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Articles Related to Pharma

Bioequivalence of Two Efavirenz/Emtricitabine/Tenofovir Disoproxil Fumarate 600/200/300 mg Fixed-Dose Combination Tablets in Healthy Thai Male Volunteers under Fasting Conditions

Fixed-dose combination tablet formulation of efavirenz/emtricitabine/tenofovir disoproxil fumarate 600/200/300 mg is an antiretroviral therapy comprising one non-nucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitor and two nucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitors to control human immunodeficiency virus infection.
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Pharmacokinetics Bridging Study of a 400 Mg Extended Release Formulation of the Novel Fumaric Acid Ester PPC-06 (Tepilamide Fumarate) in Healthy Male Volunteers

Tepilamide fumarate (PPC-06) is a new, patented prodrug of monomethyl fumarate (MMF), belonging to the fumaric acid esters (FAEs) class of drugs. The efficacy and safety of a 400 mg PPC-06 dose administered twice daily, achieved thus far through concomitant intake of two tablets of 200 mg, was demonstrated previously in two Phase 2 clinical trials on patients with moderate to severe chronic plaque-type psoriasis.
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Bioequivalence Evaluation of Two Clopidogrel Immediate Release Tablet Formulations in Healthy Thai Volunteers Under Fasting Conditions

Clopidogrel is used for acute coronary syndrome and prevention of atherothrombotic events. To improve clinical outcomes, patient adherence to treatment is necessary. However, continuous use of branded product may cause economic burden to patients and healthcare system. The Government Pharmaceutical Organization (GPO), Thailand had developed a generic product of clopidogrel to reduce cost of treatment and improve accessibility to medicines for Thai people.
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Charles Bonnet Syndrome: Rapid Resolution of Visual Hallucinations with Low Dose Risperidone

Charles Bonnet syndrome (CBS) comprises of complex visual hallucinations secondary to visual impairment in the presence of preserved cognition. Age related macular degeneration and other factors causing visual deterioration lead to visual hallucinations in 10-15% of patients. Sensory deprivation and social isolation are risk factors for development of CBS. The distressing hallucinations are underreported by patients and to date there are no robust evidence based guidelines to manage these hallucinations. Since visual hallucinations are associated with multiple psychiatric disorders as well, these patients are often referred to mental health providers. Here, we present the case of CBS development after macular degeneration. Rapid and sustained resolution of visual hallucinations and associated distress was observed with low dose Risperidone.
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Bioequivalence between Two Tablets of Levetiracetam in Healthy Subjects under Fasting Condition

Bioavailability of two formulations containing levetiracetam 750 mg film-coated tablets was compared in a fasting bioequivalence study. The study was single dose, randomized, open label, and two-period crossover, with Brazilian healthy subjects, males and nonpregnant females. Blood samples were taken for 36 hours after drug administration and plasmatic concentrations were determined using a validated HPLC-MS/MS method. Confidence intervals (CI90%) for the peak plasma concentration (Cmax) and area under the concentration-time curve (AUC0-t) were determined by calculating LN-transformed data. The ratios and 90% CI for the geometric mean test/reference were 97.41% (91.45- 103.75%) for Cmax and 99.77% (97.07- 102.54%) for AUC0-t.
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Bioequivalence Study of Olanzapine 5 mg Orally Disintegrating Tablet Formulations in Healthy Thai Volunteers under Fasting Conditions

A comparative randomized, single dose, two-way crossover, open label study was carried out to assess bioequivalence and tolerability of test (ZOLAN GPO®) and reference (Zyprexa Zydis®) products of olanzapine 5 mg orally disintegrating tablets for interchange ability in the same quality and safety.
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A Bioequivalence Study of Two Formulations of Rosuvastatin

Aim of this study was to compare the bioavailability of two tablet formulations containing Rosuvastatin: Rosuvastatin tablets 40 mg manufactured by MacLeods Pharmaceuticals Ltd. (marketed in Italy with the brand name Exorta®) and CRESTOR® 40 mg tablets marketed by Astra Zeneca.
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A Bioequivalence Study of Two Formulations of Levetiracetam

This study was conducted to compare the bioavailability of 1000 mg levetiracetam film-coated tablet, marketed in Italy as Italept®, with Keppra® coated tablet.
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Dose-Dependent Pharmacokinetics of Ropivacaine in Anesthetized Rabbits: Absence of Changes in Protein Binding

The primary objectives of this study were to investigate the in vivo pharmacokinetics and in vitro plasma protein binding of ropivacaine at the concentration range observed after intravenous administration of different doses in anesthetized rabbits.
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The Dose and its Acute Toxicology: A Systematic Review Article in the First Phase of Experimental Pharmacology

Hundreds and thousands of acute toxicity studies are conducted in experimental pharmacology with assumption hypothesis every year. It is usually concluded with inadequately validated data during the period of investigation within 24 hours.
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Pharmacokinetics of a 1,000 mg Disintegrating Aspirin Tablet Formulation

Migraine is a global disorder and considerably affecting people`s quality of life. Treatments include nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs-containing medicinal products among whom acetylsalicylic acid-containing Aspirin® has been proven effectively to relief migraine headache. Early treatment is recommended for patients with migraine attacks.
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Veterinary Considerations for the Theoretical Resurrection of Extinct Species

The de-extinction of the dinosaur is a dubious possibility but its consideration brings forth some issues that are at least worthy of scientific discussion. In this review, we discuss two distinct issues that have implications for a de-extinct species such as a dinosaur: the ability, or lack thereof, to safely sedate a rare and potentially fractious animal capable of harming the veterinary staff tasked with its care; and, disease risks associated with a species that has been extinct for millions of years. To identify potential sedatives, comparative pharmacology will be needed to uncover the links between receptor pharmacology and the desired clinical outcomes of activating established alpha-2 adrenergic, opioid, and benzodiazepine receptors. Specific to disease control, it will be necessary to understand the unique susceptibility of the new species to current diseases as well as predicting their reservoir capacity for potential human and veterinary pandemic diseases. While the topics presented herein are not exhaustive, this review highlights some of the foremost research that should be conducted in order to serve the unique veterinary needs of a de-extinct species using the dinosaur as a paradigm. Addressing these issues should be considered if an intact dinosaur genome becomes available, regardless of the feasibility of dinosaur resurrection.
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Cisplatin-Gemcitabine Related Cardiomyopathy in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer NSCLC Patient: A Case Study

Gemcitabine is a pyrimidine analog and cisplatin is a platinum agent, they are usually combined to form a chemotherapeutic doublet used to treat different types of oncological cancers, including non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Although these agents are not known to cause such events, few cases related to possible cardiotoxicity side effects have been reported ; including angina, chronic heart failure, arrhythmias, and cardiac ischemia. A 52-year-old African male presented with Stage IV lung adenocarcinoma metastatic to the bone, pleura and lymph node, EGFR wild type. Patient has a history of hypertension, diabetes, and atrial fibrillation and on rate control medications. He was treated initially with cisplatin-gemcitabine, after which he developed cardiomyopathy.
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Phyto-Nutrient Diversity in Morinda Citrifolia L. Genotypes of Andaman Islands, India

The Indian mulberry or Noni (Morinda citrifolia L.) is one of the emerging sources of natural antioxidants for herbal and pharmaceutical industry. The genus Morinda has more than 150 species in which M. citrifolia is identified as most important for health and economic point of view. Present study revealed significant (p < 0.05) diversity in 33 genotypes of M. citrifolia from Andaman and Nicobar Islands (India) for phyto-constituents. The promising genotypes viz. FRG-14, JGH-5, TRA-1, TRA-2 and HD-6 were identified for commercial uses. Correlation analysis in M. citrifolia germplasm showed strong correlation between carotenoids and ascorbic acid (r2 =0.973; p<0.05), tannin (r2 =0.598; p<0.05), flavonoids (r2 =0.691; p<0.05) and phenol (r2 =0.598; p<0.05). The genotypes showed wide range for antioxidant capacity which showed positive correlation with carotenoids (r2 =0.335; p<0.05), flavonoids (r2 =0.249; p<0.05) and Cu (r2 =0.953; p<0.05), Mn (r2 =0.953; p<0.05) and Mg (r2 =0.582; p<0.05). The diversity analysis is useful for designing breeding strategies for phyto-nutrient rich genotypes for better recovery in health products.
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Evaluating the Effect of Oprelvekin on Cardiac Repolarization in Subjects with Chemotherapy-Induced Thrombocytopenia: An Observational Chart Review of a Phase 2 Clinical Trial in Laredo, Texas

This study tested for the cardiac effects of Oprelvekin, recombinant human interleukin-11, a thrombopoietic growth factor, in patients afflicted with chemotherapy-induced thrombocytopenia (platelet count<50,000 cells/ul). Chart-reviews of patients fulfilling the inclusion criteria of: 18-75 yrs of age, non-myeloid malignancy, with adequate hematologic, hepatic and renal parameters and normal electrocardiograms that were enrolled in this phase 2 trial were analyzed. Patients of child-bearing potential agreed to be on a reliable form of birth control for the duration of the study. Results on 4 patients suggest that Oprelvekin does not cause atrial nor ventricular arrhythmia, a rare severe cardiac side effect, in treating patients with chemotherapy-induced thrombocytopenia.
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Editorial Board Members Related to Pharma

BADER MUBARAK W. AL-JAEID

Faculty of Pharmacy
King Abdulaziz University
Saudi Arabia

Wael Ahmad Abu Dayyih

Associate Professor
Department of Pharmaceutical Medicinal Chemistry and Pharmaconosy
University of petra
Jordan

Salim A. Hamadi

Professor
Department of Pharmacology and Biomedical Sciences
Petra University
Jordan

YUNBO LI

Professor
Department of Pharmacology
Campbell University School of Osteopathic Medicine
United States

V. Sankar

Professor & Head
Department of Pharmacy Practice
PSG College of Pharmacy
India

SAJA H. HAMED

Associate Professor
Department of Pharmaceutics and Pharmaceutical Technology
Hashemite University
Jordan

Martin Michaelis

Professor
Department of Cell Biology
University of Kent
United Kingdom

Pranav Mathur

Associate Scientist
Otonomy Inc.
USA

Carla J. Kinslow

Principal Consultant
Rimkus Consulting Group
USA

ABDUL AHAD

Assistant Professor
Department of Pharmaceutics
King Saud University
Saudi Arabia
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