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Evaluation of Calcitriol Administration Against Apoptotic Markers in Ischemic Stroke

Background: Ischemic stroke is one of the most dangerous health issues that leads to neuronal cell death through various mechanisms including, inflammation, oxidative stress, and apoptosis. Calcitriol (1,25(OH)2D3) play an important role against ischemic stroke. Objective: The aim of this study was evaluating the effects of 1,25(OH)2D3 administration on the activity of Calpain 1, Caspase 3, and JNK apoptotic proteins. Materials and Methods: In this clinical trial study, 38 eligible patients were recruited and then were divided into two control and experimental groups. A single oral dose of 10μg 1,25(OH)2D3 was given to experimental group and 4ml of blood samples were collected from all subjects. After isolation of leukocytes from blood samples of patients, flow cytometry was used to investigate the proteins expression of Calpain 1, Caspase 3, and JNK. Results: Our data revealed that the activity of Calpain1, Caspase 3 and JNK were significantly decreased after the administration of 1,25(OH)2D3 in ischemic stroke. Conclusion: Based on our findings, calcitriol (1,25(OH)2D3) could be considered as a protective approach against ischemic stroke by reducing the activity of apoptotic proteins.
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Socio-Demographic, Clinical Characteristics and Blood Lipid profiles of Type 1 Diabetic Patients Followed in Regional Hospitals in The Northern Zone of Cameroon

Background and Objective: In Cameroon, given the galloping growth in the prevalence of diabetes, in particular type 1 diabetes in the northern regions, we undertook this study, with the objective to improve the management of type 1 diabetes by determining the socio-demographic, clinical characteristics and lipid profiles of the patients followed in the care centers of regional hospitals of Maroua, Garoua and Ngaoundere. Methods: We undertook a descriptive cross-sectional study from 07 August 2018 to 07 May 2019 in the care centers of the regional hospitals. Sociodemographic and clinical data were collected by interview to consent patient through structured questionnaires in the survey sheet. Anthropometric data were also determined during the survey, and the blood was collected in referred laboratory for determination of some lipid profiles parameters. Results: On a sample of 467 Patient suffering from diabetes, 68 were of type 1, representing a prevalence of 26%. Type 1 diabetes Patients were mostly female (61.8%) and the mean age was 20.72 ± 3.4 years with a high percentage between 20-30 years (51.5%). More than half of our patients were pupils and students, many of them practiced Muslims as religion (58.8%). In most of cases (51.3%), the disease was diagnosed after one year as a result of illness. The majority of our patients were non-smokers (98.5%) and less athletic (32.4%). The mean Body Mass Index (BMI) was 23.03 ± 2.7 kg /m2 with an average waist circumference of 80.26 ± 9.23 cm in men and 82.15 ± 10.45 in women. Their treatment was based essentially on insulin therapy, mainly using regular and intermediate insulins. More than half of the subjects had high blood glucose (78.1%), high triglyceride (34.1%) and HDL-cholesterol (29.3%) levels. Most of the patients suffered from overweight/obesity, high blood pressure, arthritis, kidney failure and other diseases (malaria, jaundice, stomach ache). No significant relation was found between clinical and the sociodemographic and blood lipid profiles. Conclusion: It emerges from this study that type 1 diabetes represent high proportions of diabetes cases in septentrional area of Cameroon, and affect mostly young of less than 30 years old, dominated by women, practicing Muslim as religion. Their clinical profile characterized by high frequency of overweight/obesity, kidney failure and arthritis vary, but not significantly, with neither their sociodemographic nor their blood lipid profiles. Absence of sport, female and less control of their hypoglycemia are factors risks of the progression of the disease.
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Factors Associated with Junk Food Consumption Affecting Saudi University Female Students

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Carbon-Dioxide Emissions Due to Fossil Fuels Consumption

A majority of Carbon-dioxide including smaller amounts of methane and nitrous are emitted from the consumption of fossil fuels around the world to meet the sustainable development goals and global prosperity. Studies have shown that the increase in greenhouse gases has negative effects on human health, and the environment around us. Emissions from the consumption of fossil fuels in factories and industries either to produce electricity or transport people, goods and services cause the release of CO2 and other pollutants into the atmosphere. The majority of industrial energy is supplied by nonrenewable energy resources, which mainly consist of fossil fuels. Currently, fossil fuels are the main source of energy and are concentrated in some regions of the world, therefore direct contamination occurs in areas where they are stored or processed. A majority of electricity consumed by cities and countries across the world is produced from fossil fuels, which accounts for the highest percentage of overall CO2 production in that particular country. People will share the common global environmental problems, either it is local or regional, hence immediate actions are needed to tackle problems at national and regional and global levels. Fortunately, with the advent of new technologies and intervention strategies, it is possible to reduce pollution and reduce the rate of rising global temperature that might result in better economy and ecological systems as well as providing sustainable energy resources. In this research the data on nonrenewable energy sources, fossil fuel reserves in different regions, production and consumption rate of fossils have been identified and reviewed. Additionally, mathematical calculation has been done to find the carbon dioxide emission amounts, both international and national legislations as well as further recommendations have been provided to reduce or prevent emissions.
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Knowledge, Attitude, Acceptance and Utilization of the Female Condom Among Population in Brazzaville

Introduction: Knowledge and use of the male condom is not uncommon. This study sought to fill this gap by exploring Female Condom knowledge, attitude, acceptance and use in a sample of population to inform intervention measures aimed at increasing the acceptability and usage of the Female Condom taking into cognizance its safety and effectiveness. Method Study: A cross-sectional survey conducted between May and July 2019, was used to explore knowledge, attitudes and practices on the female condom targeting Congolese population at Brazzaville, Republic of Congo. To allow the participants to respond to the questionnaire at a time comfortable to him/her. Results: Seven hundred and twenty questionnaires were administered and 567 questionnaires were included in the final analysis giving a response rate of 81%. In total, 277 men and 290 women aged 14 to 63 participated in the study. Among the participants who have already seen the female condom, 80 have already used it, i.e. 21.3%. Of the 80 individuals who reported ever using a female condom, 43 (53.7%) used the female condom with a usual partner and 17 (21.3%) used it with a new partner. Concerning factors contributing to low usage of the female condom, the majority either had difficulty installing (26.3%); great difficulty in fitting (17.5%); the use of the female condom was simply uncomfortable (25%). Discussion: Our study population included 68.3% of participants with higher education, which explains the fact that there is (93.8%) has heard talk about the female condom and among them 66.3% have already seen the female condom. Only 66.3% of people have ever seen a female condom, on the other hand very few people have used it. The majority of people had difficulty using the female condom, including difficulty in inserting the female condom. Difficulties related to the female condom insertion were reported by the majority of the respondents. Conclusion: This study revealed critical gaps in knowledge, condom use, and negotiation skills and highlights the unmet need for interventions to further educate and empower women with and without HIV to prevent spread of HIV in this high-prevalence, high-risk population.
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Detection of a Rheumatic Factor (RF,) Anti- Cyclic Citrullinated Peptides (Anti CCP) Antibodies and C- Reactive Protein (CRP) in Diagnosis and Prognosis of Rheumatoid Arthritis

Introduction: Rheumatoid arthritis ( RA)is an autoimmune and inflammatory disease. It is characterized by arthrosynovitis with resultant joint destruction . So, an early clinical diagnosis along with simple serological tests like anti CCP antibodies, C –reactive protein ( CRP) and Rheumatoid factor (RF) play an important role .An attempt was made to study and compare these parameters in OPD and IPD RA patients in our hospital setup, VMMC and Safdarjung Hospital , New Delhi. Aims and Objectives: To study the role of RF , Anti-CCP antibodies and CRP in early detection and prognosis of Rheu- matoid arthritis. Materials and Methods: A Total of 440 samples were studied from January 2018 to December 2020 (3years). Correlation between Rheumatoid factor(RF) ,anti CCP antibodies and CRP in suspected RA patients from various departments like PMR , Orthopaedics , Medicine, Obstetrics and Gynaecology and Paediatrics was attempted. RF and CRP was performed using latex agglutination test and anti CCP antibody by ELISA. Results and Conclusion: Of 440 samples tested, all the factors were positive in 87 patients . Anti CCP and RF alone was seen in 32 patients. RF and CRP positive in 49 patients, RF alone in 22 patients. In 250 patients all the tests were negative. So, Anti CCP along with RF and CRP showed a better positive predictive value in patients of Rheumatoid arthritis. But positivity of these parameters even in patients who lack sign and symptoms also aids in better diagnosis, treatment and prognosis.
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Does Pre-Workout Supplement Consumption Affect Enamel Microhardness?

The aim of this study was to compare in vitro the micro hardness of enamel exposed to the erosive effects of three pre-workout drinks. Forty blocks (4mmx4mm) of bovine enamel were randomly selected and divided among the following pre-workout drinks (n=10): G1: Universal Shock Therapy®, G2: 1.M.R Vortex™, G3: Jack3Dmicro™, G4: Control (distilled water). The enamel microhardness was evaluated before (T1) and after (T2) the in vitro erosive test (5 min/3 times/5 days) using a Vickers digital microduremeter (load 100g/penetration 15s). The data was analyzed using descriptive statistics (mean, ±sd) and for comparison testing, using the Kruskall Wallis test and the t Student test (p≤ 0.05). All groups showed a reduction in micro hardness after the erosive test (p =0.001).1.M.R Vortex™ drink showed a large decrease in micro hardness (%SMH:34,92%). Pre-workout drinks significantly decreased the superficial micro hardness of enamel
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Hierarchical Analysis of The Factors Associated with the Consumption of Fruits and Vegetables: Cohort of Universities of Minas Gerais, Brazil (Cume Project)

The objective of this study was to assess which factors, at hierarchical levels, are associated with adequate consumption of fruits and vegetables (FV) in undergraduate and graduate students. This is a cross-sectional analysis of the baseline of the Cohort of Universities of Minas Gerais (CUME Project), with alumni from Universities of Minas Gerais, Brazil, in the years 2016 and 2018. The outcome variable was adequate consumption of FV (≥400 g/day). The exposure variables were divided into: block 1, socioeconomic (marital status, education, professional status, individual and family income); block 2, behavioral (physical activity, alcohol consumption, tobacco use, and consumption of legumes, natural juices, ultra-processed foods, soft drinks and industrialized juices, and fast foods); block 3, individual (gender, age, skin color, self-perception of health and presence of obesity, systemic arterial hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and depression). To verify the associations, hierarchical multiple logistic regression was used. The sample consisted of 4,124 individuals with a median age of 34 years and Interquartile Range (IQ) of 12 years, 68.1% women, with a high frequency (62.2%) of adequate consumption of FV. This adequate consumption of FV was associated with being a woman (OR=1.41; 95%CI 1.21-1.64; p<0.001), advancing in age and being physically active (OR=2.10; 95%CI 1.78-2.47; p<0.001), having regular consumption of natural fruit juice (OR=2.00; 95%CI 1.70-2.34, p<0.001), or consumption of ultra-processed foods (OR=0.96; 95%CI 0.95-0.97; p<0.001). In conclusion, individual and behavioral factors are associated with adequate consumption of FV in highly educated individuals.
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Optical Depth Measurement of Self-Reversed Line Emitted from In-Homogenous Plasma in Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy

In this work, an original method is proposed and used for measurement of the optical depth of a self-reversed spectral line. A theoretical approach is utilized in an in homogenous laser induced plasma at local thermodynamic to simulate self-reversed line and then to get the main line profile without self-absorption. In this research, the spatial and temporal evolution of optical depth of two spectral lines of Ca II at 393.4 nm and 396,9 nm is studied. Furthermore, the variation of optical depth versus the concentration of species emitter inside of plasma plume is investigated. In addition, the validity of this method is affirmed during comparison with results obtained by other techniques.
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Surgical Management of Asymptomatic Hyperparathyroidism: Long-Term Follow-Up

Background: Primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) is a frequently diagnosed endocrine disease and nowadays it is asymptomatic in the majority of patients. The management of asymptomatic PHPT is still debated in some cases, although there are evidences that asymptomatic patients may have improved outcomes after curative surgery. In this paper we show one of the longest follow-ups of surgically treated asymptomatic PHPT, focusing on skeletal long-term effects of surgery. Methods: We included in the study 21 patients that underwent parathyroidectomy for asymptomatic PHPT at our Institution from 2006 to 2010 with a complete follow-up at 10 years. Data about age, BMI, preoperative serum and urinary calcium, vitamin D, alkaline phosphatase parathormone, bone densitometry, surgical procedure and histological examination were collected and analyzed. Results: At follow-up we observed a normalization of PTH, serum calcium and alkaline phosphatase in all patients. Moreover, in all cases the T-score at 1 year increased significantly both at lumbar spine and femoral neck and this is maintained at long-term follow-up. Conclusions: Parathyroidectomy can be proposed as a safe therapeutical option in the majority of cases of asymptomatic PHPT considering the good results of surgery in terms of bone demineralization reduction
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Case Report: De novo Ocular Myasthenia Gravis after the mRNA Vaccine for SARS-COV2

Autoimmune Myasthenia gravis is a neuromuscular junction disease caused by destruction of the acetylcholine receptor on the postsynaptic membrane, mediated by autoantibodies and clinically characterized by skeletal muscle weakness. This can be triggered by drugs, infections, and in rare cases by vaccines. During the COVID pandemic, de novo cases and exacerbations of myasthenia gravis due to viral infection have been documented. Although few cases related to COVID vaccination. A 69-year-old female patient with blurred vision, a clinic that began 10 days later after receiving first dose of COVID vaccine, and diplopia and right palpebral ptosis after the second dose, 30 days later. In the examination, Edrophonium test was clearly positive, treatment with pyridostigmine and prednisone was started and after 14 days the clinic showed improvement until the resolution of the symptoms There are few reports of exacerbations or triggers for the appearance of myasthenia gravis, a series of 27 cases has been published where there are outbreaks of immune-mediated diseases or the new appearance of autoimmune diseases, in which it is observed that the time of appearance of the outbreak was on average 4 days up to a maximum of 25 days. In conclusion, Myasthenia gravis is a rare complication of the BNT162b2 COVID-19 vaccine. Its potential severity and the current lack of knowledge of the real incidence after vaccination makes it necessary to maintain an attitude of vigilance in the face of symptoms that suggest it.
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E. Coli Bacteria and Its Transcription Regulation

Escherichia coli is the commonest Bacteria for urinary tract Infection do regulate its transcription predominantly at the stage of initiation by repressors and/or activators.
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A Java Software for Randomized Phase II Clinical Cancer Trial Designs

Traditionally, a typical phase II trial has been conducted using a single-arm design recruiting patients only to the experimental therapy to be compared with a historical control. Due to a small sample size and heterogeneity of patient population, the patient characteristics of the patients in a new phase II trial is often different from that of the selected historical control, so that the single-arm phase II trial may lead to biased conclusions. A randomized phase II trial can resolve such problems by randomizing patients between an experimental arm and a control arm. We propose a software package for designing and analyzing randomized phase II trials. We develop a user-friendly Java software that will help us find optimal two-stage phase II trial designs. Although the programs accommodate trial designs based on various statistical methods and different types of early stopping rules, the main part of our paper is focused on randomized phase II trials based on Fisher’s exact test with futility and superiority early stopping values. If users enter input parameter values, the software generates a graphical output displaying all efficient two-stage designs. Minimax, optimal, and admissible designs are highlighted as good designs, but users can select any of the displayed designs. When the circle representing a design is clicked, all the specifics of the selected design are displayed. Fisher’s test is an exact method whose critical values depend on the total number of responders from two arms. So, the computations required to search for optimal randomized multi-stage phase II trial designs based on Fisher’s exact test is very heavy. By using efficient algorithms, our software provides output at almost real time speed
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Candida, a Rare Cause of Duodenal Perforation

Candida infections of the gastrointestinal tract are rare and perforation caused by Candida infections is extremely rare. Herein, we present a case of duodenal perforation where laboratory culture revealed the growth of a fungus, Candida and the absence of H. pylori from a 51-year-old female who presented with an upper abdominal pain while performing her religious obligation in the month of Ramadan. The results suggest emergency exploratory laparotomy and the perforation discovered was repaired through omental patching. An antifungal agent, Fluconazole, was administered.
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Prevalence of Minority Mutations That Confer Multi-Drug Resistance Among Patients Failing a Nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitor Based Regimen in Uganda

Background:The extensive use of antiretroviral therapy has favored the emergence of multiple patterns of drug resistance mutations. These mutations evolve over time and are only detected by the conventional Sanger sequencing technology when they exceed 20% at which time there may be cross resistance. Unfortunately, the controversy surrounding the significance of these minority drug resistance mutations is still overwhelming. Methods: Samples were obtained from patients who were failing on an NRTI based regimen between 2010 and 2019. For the subtype A and D analysis, 1000 patient samples were analyzed while the subtype C sub-analysis was comprised of 363 samples. Sanger based sequencing was performed as part of the standard of care. A subset of these samples was further analyzed using the Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) technology and analysis of the drug resistance mutations was performed at the 20% and 1% cut off to determine the prevalence of minority multi-drug resistant variants. Results: Although Thymidine analog mutations (TAMs) were prevalent in all subtypes, our analyses showed that these mutations occurred in significantly less proportions among subtype C infections when compared with the subtype A and D counterparts. On the other hand, the Q151M mutation complex was significantly more predominant among patients harboring subtype C variants. Analysis using NGS revealed that minority drug resistant mutations that confer multi-drug resistance (MDR) were present even in patients who exhibited a susceptible genotype based on the Sanger sequencing technique. Conclusion: Although HIV-1 MDR variants occur in all subtypes, their predominance is subtype specific with TAMs being significantly more predominant among subtype A and D while the Q151M complex more predominant among patients harboring subtype C viruses. Even in patients with a fully susceptible genotype based on Sanger technology, minority variants are present and their evolution to full blown MDR occurs over time such that if their early detection is missed, cross resistance is inevitable.
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Recent Developments in Human Odor Detection Technologies

Human odor detection technologies have drawn attention due to the wide possibility of potential applications they open up in areas such as biometrics, criminal investigation and forensics, search for survivors under rubble, and security checkpoint screening. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) has been the most successful and powerful analytical approach developed to date for human odor analysis, and hundreds of human odorants have been identified using this tool.
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Anodic Oxidation of Titanium in Sulphuric Acid and Phosphoric Acid Electrolytes

Anodisation of pure titanium has been carried out in sulphuric and in phosphoric acid solutions at potentials ranging from 50 to 150V. The SEM and AFM morphological analysis indicates that, within this potential range, oxidation in sulphuric acid solution produces better developed mesoporous oxide layers.
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Fabrication of Vertical Cu2ZnSnS4 Nanowire Arrays by Two-Step Electroplating Method into Anodic Aluminum Oxide Template

Vertical Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) nanowire arrays have been synthesized via two-step electroplating method into anodized aluminum oxide template. For deposition of CZTS nanowires, anodized aluminum oxide (AAO) was used as the growth mask for the growth of the nanowires. AAO templates with hole sizes of 70 nm in diameter were used in the experiments.
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Editorial Board Members Related to PT

Yuchuan Ding

Professor
Department of Neurosurgery
Wayne State University School of Medicine
United States

Chiang-Ting Chien

Professor
Department of Biology
National Taiwan Normal University
Taiwan

Ashraf Naeem

Associate professor
Department of Anatomy & Embryology
Zagazig University
Egypt

Tan-Lucien Hassan Mohammed

Associate Professor
Department of Radiology
University of Florida
United States

Janet Liversidge

Professor
School of Medicine and Dentistry
University of Aberdeen Institute of Medical Sciences
United Kingdom

YOSHIHITO YOKOYAMA

Associate professor
Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology
Hirosaki University Graduate School of Medicine
Japan

ALBA A. TRESPALACIOS

Professor
Department of Microbiology
Pontificia Universidad Javeriana
Colombia

Chunying Li

Assistant Professor
Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Wayne State University School of Medicine
United States

Mandava Rajeswari

Professor
School of Computer Sciences
Universiti Sains Malaysia
Malaysia

MICHAEL P. SHERMAN

Professor Emeritus
Department of Child Health
Division of Neonatology
University of California-Davis School of Medicine
United States
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