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Structural, Elemental and Molecular Characterization of Normal And Osteoarthritic Human Articular Cartilage

The articular cartilage overlying the bone consists of a network of collagen fibres. This network is essential to cartilage integrity, usually suffering damage in degenerative joint diseases such as osteoarthritis. We have been applying a number of techniques to study the bone-cartilage interface and of changes occurring in this with disease. The bone-cartilage samples with disease were investigated for their structural, elemental and molecular properties. The bone-cartilage samples with disease were characterized by scanning electron microscopy- energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDX) and Fourier Transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and Fourier transform (FT) Raman spectroscopy.
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Iatrogenic Pneumomediastinum and Facial Emphysema after Tooth Extraction

Subcutaneous emphysema and pneumomediastinum following extraction of mandibular third molars are rare. These complications are caused by forceful injection of air into the connective tissue. The symptoms may vary depending on the quantity of air, its location and the presence or absence of infection. In most cases, the subcutaneous emphysema will begin to disappear in 3-5 days. This report presents a case of subcutaneous emphysema and pneumomediastinum after wisdom extraction.
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Dual- Energy CT (DECT) Pulmonary Angiography in Acute Pulmonary Thromboembolism (PTE): Causes, Semiology and Potential Diagnostic Pitfalls

ObjectivesThe dual-energy computed tomographic (DECT) technique allows the differentiation of materials with large atomic numbers such as iodine. The basic principle of dual-energy CT is material decomposition based on attenuation differences at different energy levels. The parameters for iodine extraction are a minimum value of – 960 HU, and a maximum of –600 HU. Lung parenchyma with normal perfusion in this attenuation range is presented in orange, and an area of decreased perfusion is visualized as an iodine defect area.
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Orodental Considerations in Thalassemia Patients

Thalassemia is one of the most common genetic disorders worldwide and presents a major public health problem and social challenge in parts where the frequency is high. The symptoms of the disorder are modulated by various environmental, racial and genetic factors. Therefore, dental specialists are obligated to have knowledge towards the nature of the disorder and its effect on dental health. Cooperation with a hematologist is recommended in every dental treatment.
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Semiological Profile of Documented Apical Periodontitis: Case of the Clinic of Operative Dentistry and Endodontics (ODE) of the Department of Dentistry of Dakar

The prevalence of teeth carriers of periodontitis apical is universally high. Only the decontamination of the root canal system through cleaning, it’s shaping and its waterproof filling can ensure the eradication of infection at the level of the peri apex. The purpose of this prospective study was to establish the semiological profile of different types of periodontitis apical. The different characteristics used are subjective signs reported by the patient about the pain but also the clinical and radiographic features of each tooth with apical periodontitis.
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Comparison of Two Freezing Extenders and their Influence on Sperm Quality of Tunisian Arab stallions

The objective of the study was to evaluate semen quality of Tunisian Arab stallions frozen with 2 methods using 2 freezing basedextenders: the INRA 96® or the INRA Freeze®.
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Case Report of Severe Preeclampsia and Associated Postpartum Complications

Preeclampsia is clinically defined by hypertension and proteinuria, with or without pathologic edema that occurs after 20 weeks’ gestation, but can also present up to 4-6 weeks post-partum. Worldwide, incidence of preeclampsia is 5-14 percent of all pregnancies, while severe preeclampsia can develop to about 25 percent of all cases of preeclampsia.
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The Impact of Repeated Hb A2 Measurements on β-Thalassemia Trait Diagnosis

Hemoglobin A2 (Hb A2) is a minor component of the hemoglobin present in normal adult red blood cells, accounting for 1.5-3.5% of the total hemoglobin in healthy individuals.
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Spinal Cord Compression Due to Extramedullary Hematopoiesis in a 27-Year-Old Man with Beta Thalassemia Intermedia: A Case Report

Extramedullary hematopoiesis (EMH) occurs in approximately 15% of cases of thalassemia. Paraspinal mass of extramedullary hematopoiesis are a rare compensatory process in intermediate and severe thalassemia.
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Effects of Age and Sex on Sickle Cell Disease Avascular Necrosis

Sickle cell disease (SCD) is a hemoglobinopathy. Based on genotypes, it is classified into sickle cell thalassemia (SCTh) and sickle cell anemia (SCA).
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IL-8 Regulates Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition through pERK1/2 in AGS Cells

The aim of this project was to evaluate the influence of inflammatory cytokines IL-1β and IL-8 on gastric epithelial-mesenchymal transition in gastric epithelial cells.
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Characterization of Screen-Printed Nickel Oxide Electrodes for p-type Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

Mesoporous NiO films obtained via screen-printing deposition of a newly formulated paste containing preformed NiO-nanospheres have been employed as nanostructured photocathodes of p-type dye-sensitized solar cells (p-DSCs).
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Patient Perceptions of Robotic Surgery for Benign Gynecologic Disease

Studies comparing robotic-assisted laparoscopic surgery (RALS) and conventional laparoscopic surgery (CLS) suggest that the two approaches have similar outcomes. However, RALS leads to higher cost and longer operative time. We sought to investigate patient perceptions of RALS for benign gynecologic pathology.
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Nonparametric estimation of cumulative cause specific reversed hazard rates under masked causes of failure

In the analysis of competing risks data, it is common that the exact cause of failure for certain study subjects is missing. This problem of missing failure type may be due to inadequacy in the diagnostic mechanism or reluctance to report the exact cause of failure.
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Congenital Dyserythropoietic Anemia Type III and Primary Hemochromatosis; Coexistence of Mutations in KIF23 and HFE

Congenital dyserythropoietic anemia type III (CDA III) can be caused by mutation in KIF23. CDA III differs from CDA I and II in the sense that secondary hemochromatosis has not been reported. However, we have observed elevated serum ferritin in a CDA III family.
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Ordered Growth of Anodic Aluminum Oxide in Galvanostatic and Galvanostatic-Potentiostatic Modes

The results are presented of obtaining anodic aluminum oxide with an ordered pore arrangement by employing two anodizing modes - galvanostatic mode and combined (galvanostatic + potentiostatic) mode, at high values of the current density and voltage. Use has been made of an oxalate electrolyte and a complex electrolyte comprising oxalic acid and phosphoric acid. Scanning electron microscopy has been used to investigate the surface morphology of the barrier and porous layers and to determine pore sizes and inter-pore distance.
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Electronic-nose Applications in Forensic Science and for Analysis of Volatile Biomarkers in the Human Breath

The application of electronic-nose (E-nose) technologies in forensic science is a recent new development following a long history of progress in the development of diverse applications in the related biomedical and pharmaceutical fields. Data from forensic analyses must satisfy the needs and requirements of both the scientific and legal communities. The type of data collected from electronic-nose devices provides a means of identifying specific types of information about the chemical nature of evidentiary objects and samples under investigation using aroma signature profiles of complex gaseous mixtures containing volatile organic compounds (VOCs) released from manufactured products and parts of the human body. E-nose analyses also provide useful qualitative information about the physicochemical characteristics and metabolic conditions of human subjects without the need for time-consuming analyses to identify all chemical components in human-derived volatile mixtures.
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Characteristic Human Scent Compounds Trapped on Natural and Synthetic Fabrics as analyzed by SPME-GC/MS

The collection of human odor volatiles is of interest to forensic applications as a path to investigate canine scent discriminations in legal investigations. A study using a selected array of previously identified human odor compounds has been conducted to determine the retention and release capabilities of five (5) natural and synthetic fabric types, cotton (mercerized fabric and gauze matrix), polyester, rayon and wool.
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Preparation of Large Area Anodic Alumina Membranes and their Application to Thin Film Fuel Cell

The design of an electrochemical reactor for the preparation of self-supported comparatively thin (up to 10 μm) and large area (up to 50 cm2) anodic alumina membranes is described allowing growth of porous alumina at high applied potential (up to 150 V) without burning.
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Fabrication of Vertical Cu2ZnSnS4 Nanowire Arrays by Two-Step Electroplating Method into Anodic Aluminum Oxide Template

Vertical Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) nanowire arrays have been synthesized via two-step electroplating method into anodized aluminum oxide template. For deposition of CZTS nanowires, anodized aluminum oxide (AAO) was used as the growth mask for the growth of the nanowires. AAO templates with hole sizes of 70 nm in diameter were used in the experiments.
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Editorial Board Members Related to SEM

FRANCISCO FERNANDEZ CAMPOS

Professor Adjuant
Department of Pharmaceutical Technology
University of Barcelona
Spain

GEORGE DINOS

Associate Professor
Department of Biochemistry
University of Patras
Greece

Wynand S. Verwoerd

Senior Lecturer
Department of Wine, Food & Molecular Biosciences
Lincoln University
New Zealand

ALI H. MOKDAD

Professor of Global Health
Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation (IHME)
University of Washington
United States

LI Liao

Associate Professor
Department of Computer & Information Sciences
University of Delaware
United States

Lotfi A. Zadeh

Professor Emeritus
Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science
University of California
United States

Ibrahim El-Sherbiny

Associate Professor
Department of Nanomaterials Science
University of Science and Technology
Egypt

Matthias Clauss

Associate Professor
Department of Medicine
Indiana University
United States

Alireza Heidari

Faculty of Chemistry
California South University (CSU)
United States

Sanja Ilic

Assistant Professor
Department of Human Nutrition
The Ohio State University
United States
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