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German Dentists’ Knowledge About How to Proceed in Cases of Suspected Child Abuse and Neglect

Introduction: Studies from several countries have shown that there is a lack of knowledge related to child protection among dentists and their teams. So far, there are no data available about the situation in Germany. Aim of this study is to describe the perception of the role of German dentists in terms of child abuse and neglect. Material and Methods: A questionnaire previously used by other studies regarding the role of dentists in child protection was adapted to German terminology and provided online. The internet address has been shown in different German dentists’ association journals addressing dentists only. The participation was voluntary. Results: A total of 251 (79.68%) dentists completed the questionnaire with valid data, 62.5% reported to have had a sus- picion of child abuse or neglect. Of these, 21,7% had reported their suspicion to the social services. Dentists specialized in pediatric dentistry reported their suspicion more often. Most frequently reported barriers towards contacting social services were uncertainty about diagnosis, fear of violence towards the child and the lack of knowledge in terms of referral procedures. Most of the participants expressed a need for further education. Conclusion: Dentists in Germany are not able to fill their role in child protection matters sufficiently and show a need for undergraduate and continuing postgraduate training.
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Radiation Dose to Oesophagus in Breast Cancer Patients Receiving Radiation Therapy: A Retrospective Study

Background: Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women worldwide. Management of Breast cancer requires multidisciplinary team approach (viz, Surgery, Chemotherapy, Radiation therapy, Hormonal therapy & Targeted therapy). Radiotherapy reduces the risk of breast cancer mortality for women after breast conserving surgery and for women after mastectomy for node-positive disease. One of the organs at risk in breast cancer therapy is esophagus. As such, there is potential to expose greater volumes of esophagus to radiation. This may result in increased frequency and severity of acute radiation esophagitis during treatment. Aims and Objectives: To evaluate dosimetric parameters such as mean dose (Dmean) maximum dose (Dmax) which may influence the incidence and severity of esophagitis in breast cancer patients receiving radiotherapy. Material and Methods: Treatment plans of post mastectomy patients who had already received adjuvant RT of dose 50 Gy in 25 # over 5 weeks to the chest wall along with Supraclavicular field (SCF) using 3-Dimensional Conformal Radiation Therapy (3D CRT) and Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy (IMRT) were selected. Mean dose (Dmean) and maximum dose (Dmax) to esophagus was assessed. Results: Dosimetric parameters assessed are Dmean and Dmax. Dmean assessed up to less than or equal to 11Gy and Dmax assessed upto less than or equal to 34Gy. The average of Dmean in this study is 8.34Gy which is within normal limits of prescribed dose. The mean Of Dmax in this study is 24.80Gy which is in limits of prescribed dose. Conclusion: Increased dose to esophagus in observed when IMRT is used especially when supraclavicular or internal mammary nodes are involved. Routine contouring of esophagus and planning accordingly may reduce oesophageal dose and acute oesophageal toxicity.
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Optical Depth Measurement of Self-Reversed Line Emitted from In-Homogenous Plasma in Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy

In this work, an original method is proposed and used for measurement of the optical depth of a self-reversed spectral line. A theoretical approach is utilized in an in homogenous laser induced plasma at local thermodynamic to simulate self-reversed line and then to get the main line profile without self-absorption. In this research, the spatial and temporal evolution of optical depth of two spectral lines of Ca II at 393.4 nm and 396,9 nm is studied. Furthermore, the variation of optical depth versus the concentration of species emitter inside of plasma plume is investigated. In addition, the validity of this method is affirmed during comparison with results obtained by other techniques.
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Clinical Impact of Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy to Chronic Calculous Cholecy-stitis: A Retrospective Study

The Aims: The retro-prospective clinical study was to compare these two methods of laparoscopic and classical cholecystectomy. To prove the postoperative benefits of laparoscopic treatment are, less pain, aesthetic aspect without surgical scarring and shorter hospital stay, faster return to social activities as well as more cost effective. Material and Methods: The operated patients, from January 2017 to December 2019 in the abdominal surgery ward in Gjilan. Important data for the study are taken from the operative list, history of the disease, adequate list compiled specifically for this study. The study included 389 patients with chronic calculous cholecystitis. Results: According to the results obtained for calculous diseases of the biliary system are predisposed persons with blood group O, Rh-positive, with 44.2%, followed by group A + with 29.5%, group B + with 14.7%. Other blood groups and Rh factors are below 6.5%. Statistical point of view is significant (p <0.05). The study analyzed, C-reactive protein (CRP) values in both research group (RG) and control groups (CG); CRP by gender; and by age group. RG recorded 76.9% of females with increased CRP values> 6, while 23.1% of males. The percentage difference in statistical terms is significant p <0.05. Conclusion: The results obtained have shown that there are no significant differences in the presentation of intra-operative complications in terms of gender and age, to both methods. Optimization measures for postoperative management of patients after laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Continuing education in laparoscopic surgery is important for successful management.
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A Retrospective Analysis of 25 cases of Addisons Disease Caused by Adrenal Tuberculosis in Tibet and Review of Related Literature

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Candida, a Rare Cause of Duodenal Perforation

Candida infections of the gastrointestinal tract are rare and perforation caused by Candida infections is extremely rare. Herein, we present a case of duodenal perforation where laboratory culture revealed the growth of a fungus, Candida and the absence of H. pylori from a 51-year-old female who presented with an upper abdominal pain while performing her religious obligation in the month of Ramadan. The results suggest emergency exploratory laparotomy and the perforation discovered was repaired through omental patching. An antifungal agent, Fluconazole, was administered.
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A Review Study on Adulteration in Bakery Goods

Adulteration in packed bakery products is done by making the product impure or altering its original form by adding materials or elements that are not usually part of it, especially inferior ones. It is finished by making the item debased or modifying its unique structure by adding materials or components that are not as a rule part of it, particularly mediocre ones [1]. It very well may be done deliberately by eliminating substances from food or inadvertently because of obliviousness, imprudence or absence of offices for keeping up with the nature of food. Potassium bromate is a flour improver that goes probably as a creating trained professional. Potassium bromates changes over into potassium bromide at high temperature during the baking framework [3]. Regardless, in case an abundance of is added, then again accepting the bread isn’t warmed long enough or not at an adequately high temperature, then, an extra total stay in the cake kitchen things, which may be dangerous at whatever point gobbled up [2]. It can cause stomach torture, free entrails, nausea, hurling, kidney dissatisfaction, oligonuria, anuria, deafness, dazedness, and hypotension, Detection is finished by spectrophotometric technique, IC/Mass spectrometry gives identification, Ion Chromatography (IC), High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) Synthetic tones in prepared merchandise Blue. #1 (Brilliant Blue) caused kidney growths in mice. Red.#3 (Erythrosine) Recognized as a thyroid cancer-causing agent in creatures. Red.#40 (Allura Red) speeds up the presence of invulnerable framework cancers in mice. It additionally causes extreme touchiness (sensitivity like) responses in certain purchasers and might trigger hyperactivity in youngsters. Yellow. #5 (Tartrazine) causes serious excessive responses. Yellow. #6 (Sunset Yellow) Caused adrenal growths in creatures and sporadically causes extreme responses. Distinguishing proof of engineered food colors corruption by paper chromatography and spectrophotometric strategies. In Adulterated chocolate two defilements are utilized arrowroot and dim rye flour distinguished by Near-Infrared (NIR) spectroscopy [14].
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Randomised, 2-Sequence, 4-Period Replicate Cross-Over Bioequivalence Study of A New Riluzole Orodispersible Film Vs. A Reference Tablet in Healthy Volunteers

Purpose: The present bioequivalence study aimed at demonstrating the bioequivalence of a recently developed novel riluzole orodispersible film vs. a reference tablet. Methods: Healthy male and female volunteers received single oral doses of 50 mg of riluzole, as test and reference formulation, under fasting conditions, in each of 4 subsequent periods separated by wash-out intervals of at least 7 days, according to a 2-treatment, 4-period, replicate randomised cross-over design. Findings: Riluzole plasma concentrations were almost superimposable. Riluzole attained a similar peak concentration (315.62±124.95 ng/mL with the film and 278.81±123.32 ng/mL with the tablet) at a median tmax of 0.75 h after both treatments. Then, riluzole plasma concentrations showed a superimposable decline from the peak up to 36 h post-dose, with mean half-lives of 10.22±1.66 and 10.22±1.48 h with the film and the tablet. Mean AUC0-t was 1263.40±571.58 h*ng/mL with the film and 1135.98±514.98 h*ng/mL with the tablet. The 90% confidence intervals of Cmax, AUC0-t and AUC0-¥ of riluzole fell within the predefined range 80.00-125.00%. The treatments did not differ significantly either in tmax or t1/2. On average, the test orodispersible film dissolved on the tongue in a median time of about 2.5 min with a range of 0.7-5.7 min. Orodispersible film palatability was good or acceptable for most subjects.
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Potential COVID-19 Therapeutics: A Perspective on Pharmacological Properties and Safety

There are no guidelines for pharmacological treatment of COVID-19 disease, but several drugs are being tested every day in search of an optimal therapeutic strategy. The drugs that have been tested, so far, include some antiviral drugs such as danoprevir, favipiravir, darunavir, nelfinavir, remdesivir, umifenovir and the combination lopinavir/ritonavir. Others are drugs targeting inflammatory mediators such as meplazumab, siltuximab, tocilizumab, azithromycin and corticosteroids. Also included in this array of tested drugs are those with pleiotropic actions against SARS-CoV-2 infection like chloroquine/hydroxychloroquine, ivermectin and nitazoxanide, postulated as inhibitors of several phases of virus life cycle. Upon diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 infection, it is pertinent to embark on a treatment approach based on potential antiviral options, adequately managed under proper medical situation. We suggest that, in addition to the antiviral option efforts, drugs targeting inflammatory mediators should be considered.
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Carbon Emission Efficiency and Emission Permit Allocation of China’s Fire Power Industry: An Emission Permit Trading Perspective

The emissions trading system is an important tool to combat climate change, which uses the “cap and trade” principle to reduce carbon dioxide emissions. This paper first adopts production technology considering carbon emission permit trading and proposes a data envelopment analysis (DEA) model to evaluate carbon emission efficiency of Chinese fire power industry from 2013 to 2017. Further, a new zero sum gains DEA(ZSG-DEA)considering carbon emission permit trading model is proposed based on efficiency principle to adjust the initial allocation of carbon emission permits (considering fairness principle) among regional fire power industries in 2030. The new approach enables us to investigate the carbon emission efficiency and emission permit allocation problem from an emission permit trading perspective. Theoretical analysis show that organizations have higher potential in reducing carbon emissions and greater potential in improving inputs and outputs after introducing emitting permit trading. Empirical results show that the southeastern fire power industries have higher carbon emission efficiencies and permitted emission levels. Under the background of carbon emission permit trading, the allocation level of carbon emissions permit in inefficient areas is limited and given greater responsibility for reducing emissions considering fairness and efficiency principles. This could promote active carbon emissions reduction in various regions so as to realize China’s carbon emissions [1] reduction targets in a faster pace.
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Soybean Lecithin-Based Extender Improves the Quality of Chilled Canine Sperm

Semen preservation technique includes chilling at 4-5 oC and cryopreservation at -196 oC. The role of extender enriched with protectant is essential for storing sperm. In order to evaluate the effects of different concentrations of soybean lecithin (SL) in Tris-based extender on quality parameters of chilled canine semen and subsequent potential. The Trisbased extenders with 0.5%, 1.0% or 2.0% SL (w/v) were used to store the sperm of French Bulldog; meanwhile, Tris-based extenders supplemented with 20.0% (v/v) egg yolk (EY) were used as the control group. Sperm samples in each group were stored at 4⁰C for 168 hours period.
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Reanimate the Dead to Life by Practicing Cryo Techniques

Therapeutic Hypothermia has been evolving as a science in itself since a very long time. There have been many accidents chronicled wherein people were buried alive in snow or under ice in frigid waters, left scientifically dead without any signs of heartbeat and breathing, only to be revived many hours later. The most notable case being that of Anna Bagenholm from Sweden.
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Assessment of Particulate Matter, Volatile Organic Compounds, and Suspended Solids in Some Settlements around Port Harcourt Metropolis, Rivers State Nigeria

There is a proliferation of particulate matter in the atmosphere within and around the cities because of increased industrial activities. It is thus hypothesized that increase in human activities lead to increase in pollutants concentration inside (n=80 houses sampled) and outside residential areas. Thus, to investigate the air quality at different residential areas within indoor and outdoor environment air samples were collected using Particle Counter (Model: HHPC MET), and Gas Monitor (Aeroqual series 500) to determine particulate matters (i.e., PM10, and PM2,5), volatile organic carbon (VOC) and total solid particle (TSP).
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Chronic Exposure to Artificial Light Spectra at night alter Neurobehaviour and Neurotransmitter levels in Albino Rats

Artificial light at night has been reported to have significant effects on the physiology and behaviour of animals by its impact on their circadian rhythm. This study investigated the effect of artificial light spectra at night on neurotransmitter activities and neurobehavioural changes in the albino rat. Blue (470 nm) and red (665 nm) lights were used; with ambient light and darkness serving as positive and negative controls, respectively. The rats were exposed to daylight from 6 am to 6 pm and 12 hours of artificial light (6 pm - 6 am) daily (light sources were 13 Watt compact florescent electric bulbs). Neurobehavioural outcomes were measured using the Open Field Test (OFT) and Morris Water Maze (MWM).
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Numerical Analysis on the Electromechanical Behaviors and Piezotronic Effects Controlled by the Applied of Initial Stress

Based on the linear three-dimensional elastic theory, shear horizontal (SH) wave propagation along the normal direction to the piezoelectric semiconductor plate (PSC) was obtained in the presence of initial horizontal and vertical stresses. The purpose behind obtaining the numerical solutions was to evaluate the effect of stress on dimensionless frequency and phase velocity.
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Introduction to the special issue on ‘Nanostructures by Valve Metal Anodization’

With this special issue of JMSN we are pleased to present significant contributions to a fascinating topic in the field of materials nanostructing, which is the anodization of valve metals. By this treatment porous oxides of controlled geometry can be grown on the respective metal surfaces. To date, aluminum (Al) has been used most often, as confirmed in this special issue where nine out of ten contributions deals with its anodization.
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Recent Developments in Human Odor Detection Technologies

Human odor detection technologies have drawn attention due to the wide possibility of potential applications they open up in areas such as biometrics, criminal investigation and forensics, search for survivors under rubble, and security checkpoint screening. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) has been the most successful and powerful analytical approach developed to date for human odor analysis, and hundreds of human odorants have been identified using this tool.
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Characteristic Human Scent Compounds Trapped on Natural and Synthetic Fabrics as analyzed by SPME-GC/MS

The collection of human odor volatiles is of interest to forensic applications as a path to investigate canine scent discriminations in legal investigations. A study using a selected array of previously identified human odor compounds has been conducted to determine the retention and release capabilities of five (5) natural and synthetic fabric types, cotton (mercerized fabric and gauze matrix), polyester, rayon and wool.
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Anodic Oxidation of Titanium in Sulphuric Acid and Phosphoric Acid Electrolytes

Anodisation of pure titanium has been carried out in sulphuric and in phosphoric acid solutions at potentials ranging from 50 to 150V. The SEM and AFM morphological analysis indicates that, within this potential range, oxidation in sulphuric acid solution produces better developed mesoporous oxide layers.
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Preparation of Large Area Anodic Alumina Membranes and their Application to Thin Film Fuel Cell

The design of an electrochemical reactor for the preparation of self-supported comparatively thin (up to 10 μm) and large area (up to 50 cm2) anodic alumina membranes is described allowing growth of porous alumina at high applied potential (up to 150 V) without burning.
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Fabrication and Luminescence of Anodic Alumina with Incorporated Vanadyl Citrate Chelate Anions

Anodic aluminum oxide doped with vanadyl citrate chelate complex anions was formed by a two-step self-organized anodization in 2 wt. % sulfuric acid containing 0.04 M V2O5 and 0.08 M citric acid at voltage range 13-23 V, and at 0 and 15 oC. The combination of two temperatures and at least four voltages (depending on the applied temperature) was applied as the operating conditions of anodization.
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Editorial Board Members Related to SPE

Sze May NG

Department of Paediatrics
University of Liverpool
UK

NORMA RANGEL

Professor Research
Division of Graduate Studies and Research
Institute of Technology Aguascalientes (ITA)
Technological Institute of Aguascalientes (ITA)
Mexico

ANNABELLA VITALONE

Assistant Professor
Department of Physiology and Pharmacology
University of Rome
Itlay

Liang Zhong

Assistant Professor
Cardiovascular & Metabolic Disorders Program
National Heart Centre
Singapore

Dagmara McGuinness

Research Associate
College of Medical
Veterinary & Life Sciences
Institute of Cancer Sciences
Western Infirmary Glasgow
Scotland

RICHARD ROBESON

Adjunct Professor of Practice - Bioethics
Dept. of Communication Bioethics Faculty
Wake Forest University
USA

Wayne Brake

Professor
Department of Psychology
Center for Studies in Behavioral Neurobiology
Concordia University
Canada

Prashant Kumar

Professor
Chair of Air Quality and Health
University of Surrey
UK

Ahmed S. Zidan

Associate Professor
Department of Pharmaceutics and industrial pharmacy
Zagazig University
Egypt

Carmelo Romeo

Pediatric Surgeon
Department of Pediatric, Gynecological, Microbiological and Biomedical Sceinces
University of Messina
Italy
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