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Articles Related to PK

Pharmacodynamic Equivalence of Ovine Enoxaparin to Porcine Enoxaparin (Lovenox®) In Healthy Volunteers: A Randomized, Open-Label, 2-Way Cross-Over, Single Dose Study

Aim: to demonstrate the PK/PD equivalence of an ovine enoxaparin to the reference product, the originator porcine enoxaparin, Lovenox® from Sanofi, and to assess its safety and tolerability in healthy volunteers with s.c. administration. Methods: a randomized, open-label, 2-way cross-over, single-dose study with 7 days wash-out period was conducted in healthy volunteers of both sexes. A single s.c. injection of 6,000 IU ovine enoxaparin from Metiska Farma (the test drug, T) or Lovenox® from Sanofi (the reference drug, R) was given randomly to each subject in fasting condition. The PD endpoints measured were anti-FXa and anti-FIIa activities in plasma, whereas the PD parameters determined for these endpoints were AUEC0-t (area under the effect curve from time 0 to the last measured activity (t)) and Amax (maximum activity). Bioequivalence (BE) is based on anti-FXa activity, the 90% CIs for GMR T/R (geometric means ratio of Test/ Reference) of AUEC0-t and Amax must fall within the BE limits of 80.00 – 125.00%. The anti-FIIa data are in vivo supportive evidence only. Results: a total of 23 healthy volunteers completed this study. The 90% CIs for GMR T/R of AUEC0-t and Amax for anti-FXa were 107.55 – 116.33% and 110.17 – 117.68%, respectively, while those for anti-FIIa were 100.93 – 122.56% and 105.19 – 124.44%, respectively. All parameters fell within the BE criteria of 80.00 – 125.00%. One AE (adverse event) occurred in one volunteer after s.c. injection of ovine enoxaparin, i.e. bruising which disappeared after a few days. Conclusions: the ovine enoxaparin from Metiska Farma was bioequivalent to the reference porcine enoxaparin (Lovenox®) from Sanofi. Both enoxaparin products were shown to have high safety and tolerability after a single dose in healthy volunteers. This is the first study showing BE of a nonporcine enoxaparin to the reference porcine enoxaparin in Indonesia, a Moslem country
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Nutrition State and Fertilization of Fusarium Wilt Resistant Banana (Zhongjiao No. 9)

To apply fertilizer rationally during promotion of Zhongjiao No.9 being a fusarium wilt resistant new variety, dry matter (DM) and NPK in four organs of the banana were tested. Average fresh and dry weight (FW and DW) of No.9 were 145.35±6.42 and 18.18± 0.70 kg plant-1.
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A Thoroughgoing Detail of Surgical Dressings

Injury to the skin provides a unique challenge, as wound healing is a complex and intricate process. Acute wounds have the potential to move from the acute wound to chronic wounds, requiring the physician to have a thorough understanding of outside interventions to bring these wounds back into the healing cascade. Surgical enrichment/dressings are applications for wounds, burns, and ulcers. They should be regarded as supportive of healing; are desirable but not essential in an emergency.
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Treatment of Acute Corneal Hydrops with Full-thickness Penetrating Subtotal Keratoplasty (PKP): Clinical Case

The article is devoted to the description of the successful treatment of acute keratoconus by the method of full-thickness penetrating subtotal keratoplasty (PKP).
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Evaluation of Nitrogen, Phosphorus and Potassium Nano-Fertilizers on Yield, Yield Components and Fiber Properties of Egyptian Cotton (Gossypium Barbadense L.)

Field experiments were carried out in Agricultural and Experimental Research Station in years 2016 and 2017 to evaluate NPK nanofertilizers application, times, methods and rates on yield and fiber properties of Egyptian cotton (Giza, 90). The experiment was laid out in a split-split-plot based on Randomized Complete Block Design with four replications.
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Xeroderma Pigmentosum Groups C and A in Algerian Patients with Deregulation of both Transcription and DNA Repair

Xeroderma Pigmentosum (XP) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by an extreme sensitivity to UV rays from sunlight, a high incidence of skin cancer and occasional neurological symptoms. XP, primarily defined as a DNA repair syndrome, has been found associated with defects in the Nucleotide Excision Repair (NER) pathway, and more recently by transcriptional deregulation. XP results from mutations in eight genes (XPA to XPG and XPV) coding for proteins involved in NER.
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Bullous Lichen Planus: A Case Report with Review of Literature

Oral lichen planus is a chronic inflammatory mucocutaneous disease which frequently involves the oral mucosa. A 48-year-old male patient with the chief complaint of burning sensation in bilateral buccal mucosa, upper and lower labial mucosa diagnosed as Bullous lichen planus and treated with systemic prednisolone and Benzydamine oral rinse. Patient was followed for 6 months and was almost free of lesions. The case is reported with review of current modalities in the management of oral lichen planus.
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Evaluating the Effect of Oprelvekin on Cardiac Repolarization in Subjects with Chemotherapy-Induced Thrombocytopenia: An Observational Chart Review of a Phase 2 Clinical Trial in Laredo, Texas

This study tested for the cardiac effects of Oprelvekin, recombinant human interleukin-11, a thrombopoietic growth factor, in patients afflicted with chemotherapy-induced thrombocytopenia (platelet count<50,000 cells/ul). Chart-reviews of patients fulfilling the inclusion criteria of: 18-75 yrs of age, non-myeloid malignancy, with adequate hematologic, hepatic and renal parameters and normal electrocardiograms that were enrolled in this phase 2 trial were analyzed. Patients of child-bearing potential agreed to be on a reliable form of birth control for the duration of the study. Results on 4 patients suggest that Oprelvekin does not cause atrial nor ventricular arrhythmia, a rare severe cardiac side effect, in treating patients with chemotherapy-induced thrombocytopenia.
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The Effect of Interleukin-6-Type Cytokines and Adiponectin on MAPK Activation in the Immortalized Human Chondrocyte C28/I2 Line and Normal Human Chondrocytes

The C28/I2 line of immortalized juvenile human chondrocytes was employed to determine the extent to which recombinant human (rh) interleukin-6 (rhIL-6), the interleukin-6-like cytokine, rh-oncostatin M, and the adipokine, rh-adiponectin, activated extracellularsignal regulated kinase (ERK1/2), p38α mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38α MAPK) and c-Jun-amino-terminal kinase (JNK).
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Microfilaria Causing Bone Marrow Failure

It is common to detect microfilariae in various cytological preparations, however there are very few case reports describing microfilariae in bone marrow aspirates. It is rarer to get bone marrow failure secondary to microfilaria in bone marrow. We report here a patient from Bihar, presented to us with prolonged fever and pancytopenia, bone marrow aspirate showed microfilaria. Treatment with DEC and albendazole resulted in prompt recovery.
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MAPK Pathway in Skeletal Muscle Diseases

Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase (MAPK) pathway is a signal transduction pathway that functions in a wide range of physiological and pathophysiological cellular events including cell proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, migration, inflammation, metabolic disorders and diseases.
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Editorial Board Members Related to PK

Fatih Yalcin

Professor
Department of Cardiology
Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions
USA

MICHAEL VAN DOREN JOHNSTON

Professor
Department of Neurology and Pediatrics
Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine
United States

YUNBO LI

Professor
Department of Pharmacology
Campbell University School of Osteopathic Medicine
United States

Jian Zhu

Assistant Professor
Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics
University of Rochester Medical Center
United States

Yanyan Li

Assistant Professor
Department of Health and Nutrition Sciences
Montclair State University
United States

Huafeng Zhang

Professor
School of Life Science
University of Science & Technology of China
China

Hong Zhu

Associate Professor
Campbell University School of Osteopathic Medicine
United States

LAUREN BERKOW

Associate Professor
Division of Neuroanesthesia
Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care Medicine
Johns Hopkins University
United States

Sue Hudson Duran

Professor
Auburn University
United States

Michael Gibson

Associate Professor
Department of Medicine
Case Western Reserve University
United States
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