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The Combined Effect of 2,4-Epibrassinolide and Chilling Stress on Tomato Cultivars Differing in Maturity

Low temperature (but above-freezing) during germination and early seedling growth of chilling-sensitive crop is one of the most significant limiting factors in the productivity. 2,4-Epibrassinolide (24-EB) is one of the most active forms of brassinosteroids are multifunctional plant hormones that can regulate development and respond to abiotic stresses. The effect of seed-pretreatment with 24-EB (12.5 μg/L) on photosynthetic characteristics, membrane permeability, lipid peroxidation and antioxidant activities under chilling stress were investigated in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) cultivars: Kulon (early ripening) and Yakhont (mid-early). Results showed that the use of 24-EB led to more pronounced changes in the pigment composition in Yakhont in the absence of a stress factor, whereas in Kulon under chilling stress (2 o C for 24 h). 24-EB pretreatment minimized the damage to cell membranes in tomato plants caused by chilling stress. The tolerance to chilling stress in Yakhont was higher than Kulon (by electrolyte leakage and content of malondialdehyde assay). Under these conditions, oxidative processes in plants of Yakhont did not show significant difference. We have not established the effect of 24-EB on the level of low molecular weight antioxidants in tomato cultivars (measured by inhibition of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl free radical method). The antioxidant activity of leaf extracts in Yakhont was twice as high as in Kulon under all experimental conditions (with/without 24-EB, 22/2 o C). It was concluded that the less pronounced reaction of plants of Yakhont to the use of 24-EB and chilling stress is due to their genetically determined higher cold resistance than that of Kulon.
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Socio-Demographic, Clinical Characteristics and Blood Lipid profiles of Type 1 Diabetic Patients Followed in Regional Hospitals in The Northern Zone of Cameroon

Background and Objective: In Cameroon, given the galloping growth in the prevalence of diabetes, in particular type 1 diabetes in the northern regions, we undertook this study, with the objective to improve the management of type 1 diabetes by determining the socio-demographic, clinical characteristics and lipid profiles of the patients followed in the care centers of regional hospitals of Maroua, Garoua and Ngaoundere. Methods: We undertook a descriptive cross-sectional study from 07 August 2018 to 07 May 2019 in the care centers of the regional hospitals. Sociodemographic and clinical data were collected by interview to consent patient through structured questionnaires in the survey sheet. Anthropometric data were also determined during the survey, and the blood was collected in referred laboratory for determination of some lipid profiles parameters. Results: On a sample of 467 Patient suffering from diabetes, 68 were of type 1, representing a prevalence of 26%. Type 1 diabetes Patients were mostly female (61.8%) and the mean age was 20.72 ± 3.4 years with a high percentage between 20-30 years (51.5%). More than half of our patients were pupils and students, many of them practiced Muslims as religion (58.8%). In most of cases (51.3%), the disease was diagnosed after one year as a result of illness. The majority of our patients were non-smokers (98.5%) and less athletic (32.4%). The mean Body Mass Index (BMI) was 23.03 ± 2.7 kg /m2 with an average waist circumference of 80.26 ± 9.23 cm in men and 82.15 ± 10.45 in women. Their treatment was based essentially on insulin therapy, mainly using regular and intermediate insulins. More than half of the subjects had high blood glucose (78.1%), high triglyceride (34.1%) and HDL-cholesterol (29.3%) levels. Most of the patients suffered from overweight/obesity, high blood pressure, arthritis, kidney failure and other diseases (malaria, jaundice, stomach ache). No significant relation was found between clinical and the sociodemographic and blood lipid profiles. Conclusion: It emerges from this study that type 1 diabetes represent high proportions of diabetes cases in septentrional area of Cameroon, and affect mostly young of less than 30 years old, dominated by women, practicing Muslim as religion. Their clinical profile characterized by high frequency of overweight/obesity, kidney failure and arthritis vary, but not significantly, with neither their sociodemographic nor their blood lipid profiles. Absence of sport, female and less control of their hypoglycemia are factors risks of the progression of the disease.
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Mattress Coil Spring Fatigue and Support: A Potential Association with Spine Stiffness and Pain

Prolong mattress use compresses the metal coil springs which may ultimately result in a compromised sleeping surface. This coil spring metal fatigue can result in spinal pain and stiffness. The purpose of this study was to compare the amount of metal fatigue of used mattress coil springs from the areas bearing greatest body weight versus areas subjected to little compression to ascertain the. Six weight bearing coil springs (WBS) were extracted from the center the used (range 8-10 yr.) mattresses (N=32) and six non-weight bearing coil springs (NWBS) were extracted from the head/foot are of the same mattresses. To determine spring weakness a special frame and platform was constructed to compare unloaded spring height with compression distance height following placement of a 1,296 g ingot on the platform. Also, a pressure gauge was used to measure the amount of pressure required to compress the coil springs a distance of 2 cm. Comparison between WBS and NWBS data were statistically treated using independent t-tests and a one-way ANOVA. There were no significant group differences in weight or height in unloaded coils. However, there were significant (p<0.05) differences in coil spring compression distance under load (WBS = 2.78 ± 0.34 cm; NWBS = 1.52 ± 0.39 cm) and force gauge compression (WBS = 1090.51 ± 88.42 g; NWBS = 1213.12 ± 71.38 g) between groups. While manufacturers’ recommendations to replace a mattress is ranges between 8 and 10 yrs., these results indicate that coil spring weakness may occur before 8 yrs. of use. Weak springs leads to loss of weight bearing capacity of the mattress thereby resulting in sagging upon use. Such sagging which may compromise sleep posture with accompanying back pain and poor sleep quality and quantity.
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Distribution and Importance of Citrus Leaf and Fruit Spot Disease (Pseudocercospora Angolnesis) in North-Western Ethiopia

This study was proposed to assess the distribution and importance of citrus leaf and fruit spot disease in North Western Ethiopia. The result showed that on sweet orange the prevalence of the disease was ranged from (0 to 100 %). Disease incidence was ranged from (0 to 86.48 %), and from (0 to100 %) on leaves and fruits, respectively. Disease severity was ranged from (0 to 24.18%) on leaves, and from (0 to 73.0 %) on fruits. Correlation analysis was carried out for both disease incidence and severity as response variables and altitude, average daily temperature, mean annual rainfall and tree age as predictor variables. Linear correlation was detected only between mean annual rainfall and disease severity and incidence of leaves and fruits. The regression analysis result indicated that mean annual rain fall has a significant effect over disease severity and incidence of leaves and fruits at (P ≤ 0.05).
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Clinical Impact of Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy to Chronic Calculous Cholecy-stitis: A Retrospective Study

The Aims: The retro-prospective clinical study was to compare these two methods of laparoscopic and classical cholecystectomy. To prove the postoperative benefits of laparoscopic treatment are, less pain, aesthetic aspect without surgical scarring and shorter hospital stay, faster return to social activities as well as more cost effective. Material and Methods: The operated patients, from January 2017 to December 2019 in the abdominal surgery ward in Gjilan. Important data for the study are taken from the operative list, history of the disease, adequate list compiled specifically for this study. The study included 389 patients with chronic calculous cholecystitis. Results: According to the results obtained for calculous diseases of the biliary system are predisposed persons with blood group O, Rh-positive, with 44.2%, followed by group A + with 29.5%, group B + with 14.7%. Other blood groups and Rh factors are below 6.5%. Statistical point of view is significant (p <0.05). The study analyzed, C-reactive protein (CRP) values in both research group (RG) and control groups (CG); CRP by gender; and by age group. RG recorded 76.9% of females with increased CRP values> 6, while 23.1% of males. The percentage difference in statistical terms is significant p <0.05. Conclusion: The results obtained have shown that there are no significant differences in the presentation of intra-operative complications in terms of gender and age, to both methods. Optimization measures for postoperative management of patients after laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Continuing education in laparoscopic surgery is important for successful management.
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Hypoglycemic Potential of Ziziphus spina-christi Fruit on Alloxan induced Hyperglycemic Rats

Hyperglycaemia is a key symptom in diabetes mellitus associated with long term damages, dysfunction and eventually failure of organs, especially the eyes, kidneys, nerves, heart and blood vessels. This study is to evaluate the hypoglycaemic potential of orally administered aqueous and ethanol extracts of Zyziphus spina-christ fruit on alloxan induced hyperglycaemic Wistar rats. The plant was extracted using maceration using aqueous and 80% ethanol as extraction solvents. Qualitative phytochemical analysis was done. An in vitro assessment of both aqueous and ethanol extract to demonstrate hypoglycaemic activity via inhibition of alpha amylase enzyme and alpha glucosidase enzymes were done. Total of 45 albino rats were used in the study of both sexes divided in 9 groups. Group 1: normal control group, group 2: diabetic control group, group 3: positive control group (metformin 300mg/kg), group 4-6: (150mg/kg, 300mg/kg and 600mg/kg) aqueous extract and group 7-9: (150mg/kg, 300mg/kg and 600mg/kg) ethanol extract. Groups were compared using one way ANOVA for significant differences and Dunnet’s posthoc test was deployed were differences exit. Data were represented as mean ± SEM and p value <0.005 The aqueous and ethanol extract yielded 35.59%% and 46.68% respectively. Phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, terpenoids, tannins, Saponins, Saponins glycosides, steroids, Phytosteroids, carbohydrate and volatile oil. An in vitro assessment of aqueous and ethanol extract demonstrated hypoglycaemic activity via inhibition of both alpha amylase enzyme and alpha glucosidase enzymes. The percentage inhibition of alpha amylase was presented as IC50 of 0.14, 0.19 and 0.58 for the acarbose, ethanol extract and aqueous extract respectively. Alpha glucosidase inhibition was represented by the IC50 of 0.7mg/ml, 0.9mg/ml and 0.7mg/ml for acarbose, ethanol extracts and aqueous extracts. The aqueous and ethanol extracts significantly decrease the blood glucose level. Elevation of cholesterol and LDL was seen in diabetic control group. The results from the studies showed that Ziziphus spina-Christi fruit aqueous and ethanol extracts has an anti-hyperglycaemic potential which is not a dose dependent both in Vitro and in Vivo. Ziziphus spina-Christi fruit aqueous and ethanol extract also causes a significant reduction in cholesterol level.
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Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever and Rapidly Progressive Glomerulonephritis (RPGN): A New Persuasion

Dengue is a prevalent arthropod-borne viral disease in tropical and subtropical areas of the globe. Dengue clinical manifestations include asymptomatic infections; undifferentiated fever; dengue fever, which is characterized by fever, headache, retro orbital pain, myalgia, and arthralgia; and a severe form of the disease denominated dengue hemorrhagic fever/dengue shock syndrome, characterized by hemoconcentration, thrombocytopenia, and bleeding tendency. However, atypical manifestations, such as liver, central nervous system, and cardiac involvement, have been increasingly reported called expanded dengue syndrome. The renal complications of dengue virus infection cover a wide spectrum of manifestations from acute kidney injury to glomerular injury with nephritic/nephrotic syndrome. Majority of cases remain symptom free and show full recovery. We report a 55 years old lady with atypical and rare presentation of dengue disease marked by rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis. Condition improved after initial 5 days pulse methylprednisolone followed by oral prednisolone therapy and mycophenolate mofetil. The main mechanism of dengue glomerulonephritis is still unknown though both direct viral infection and immune mediated damage have been suggested to be the cause. To avoid otherwise preventable morbidity and mortality, physicians should have a high index of suspicion for renal complications in patients with dengue illness and should manage this accordingly
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2D Analysis of Piezoelectric Layer Over a Rotating Micro-elongated Thermoelastic Medium with DPL Model

The Lord-Shulman theory with one relaxation time and the dual-phase-lag model with two relaxation times of thermoelasticity are used in this article to study the influence rotation micro-elongated thermoelastic layer, when a piezo electric layer is above it. To convert a partial differential equation to an ordinary differential equation, the normal mode method is utilized. Numerical computations are implemented for aluminum epoxy, and the results are charted. A comparison is made among the two theories in the complete absence and the presence of a rotation. The presence of a rotation has a major effect on all physical quantities.
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A Java Software for Randomized Phase II Clinical Cancer Trial Designs

Traditionally, a typical phase II trial has been conducted using a single-arm design recruiting patients only to the experimental therapy to be compared with a historical control. Due to a small sample size and heterogeneity of patient population, the patient characteristics of the patients in a new phase II trial is often different from that of the selected historical control, so that the single-arm phase II trial may lead to biased conclusions. A randomized phase II trial can resolve such problems by randomizing patients between an experimental arm and a control arm. We propose a software package for designing and analyzing randomized phase II trials. We develop a user-friendly Java software that will help us find optimal two-stage phase II trial designs. Although the programs accommodate trial designs based on various statistical methods and different types of early stopping rules, the main part of our paper is focused on randomized phase II trials based on Fisher’s exact test with futility and superiority early stopping values. If users enter input parameter values, the software generates a graphical output displaying all efficient two-stage designs. Minimax, optimal, and admissible designs are highlighted as good designs, but users can select any of the displayed designs. When the circle representing a design is clicked, all the specifics of the selected design are displayed. Fisher’s test is an exact method whose critical values depend on the total number of responders from two arms. So, the computations required to search for optimal randomized multi-stage phase II trial designs based on Fisher’s exact test is very heavy. By using efficient algorithms, our software provides output at almost real time speed
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Characterization of Indigenous Goats Type Using Morphological Characters in South West Shewa Zone, Oromia, Ethiopia.

This study was conducted in South west Shewa zone, to describe phenotypic characterization of indigenous goat type in Tole and Becho districts. Morphological and Linear body measurement were carried out to collect necessary raw data during the current study. Morphological characters and linear body measurements were collected from a total of 460 adult goats. Data collected from each site were coded and entered into the computer (Excel 2016 and SPSS, V21, 2013) computer software to facilitate for further analysis. Data collected through Morphological and linear body measurements were analyzed using (SPSS, V21, 2013 and SAS, release 9.2, 2008). Most frequently observed coat color pattern in study was plain 62.8%. Multiple correlations between body weight and linear body measurements were computed for the population within each sex and correlations among body weight and linear body measurements were positive for both sexes. The strong, positive and significant correlation between heart girth and body weight was observed (r = 0.97, 0.93) for male and female population, respectively. Generally, this study was aim to describe phenotypic characterization of indigenous goat type in the study area. The Most observed body color type was plain in the study area so its need investigation because farmers need plain color rather others.
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High Prevalence of Morphological Abnormality on Peripheral Blood Cells Among Patients in Public Hospitals, Southern Ethiopia

Introduction: Morphologically abnormal blood cells in peripheral blood of a person reflect underlying pathological condition affecting formation, function, and lifespan of these cells. A properly identified morphological defect in peripheral blood cells is important to manage anemia, leukemia and other disorders of blood. This study aimed to assess magnitude and severity of morphological abnormality in blood cells of patients with abnormal complete blood count in public hospitals found in southern Ethiopia. Method: A facility-based cross-sectional study was conducted from January 01 to March 31, 2019 among five public hospitals in Southern Ethiopia. Peripheral blood sample and socio-demographic data were collected from 423 patients with abnormal complete blood count. Thin blood smear was prepared by Wedge method, stained with Wright’s Stain, and examined under microscope by 1000X magnification to detect and characterize abnormality in blood cells’ morphology. Descriptive statistical analysis was done using Statistical Package for Social Sciences version 20.0, and results are presented in tables and figures. Result: Prevalence of blood cell morphological abnormality was 63.8%. From this, 21.8% is marked and 78.2% is moderate abnormality. In 41.9% of the affected patients, the defect involved at least two blood cell types mainly affecting red blood cells. Females (73.8%), children (70.1%) and elderly (82.1%) carried higher prevalence of the abnormality. Conclusion: High prevalence of abnormality in PBS morphology was observed, chiefly among female, children and elderly. Stakeholders should work to alleviate the high prevalence, with particular attention to women, children and old-age people.
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Development of SARS-Cov-2 Circulating Immune Complex Candidate, (CRCx) as A New Promising Vaccine Eliciting Broad Immune Response.

There is a need to develop a universal vaccine that can boost immunity to coronaviruses if some modifications in their structure occur. This is what we are dealing with nowadays: a virus that can mutate its structure, while immunity is standing still in facing the virus. We report on preclinical trials of CRCx 3 and CRCx 2 vaccine candidates in inducing an elevated level of positive neutralizing antibodies as well as a cellular immune response in an animal model to provide protection against SARS-CoV-2. Highly efficient protection against SARS-CoV-2 was obtained with three-dose immunization using 0.25 ml of CRCx vaccine with a 25-mm needle at 7-day intervals between successive injections. In addition, CRCx vaccine candidates exhibit efficient productivity and good genetic stability for vaccine manufacture. These results support the further evaluation of CRCx in a clinical trial.
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Evaluation of Infectious and Malignant Complications in Elderly Renal Transplant Recipients Receiving Alemtuzumab Compared to Basiliximab

The choice of induction immunosuppression can affect several outcomes after kidney transplant (KTx). We aimed to evaluate infectious and malignant complications between alemtuzumab and basiliximab in elderly KTx recipients. Patients ≥ 65 years old who received alemtuzumab or basiliximab induction for their primary KTx from 2006 – 2018 were included.
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A Case Report: Delayed Onset Urinary Tract Injury after Laparoscopic Hysterectomy

Lower urinary tract injury in hysterectomy is rare, but once it occurs, the consequence can be deteriorating. We experienced late onset urinary tract injury that developed as late as 15 days after laparoscopic hysterectomy. The objective of this case report is to alert all gynecological laparoscopists that such late onset complication may happen to any of patients.
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Effect of Stigma on COVID-19 Cases Management at the Treatment Unit of the Yaounde Central Hospital, Cameroon

The coronavirus pandemic (COVID-19) has affected the whole world causing the lives of many victims. Africa has recorded more than a million cases and Cameroon around 18,600 cases (August 2020) since the first case was notified. The rapid spread of this disease, (among other factors), could have contributed to create a situation of fear and stigma among affected populations. It is, therefore, necessary to identify the characteristics of this stigma and its effect on the case management of this disease.
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Recent Developments in Human Odor Detection Technologies

Human odor detection technologies have drawn attention due to the wide possibility of potential applications they open up in areas such as biometrics, criminal investigation and forensics, search for survivors under rubble, and security checkpoint screening. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) has been the most successful and powerful analytical approach developed to date for human odor analysis, and hundreds of human odorants have been identified using this tool.
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Electronic-nose Applications in Forensic Science and for Analysis of Volatile Biomarkers in the Human Breath

The application of electronic-nose (E-nose) technologies in forensic science is a recent new development following a long history of progress in the development of diverse applications in the related biomedical and pharmaceutical fields. Data from forensic analyses must satisfy the needs and requirements of both the scientific and legal communities. The type of data collected from electronic-nose devices provides a means of identifying specific types of information about the chemical nature of evidentiary objects and samples under investigation using aroma signature profiles of complex gaseous mixtures containing volatile organic compounds (VOCs) released from manufactured products and parts of the human body. E-nose analyses also provide useful qualitative information about the physicochemical characteristics and metabolic conditions of human subjects without the need for time-consuming analyses to identify all chemical components in human-derived volatile mixtures.
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Characteristic Human Scent Compounds Trapped on Natural and Synthetic Fabrics as analyzed by SPME-GC/MS

The collection of human odor volatiles is of interest to forensic applications as a path to investigate canine scent discriminations in legal investigations. A study using a selected array of previously identified human odor compounds has been conducted to determine the retention and release capabilities of five (5) natural and synthetic fabric types, cotton (mercerized fabric and gauze matrix), polyester, rayon and wool.
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Fabrication of Ordered Arrays of Anodic Aluminum Oxide Pores with Interpore Distance Smaller than the Pitch of Nano-pits formed by Ion Beam Etching

We investigated a method for preparation of ordered nanopore arrays with the interpore distance of 60 nm by guided self-organization of anodic aluminum oxide with a prepatterned array of pits in the starting Al film.
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Synthesis of BaTiO3 Nanowires via Anodic Aluminum Oxide Template Method Assisted by Vacuum-and-Drop Loading

In this paper, we report on the synthesis of BaTiO3 nanowires via the anodic aluminum oxide template method. To fill in the precursors of BaTiO3 into anodic aluminum oxide templates, the vacuum and drop loading method developed in our previous study was used. Ba(CH3COO)2 (barium acetate) and C12H28O4Ti (tetraisopropyl orthotitanate) were used as Ba and Ti sources, respectively. Anodic aluminum oxide membranes with the through-hole diameter of ~200 nm were used as the template for BaTiO3 nanowires.
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Editorial Board Members Related to PI

Nandadulal Bairagi

Associate Professor
Centre for Mathematical Biology and Ecology
Jadavpur University

Makobetsa Khati

Department at CSIR Biosciences
South Africa

Ana Cristina Lindsay

Associate Professor
Department of Nutrition
University of Massachusetts Boston
United States

Anthony Wai-Leung Kwok

Associate Professor
Tung Wah College
Hong Kong

Esam Z. Dajani

Adjunct Professor of Medicine
Loyola University

Rasha Sayed Hanafi

Associate Professor
Pharmaceutical and Biomedical analysis
German University

Douglas Wilson

School Medicine Pharmacy and Health
Durham University

Vural Fidan

Associate Professor
Deputy Director of ENT Department
Emre Government Hospital

Baolin Zhang

Division of Therapeutic Proteins
Office of Biotechnology Products
FDA/Center for Drug Evaluation and Research
United States

Qifeng Yang

Department of Breast Surgery
Director, Pathology Tissue Bank
Qilu Hospital, Shandong University
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