimodal and involves surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy. We report the case of a 19-year-old adolescent in our department for an embryonic-type para-testicular rhabdomyosarcoma. Our aim is to expose a rare and unknown case that may be life-threatening. We would like to emphasize on the fact that paratesticular rhabdomyosarcoma need to be brought up in front of a tissular process expanding in the scrotum with normal testicules.
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Hydroxyapatite Deposition Disease- Spontaneous Resolution of Significant Post Treatment Deposit

Calcific deposits are commonly seen on imaging done for other reasons. However, it can also present with periarthritis and adhesive capsulitis leading to severe disabling pain. Many theories have been proposed to explain the etiology and it is considered idiopathic by some. The management is also debatable, Barbotage being the most popular. In the majority of the cases it disappears spontaneously, requiring intervention like Barbotage and surgery only in a few cases. We present a case of a 45 year old female patient who had these calcific deposits in an unusual location of her right shoulder. These disappeared partially on conservative treatment. Subsequently, she developed severe pain in her right shoulder with restriction of all her movements. The pain was severe enough to interfere with her sleep. As a result she underwent barbotage. During the procedure an attempt was made to aspirate the calcific deposit in its entirety. This was not possible due to clogging of needle several times. There was complete resolution of pain following the procedure. However, post- procedure Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed a significant residual calcification which completely resolved 02 months after therapy with no recurrence.
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Computer Modeling of Convective Mass Transfer of Glucose, Oxygen and Carbon Dioxide in the Neurovascular Unit

Glucose and oxygen are obligatory energy substrates for the brain and their continuous supply to the neurons, as well as the elimination of the end product – carbon dioxide, is of paramount importance for brain physiology and survival. Transport of these substrates from the brain capillaries to the neurons presents a challenging issue.
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Splenic Abscesses as a Complication of Urinary Tract Infection: Case Report and Literature Review

Granular cell tumor, also known as Abrikossoff tumor, is a rare lesion that arises from the nervous system. Most of these tumors are benign and only 1-2% are malignant. Although they can be found in any part of the human body, 45-65% appears in the head and neck region, mainly in the oral cavity. Here, we report 2 cases of granular cell tumor of the tongue, diagnosed by excisional biopsy. Until the present moment, both patients remain with no recurrence.
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Analysis of Rice Production and Consumption Trends in Nigeria

One of the overarching goals of Nigeria agriculture development programs and policies is increasing agricultural productivity for accelerated economic growth. Despite the various policies measures to increase crop production, domestic rice production has not been increased enough to meet the rising population of the country “Nigeria”.
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Importance of Complete Clinical History in the Management of Parakeratinized Odontogenic Keratocyst: Case Report

The Odontogenic Keratocyst considered potentially aggressive and of high recurrence located between 30 and 60%, with clinical and radiographic characteristics not clearly defined. It occurs at any stage of life. The 70 to 80% of the cases are located in the jaw, commonly in the area of the lower third molar and mandibular angle from where they progress towards the branch and the body. The lesions are long latent, often asymptomatic and can reach remarkable dimensions without significant deformation of the jaw bones. They are often found during the routine radiographic examination.
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Evaluation of Nitrogen, Phosphorus and Potassium Nano-Fertilizers on Yield, Yield Components and Fiber Properties of Egyptian Cotton (Gossypium Barbadense L.)

Field experiments were carried out in Agricultural and Experimental Research Station in years 2016 and 2017 to evaluate NPK nanofertilizers application, times, methods and rates on yield and fiber properties of Egyptian cotton (Giza, 90). The experiment was laid out in a split-split-plot based on Randomized Complete Block Design with four replications.
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Height Characteristic of Pedestrian and Digital Identity

Each and every adult subject is having specific digital data of height characteristic. Physically it is measured in units of centimeter or in feet. It can also relatively be measured using light beam (camera) having same geological plane of control and exhibit image. The data of height images are mathematically proportional and related to each other with reference to that particular distance. Mathematically height relation of imagesis P1 X P2 = 1.000 and distance relation is D1 X D2 =1.000. P1 and P2 is ratio data of height and D1 and D2 are ratio data of distance. Computerize image height data is having three digits after decimal point. Twelve digital height data is calculated. Probability of having same twelve digital height data of two different subjects is rare, as a result adult subject is having specific digital code of identity. The data obtained can be described as photographic height (length) of the subject or height identity data for that particular distance. Aim of the article is to pointing out or to identify a missing (bhagedu) and a wanted person (culprit) from the mob using available data of height and recorded data of the investigating authority. The presence of informer (khabari), to identify a culprit is not required and there be a more than one spots of search at a time.
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Palynological and Lithological Investigation of Forensic Materials at the University of Lagos, Nigeria: First Experimental Palynological Approach in Nigeria

Security agencies are always saddled with huge responsibilities of trying to establish evidences to link a suspect to a particular crime. But in most cases, there are always very limited physical evidences due to the complexity of the crime. However, forensic palynology provides a very good option, because pollen and spores from plants are very minute, ubiquitous in distribution and are seldom useful in recovery of vegetation of a certain locality. This present study aims to assess the feasibility of pollen, spores, and sand grains as associative evidences recovered from a suspect linked with a crime scene. Forensic materials including soil samples from foot wear, dirt from clothes, earlobes and nostrils were retrieved from the body of a suspect at a particular location in Nigeria. The retrieved materials were subjected to standard laboratory palynological, biochemical and lithological procedures. The dionex analysis (anion) and atomic absorption spectrometry (cation) shows great similarity in the results obtained with an exception to Zinc. A considerable similarity was observed in the potential of hydrogen and salinity values of soil samples from both the suspect and crime scene. The lithological data reveals a great correlation in the colour, grain size, grain sorting, and grain texture and grain shape of these two different soil samples. The palynological analysis yielded a recovery of palynomorphs including pollen of Elaeis guineensis, Alchornea cordifoliia, Cassia fistula, Syzygium guineense, Cyperus papyrus, Pteris species and Nephrolepis biserrata were also recovered. This reveals the potential of retrieved materials from the body of a suspect as good sources of pollen and spores. It is however important to corroborate the use of palynomorphs and sand grains with other lines of evidences in solving crime-related disputes.
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Anodic Porous Alumina Array for Cyanine Fluorophore Cy3 Confinement

Self-organized anodic porous alumina films with hexagonal pore lattice have attracted a considerable attention for biological arrays and confinement of various organic probes dyes in solutions. A molecular structure with axial symmetry in bis-heterocyclic indole chains and conjugate system, such as cyanine fluorophore Cy3 dye, was investigated here with respect to its fluorescence when loaded in the anodic alumina pores.
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Anodizing for Design and Function

Two basic reactions occur during the anodizing of aluminum: 1) the aluminum is consumed and 2) an oxide grows. By accepting this statement as true, the anodizing process can be viewed as a corrosion process, and anodizing can be modeled using the Tafel Equation. Anodizing process parameters of electrolyte chemistry and concentration, temperature, aluminum substrate resistance and current density are presented as they relate to the Tafel Equation and how they impact the anodic aluminum oxide structure and properties. Understanding this relationship is consequent in making anodizing an engineering process, one that enables tuning the structure such that it yields distinct characteristics to fulfill design and application requirements.
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Recent Developments in Human Odor Detection Technologies

Human odor detection technologies have drawn attention due to the wide possibility of potential applications they open up in areas such as biometrics, criminal investigation and forensics, search for survivors under rubble, and security checkpoint screening. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) has been the most successful and powerful analytical approach developed to date for human odor analysis, and hundreds of human odorants have been identified using this tool.
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Electronic-nose Applications in Forensic Science and for Analysis of Volatile Biomarkers in the Human Breath

The application of electronic-nose (E-nose) technologies in forensic science is a recent new development following a long history of progress in the development of diverse applications in the related biomedical and pharmaceutical fields. Data from forensic analyses must satisfy the needs and requirements of both the scientific and legal communities. The type of data collected from electronic-nose devices provides a means of identifying specific types of information about the chemical nature of evidentiary objects and samples under investigation using aroma signature profiles of complex gaseous mixtures containing volatile organic compounds (VOCs) released from manufactured products and parts of the human body. E-nose analyses also provide useful qualitative information about the physicochemical characteristics and metabolic conditions of human subjects without the need for time-consuming analyses to identify all chemical components in human-derived volatile mixtures.
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Analysis of Sweat Simulant Mixtures using Multiplexed Arrays of DNA-Carbon Nanotube Vapor Sensors

Carbon nanotube (NT) based electronic vapor sensors were tested against synthetic sweat solutions, consisting of 13 volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in saline, in order to probe the device ability to analyze and differentiate vapors derived from complex biological samples.
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Characteristic Human Scent Compounds Trapped on Natural and Synthetic Fabrics as analyzed by SPME-GC/MS

The collection of human odor volatiles is of interest to forensic applications as a path to investigate canine scent discriminations in legal investigations. A study using a selected array of previously identified human odor compounds has been conducted to determine the retention and release capabilities of five (5) natural and synthetic fabric types, cotton (mercerized fabric and gauze matrix), polyester, rayon and wool.
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The Effects of the Film Thickness and Roughness in the Anodization Process of Very Thin Aluminum Films

The anodization of aluminum foils having micrometer thickness is a common process and results in hexagonally self-ordered alumina membranes. However, anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) membranes fabricated from nanometer-thin films present new challenges to the anodization process, since aluminum films adheres poorly on supporting substrates and the smoothness of the film is highly related to the kind of substrate.
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Anodic Oxidation of Titanium in Sulphuric Acid and Phosphoric Acid Electrolytes

Anodisation of pure titanium has been carried out in sulphuric and in phosphoric acid solutions at potentials ranging from 50 to 150V. The SEM and AFM morphological analysis indicates that, within this potential range, oxidation in sulphuric acid solution produces better developed mesoporous oxide layers.
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Preparation of Large Area Anodic Alumina Membranes and their Application to Thin Film Fuel Cell

The design of an electrochemical reactor for the preparation of self-supported comparatively thin (up to 10 μm) and large area (up to 50 cm2) anodic alumina membranes is described allowing growth of porous alumina at high applied potential (up to 150 V) without burning.
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Fabrication of Vertical Cu2ZnSnS4 Nanowire Arrays by Two-Step Electroplating Method into Anodic Aluminum Oxide Template

Vertical Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) nanowire arrays have been synthesized via two-step electroplating method into anodized aluminum oxide template. For deposition of CZTS nanowires, anodized aluminum oxide (AAO) was used as the growth mask for the growth of the nanowires. AAO templates with hole sizes of 70 nm in diameter were used in the experiments.
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Fabrication and Luminescence of Anodic Alumina with Incorporated Vanadyl Citrate Chelate Anions

Anodic aluminum oxide doped with vanadyl citrate chelate complex anions was formed by a two-step self-organized anodization in 2 wt. % sulfuric acid containing 0.04 M V2O5 and 0.08 M citric acid at voltage range 13-23 V, and at 0 and 15 oC. The combination of two temperatures and at least four voltages (depending on the applied temperature) was applied as the operating conditions of anodization.
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Synthesis of BaTiO3 Nanowires via Anodic Aluminum Oxide Template Method Assisted by Vacuum-and-Drop Loading

In this paper, we report on the synthesis of BaTiO3 nanowires via the anodic aluminum oxide template method. To fill in the precursors of BaTiO3 into anodic aluminum oxide templates, the vacuum and drop loading method developed in our previous study was used. Ba(CH3COO)2 (barium acetate) and C12H28O4Ti (tetraisopropyl orthotitanate) were used as Ba and Ti sources, respectively. Anodic aluminum oxide membranes with the through-hole diameter of ~200 nm were used as the template for BaTiO3 nanowires.
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Editorial Board Members Related to NI

Rukman Awang Hamat

Associate professor
Department of Medical Microbiology and Parasitology
Universiti Putra Malaysia
Malaysia

Emmanuel Simantirakis

Associate Professor
Department of Cardiology
Heraklion University Hospital
Greece

GAVIN PAUL SACKS

Associate Professor
Department of Obstetrics & Gynecology
University of New South Wales
Australia

Jose V. Torres

Professor
Department of Medical Microbiology and Immunology
School of Medicine
University of California at Davis
United States

Lucia Gutierrez Bayard

Associate Professor
Department of Radiation Oncology
Hospital Universitario Puerta del Mar
Spain

Raymond A. Grimsbo

Forensic Scientist
Intermountain Forensic Laboratories
United States

RAGHAVENDRA M. SHETTY

Assistant Professor
Department of Preventive & Pediatric Dentistry
College of Dentistry
Gulf Medical University
United Arab Emirates

Andrew Beng Jin Teoh

Associate professor
School of Electrical and Electronics Engineering
Yonsei University
South Korea

Lela Bakanidze

Professor
Georgian Biosafety Association
Europe

Domenico Testa

Associate Professor of Otorhinolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery
University of Campania “Luigi Vanvitelli”
Italy
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