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All-On-Four Concept in Implant Dentistry: A Literature Review

implantIntroductionThe implant technology developed as the all-on-four concept is offered as an alternative to conventional implant applications. In the all-on-four technique, 4 implants are placed in the interforaminal region in the mandible and in the pre-maxillary region in total edentulism cases. This application is based on the placement of two of these implants to the anterior region so as to be perpendicular to the occlusal plane, and on the placement of two implants to the posterior region so as to be inclined 30-45o. These implants are ensured to function by making immediate fixed complete denture over them. The patient is administered with permanent fixed full arch restoration 3 months later. The reduction of surgical procedures and the functioning of immediate dentures are important by means of this system. The purpose of this study is to compile the clinical and research articles regarding the all-on-four implant concept, to determine the basic principles of this concept, and to present the advantages and disadvantages of the method. The all-on-four concept can be an alternative and potential treatment method especially in atrophic edentulous jaws, its routine clinical practices can be performed, but it is necessary to increase long-term clinical controlled studies.
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The Role of Nanotechnology in Semiconductor Industry: Review Article

Nanotechnology is now the key area of technology to create and manipulate materials at the nanometre (nm or 10-9 m) scale either by bottom up from single groups of atoms to bulk matter or by top down which is reducing bulk materials to a group of atom. Now a days it is being used or considered for use for fabricating and constructing many efficient electronic devices which have extremely large surface area to volume ratio, this makes a large number of surface or interfacial atoms, resulting in more surface dependent material properties specially this technology is used in semiconductor industry or solar cell industry.
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Bullous Lichen Planus: A Case Report with Review of Literature

Oral lichen planus is a chronic inflammatory mucocutaneous disease which frequently involves the oral mucosa. A 48-year-old male patient with the chief complaint of burning sensation in bilateral buccal mucosa, upper and lower labial mucosa diagnosed as Bullous lichen planus and treated with systemic prednisolone and Benzydamine oral rinse. Patient was followed for 6 months and was almost free of lesions. The case is reported with review of current modalities in the management of oral lichen planus.
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The Management and Care of the Type 1 Diabetic Athlete

Diabetes poses many unique challenges to all individuals affected by the disease, particularly the diabetic athlete due to the effect that exercise has on blood glucose levels within the body. Patients and professionals must demonstrate significant understanding of the complex interaction of many physiological and environmental components that contribute to the maintenance of glucose homeostasis, or lack thereof. Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus is the form of Diabetes most often seen in elite athletes.
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Bacterial Probiotics their Importances and Limitations: A Review

Every animal hosts large number of microorganisms most of which affect its body positively. Such positive effect is induced by probiotics, live microbial food ingredients that alter the enteric microflora and have a beneficial effect on the health of an animal. There are many different varieties of friendly bacteria that exist naturally in foods or drinks, or can be added to foods or beverages to enhance health and wellbeing of animals. Thermal treatment and aseptic production of food strongly reduces the amount of microorganisms taken up. This alters the microbial composition in our digestive system.
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Variation in the Incidence of Self-Immolation According To Culture and Income Level: A Literature Review

Self-immolation is most commonly observed in the Middle East and Western Asia. It is far less common in the Western world. Documented cases in the West indicate that victims are more likely to be immigrants, indicating that there may be cultural influences that motivate this behavior. We have performed a literature review on self-immolation in order to better understand the cultural differences behind selfimmolation and the psychopathology related to this specific behaviour.
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Quadrivalent Human Papillomavirus Vaccine and the Young Ovary: Review of Safety Research Following Two Case Series of Premature Ovarian Insufficiency

The quadrivalent virus-like particle vaccine against human papillomavirus (QHPV) is a population vaccine targeting peri-pubertal girls and boys. Focus on evaluation of adolescent ovarian safety arises from cases in primary care and published case series describing the development of menstrual dysfunction and idiopathic premature ovarian insufficiency (POI) following QHPV vaccination. A structured review of QHPV vaccine safety studies was performed to answer the question ‘has the ongoing ovarian safety of this vaccine in adolescents been assessed?’ The design, size, and process of pre-licensing safety trials in relation to their capacity to assess ovarian function were reviewed.
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Evaluating the Effect of Oprelvekin on Cardiac Repolarization in Subjects with Chemotherapy-Induced Thrombocytopenia: An Observational Chart Review of a Phase 2 Clinical Trial in Laredo, Texas

This study tested for the cardiac effects of Oprelvekin, recombinant human interleukin-11, a thrombopoietic growth factor, in patients afflicted with chemotherapy-induced thrombocytopenia (platelet count<50,000 cells/ul). Chart-reviews of patients fulfilling the inclusion criteria of: 18-75 yrs of age, non-myeloid malignancy, with adequate hematologic, hepatic and renal parameters and normal electrocardiograms that were enrolled in this phase 2 trial were analyzed. Patients of child-bearing potential agreed to be on a reliable form of birth control for the duration of the study. Results on 4 patients suggest that Oprelvekin does not cause atrial nor ventricular arrhythmia, a rare severe cardiac side effect, in treating patients with chemotherapy-induced thrombocytopenia.
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Artificial Placenta: A Novel Approach for Preterm Neonates: Review of Literature

Preterm birth is one of the most common causes of neonatal morbidity and mortality worldwide. Furthermore, the mortality and morbidity are very high in extremely preterm infants born before 28 completed weeks of gestation or those with extremely low birth weight for gestational age (<1000 g). One of the major causes for such a high morbidity and mortality in such infants is respiratory insufficiency, due to poor lung maturity. To overcome these problems and to reduce overall burden of morbidity and mortality associated with immature pulmonary development in preterm neonates, the concept of “artificial placenta” came into picture, which is basically a pump less lung assisted device connected to umbilical vessels that helps in gaseous exchange in neonates with severe respiratory insufficiency.
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A Review: Fiber Reinforced Polymer Composite Helical Springs

NanotechnologyAbstractIntroductionIn order to successfully reduce the weight of a helical spring it is possible to optimize the material parameters or to use alternative advanced materials instead of conventional engineering ones. Springs are used for vibration damping in mechanical systems and are generally made of steel. As an alternative to material of steel springs in the scope of the study, mechanical behaviors of fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) composite helical springs have been investigated. The FRP composite material has made it possible to reduce the weight of helical spring without any reduction on load carrying capacity. Due to increasing competition and innovation in recent decades, vehicle industries show interest in replacing conventional steel spring with FRP composite helical spring which has advantages such as higher strength to weight ratio, higher stiffness, high impact energy absorption and lesser stresses. The study gives the brief look on the suitability of FRP composite helical springs on related mechanical systems. The objective of the present work is evaluation of the design, analysis and fabrication of FRP composite helical springs.
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Rupture of a Giant Caesarean Scar Endometriosis Nodule - A Case Report and Literature Review

Abdominal wall endometriosis is a rare condition occurring after caesarean section. A small painful nodule or lump near post caesarean scar is the common presentation. Large size endometrial nodules in anterior abdominal wall are uncommon and bleeding is very rare complication. In a thirty two years female a giant size endometrial nodule developed in a post caesarean scar. This patient presented as emergency during menstruation because of pain and lump with bluish discolouration. This case is reported for post caesarean scar large size endometriosis with extravasation of blood in surrounding anterior abdominal wall. This giant size endometriosis in anterior abdominal wall involving rectus abdominis muscle was successfully excised with a margin. The residual large size defect was repaired using polypropylene mesh.
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Commentary and Review on Sacred Geometry

This formula was designed to discover and analyze the compatibility/incompatibility of individuals and groups of individuals based on fingerprint classifications found in the Henry System of Fingerprint Classification and Filing. In particular, the Primary Classification which depicts the distribution of whorl type patterns across a ten set of fingerprints. A given Primary Classification is therefore examined according to the geometric position that it maintains on a chart of the 1024 classifications. Nevertheless, in order for geometric analysis to be accurate, the dimensions of the Primary Classification Chart must be specific.
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Dynamics of Protein Tyrosine Nitration and Denitration: A Review

Protein tyrosine nitration (PTN) is a post-translational modification that occurs under the action of Nitric oxide (NO) which leads to the formation of reactive nitrogen species (RNS). RNS reacts with tyrosine residues in proteins to form nitrotyrosine. PTN has lately been related to neurodegenerative diseases. It is very essential to know the details of its mechanism. PTN is also involved in cellular signaling. The detail of such an event is still not clear. Controlling of cellular signaling is only possible if nitration and denitration is a dynamic, regulated and reversible process. In this review, the biological consequence of PTN, analytical methods required for their detection and their relation with different neurological diseases has been discussed in details
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Severe and Unusual domestic Violence; A Case Report and Review of Literature

Violence against women is one of the most systematic and prevalent human rights abuses in the world. Here, we aim to demonstrate a case of sever domestic violence from rural area suffering severe injuries. A 24 years old woman that has been under the violence of her worker husband aged 35 years old without any previous history of referring to legal medicine organization. She suffered broken nose, several body bruise, sever bleeding in conjunctiva, pulled nail injuries and bleeding as well as several parallel scrapes of self-mutilations on different parts of the body.
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Review on Goat Milk Composition and its Nutritive Value

Goat milk is an important nutrient for humans, especially who have problem of lactose intolerance and sensitive to other animals’ milk. Goat milk is composed of different usable nutrients which are important to their young and humans.
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Editorial Board Members Related to Review

Bodo-Eckehard Strauer

Professor
Department of Cardiology
University of Duesseldorf
Germany

Shahrel Azmin Suandi

School of Electrical & Electronic Engineering
Universiti Sains Malaysia
Malaysia

Lars Larsson

Professor
Department of Clinical Neurophysiology
Karolinska Institutet
Sweden

SALEH A. NASER

Professor of Medicine and Graduate Coordinator
Burnett School of Biomedical Sciences
University of Central Florida
United States

SANJEEV KUMAR SINGH

Professor
Department of Bioinformatics
Alagappa University
India

Qiyong Gong

Professor and Director
Huaxi MR Research Center
Department of Radiology
West China Hospital of Sichuan University
China

KEQUAN ZHOU

Associate Professor
Department of Nutrition & Food Science
Wayne State University
United States

Hong Zhu

Associate Professor
Campbell University School of Osteopathic Medicine
United States

Jorge Perez

Associate Professor
San Juan Bautista School of Medicine
Caguas
United States

Julie Teruya-Feldstein

Director
Hematopathology
Immunohistochemistry Laboratory
United States
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