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Role of Serology and Histopathology in Diagnostic of Human Cystic Echinococcosis

Hydatid disease is an important emerging neglected disease worldwide, with significant geographic variation in seroprevalance. The disease is commonly diagnosed on basis of clinical suspicion, imaging and serology. This study was conducted to evaluate our experience with serology in diagnosing hydatid disease in terms of identifying the numbers of patients testing positive for antibodies against Echinococcus, and to study their clinical profile.
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Computer Modeling of Convective Mass Transfer of Glucose, Oxygen and Carbon Dioxide in the Neurovascular Unit

Glucose and oxygen are obligatory energy substrates for the brain and their continuous supply to the neurons, as well as the elimination of the end product – carbon dioxide, is of paramount importance for brain physiology and survival. Transport of these substrates from the brain capillaries to the neurons presents a challenging issue.
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The Dose and its Acute Toxicology: A Systematic Review Article in the First Phase of Experimental Pharmacology

Hundreds and thousands of acute toxicity studies are conducted in experimental pharmacology with assumption hypothesis every year. It is usually concluded with inadequately validated data during the period of investigation within 24 hours.
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Granular Cell Tumor of the Tongue: 2 Cases Report and Review of the Literature

Granular cell tumor, also known as Abrikossoff tumor, is a rare lesion that arises from the nervous system. Most of these tumors are benign and only 1-2% are malignant. Although they can be found in any part of the human body, 45-65% appears in the head and neck region, mainly in the oral cavity. Here, we report 2 cases of granular cell tumor of the tongue, diagnosed by excisional biopsy. Until the present moment, both patients remain with no recurrence.
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Target Joint “New Concept of Identification”

The hallmark of hemophilia is hemarthrosis. All efforts must be made to early diagnose joint bleeding as soon as it occurs and treat it not later than within 2 h of onset by infusing the appropriate clotting factor. This will prevent the accumulation of blood in the joint as well as inflammation and a potential hemophilic arthropathy. Recurrent bleeding prevents the joint from regaining its range of motion, muscle strength, and normal appearance. These changes become permanent, leading eventually to osteoarthritis. A bleeds joint requires urgent and comprehensive management, especially in young patients, if permanent damage is to be prevented.
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Importance of Complete Clinical History in the Management of Parakeratinized Odontogenic Keratocyst: Case Report

The Odontogenic Keratocyst considered potentially aggressive and of high recurrence located between 30 and 60%, with clinical and radiographic characteristics not clearly defined. It occurs at any stage of life. The 70 to 80% of the cases are located in the jaw, commonly in the area of the lower third molar and mandibular angle from where they progress towards the branch and the body. The lesions are long latent, often asymptomatic and can reach remarkable dimensions without significant deformation of the jaw bones. They are often found during the routine radiographic examination.
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Serious Post Extraction Complaint: A Study at Peshawar Dental College, Khyber Pukhtunkhwa

Dry socket is the most frequent post extraction complaint of patients, and it develops within 2 to 4 days after the extraction of tooth. This study is conducted to describe the predisposing or contributing factors associated directly or indirectly with the development of dry socket after the extraction of tooth at Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery Department of Peshawar Dental Collage and Hospital (PDC) Peshawar KPK.
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Sedoanalgesia During Dental Treatment of a Patient with Sanfilippo Syndrome: A Case Report

Sanfilippo syndrome, a type of mucopolysaccharidosis (MPS), is an autosomal recessive lysosomal storage disease. The disorder is characterized by bone abnormalities (i.e. abnormally long arms and legs when compared with the trunk length), as well as abnormal bone shapes and skin thickening.In general, patients with Sanfilippo syndrome have sharp and coarse facial features, thickening of the lips and enlargement of the mouth and tongue. Hypoplasia of hard dental tissue is also present. The parents of a 5-year-old female patient were referred to Konya Oral and Dental Health Hospital because of tooth pain. A full dental examination could not be conducted because the patient was not cooperative. Thus, we decided to perform the patient’s treatment under general anaesthesia. As the patient had a history of difficult intubation and the planned dental procedures could be completed in a short time, under sedoanalgesia.
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Etiologic Factors of the Periodontal Disease Pathogenesis

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Height Characteristic of Pedestrian and Digital Identity

Each and every adult subject is having specific digital data of height characteristic. Physically it is measured in units of centimeter or in feet. It can also relatively be measured using light beam (camera) having same geological plane of control and exhibit image. The data of height images are mathematically proportional and related to each other with reference to that particular distance. Mathematically height relation of imagesis P1 X P2 = 1.000 and distance relation is D1 X D2 =1.000. P1 and P2 is ratio data of height and D1 and D2 are ratio data of distance. Computerize image height data is having three digits after decimal point. Twelve digital height data is calculated. Probability of having same twelve digital height data of two different subjects is rare, as a result adult subject is having specific digital code of identity. The data obtained can be described as photographic height (length) of the subject or height identity data for that particular distance. Aim of the article is to pointing out or to identify a missing (bhagedu) and a wanted person (culprit) from the mob using available data of height and recorded data of the investigating authority. The presence of informer (khabari), to identify a culprit is not required and there be a more than one spots of search at a time.
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Palynological and Lithological Investigation of Forensic Materials at the University of Lagos, Nigeria: First Experimental Palynological Approach in Nigeria

Security agencies are always saddled with huge responsibilities of trying to establish evidences to link a suspect to a particular crime. But in most cases, there are always very limited physical evidences due to the complexity of the crime. However, forensic palynology provides a very good option, because pollen and spores from plants are very minute, ubiquitous in distribution and are seldom useful in recovery of vegetation of a certain locality. This present study aims to assess the feasibility of pollen, spores, and sand grains as associative evidences recovered from a suspect linked with a crime scene. Forensic materials including soil samples from foot wear, dirt from clothes, earlobes and nostrils were retrieved from the body of a suspect at a particular location in Nigeria. The retrieved materials were subjected to standard laboratory palynological, biochemical and lithological procedures. The dionex analysis (anion) and atomic absorption spectrometry (cation) shows great similarity in the results obtained with an exception to Zinc. A considerable similarity was observed in the potential of hydrogen and salinity values of soil samples from both the suspect and crime scene. The lithological data reveals a great correlation in the colour, grain size, grain sorting, and grain texture and grain shape of these two different soil samples. The palynological analysis yielded a recovery of palynomorphs including pollen of Elaeis guineensis, Alchornea cordifoliia, Cassia fistula, Syzygium guineense, Cyperus papyrus, Pteris species and Nephrolepis biserrata were also recovered. This reveals the potential of retrieved materials from the body of a suspect as good sources of pollen and spores. It is however important to corroborate the use of palynomorphs and sand grains with other lines of evidences in solving crime-related disputes.
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A Preliminary Evaluation Study to Determine the Effectiveness of Infra-Red Photography for the Rapid Visualisation of Gun Shot Residue on Fabric

Infrared (IR) photography has been shown to be a proficient technique for the examination of documents, blood traces and ageing of skin injuries. However, its application in relation to the visualisation of latent Gunshot Residue (GSR) deposits has, until now, been significantly under researched. This paper evaluates the effectiveness of IR photography as a rapid technique for GSR visualisation on different fabric types.
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The Efficiency and Specificity of Matrix Gel Method from the Forensic Point of View, in Determination of ABO Blood Grouping and Rhesus Factor

In today’s crime investigation world determination of ABO blood grouping is still a very vital and effective precess in the field of forensic crime scenes. This investigation involves the identification of blood group, on the clothes (Accuse, Victim, injured, Complainer) collected from the scene of crime, and its cross comparision with the blood sample send by medical officer. Hence for this purpose total of 200 cases were included in the study having the samples of blood of accuse, victim, injured, complainer consisting of male and female... The determination of ABO/Rh factor was performed by conventional tube method and matrix gel card. The comparison of both techniques shows a very comparative result. As the red blood cells are sensitized with antibody will get agglutinate in the presence of anti human reagent in the matrix gel card and this will be trapped in the gel column this helps for easy analysis of blood group. However spin tube method is an operator-dependent assay, and is more susceptible to handling errors, the results are not more objective. The matrix gel card method requires Small sample volumes, and gives standardized performance with technical ease, and is with ready automation, and increased biosafety; all these factors have made this technology advantageous. In both techniques the reaction strength for ABO grouping and Rh factor is mainly govern by agglutination reaction intensity between red blood cells and anti-human reagent.
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The Assessment of Mobbing Damage: When the Psychological Pain Becomes Physical

Mobbing was defined by Leymann “a form of psychological terrorism that implies an unostentatious and unethical attitude in a systematic form by one or more subjects, usually towards a single individual who, because of this persecution, finds himself in a defenceless condition and becomes object of continuous vexatious and persecutory activities that recur with a systematic frequency and over a period of time that is not short, causing considerable mental, psychosomatic and social suffering” (Leymann, 1988) [1].
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Pharmacokinetics of a 1,000 mg Disintegrating Aspirin Tablet Formulation

Migraine is a global disorder and considerably affecting people`s quality of life. Treatments include nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs-containing medicinal products among whom acetylsalicylic acid-containing Aspirin® has been proven effectively to relief migraine headache. Early treatment is recommended for patients with migraine attacks.
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Introduction to the special issue on ‘Nanostructures by Valve Metal Anodization’

With this special issue of JMSN we are pleased to present significant contributions to a fascinating topic in the field of materials nanostructing, which is the anodization of valve metals. By this treatment porous oxides of controlled geometry can be grown on the respective metal surfaces. To date, aluminum (Al) has been used most often, as confirmed in this special issue where nine out of ten contributions deals with its anodization.
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Ordered Growth of Anodic Aluminum Oxide in Galvanostatic and Galvanostatic-Potentiostatic Modes

The results are presented of obtaining anodic aluminum oxide with an ordered pore arrangement by employing two anodizing modes - galvanostatic mode and combined (galvanostatic + potentiostatic) mode, at high values of the current density and voltage. Use has been made of an oxalate electrolyte and a complex electrolyte comprising oxalic acid and phosphoric acid. Scanning electron microscopy has been used to investigate the surface morphology of the barrier and porous layers and to determine pore sizes and inter-pore distance.
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Recent Developments in Human Odor Detection Technologies

Human odor detection technologies have drawn attention due to the wide possibility of potential applications they open up in areas such as biometrics, criminal investigation and forensics, search for survivors under rubble, and security checkpoint screening. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) has been the most successful and powerful analytical approach developed to date for human odor analysis, and hundreds of human odorants have been identified using this tool.
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Electronic-nose Applications in Forensic Science and for Analysis of Volatile Biomarkers in the Human Breath

The application of electronic-nose (E-nose) technologies in forensic science is a recent new development following a long history of progress in the development of diverse applications in the related biomedical and pharmaceutical fields. Data from forensic analyses must satisfy the needs and requirements of both the scientific and legal communities. The type of data collected from electronic-nose devices provides a means of identifying specific types of information about the chemical nature of evidentiary objects and samples under investigation using aroma signature profiles of complex gaseous mixtures containing volatile organic compounds (VOCs) released from manufactured products and parts of the human body. E-nose analyses also provide useful qualitative information about the physicochemical characteristics and metabolic conditions of human subjects without the need for time-consuming analyses to identify all chemical components in human-derived volatile mixtures.
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Analysis of Sweat Simulant Mixtures using Multiplexed Arrays of DNA-Carbon Nanotube Vapor Sensors

Carbon nanotube (NT) based electronic vapor sensors were tested against synthetic sweat solutions, consisting of 13 volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in saline, in order to probe the device ability to analyze and differentiate vapors derived from complex biological samples.
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Characteristic Human Scent Compounds Trapped on Natural and Synthetic Fabrics as analyzed by SPME-GC/MS

The collection of human odor volatiles is of interest to forensic applications as a path to investigate canine scent discriminations in legal investigations. A study using a selected array of previously identified human odor compounds has been conducted to determine the retention and release capabilities of five (5) natural and synthetic fabric types, cotton (mercerized fabric and gauze matrix), polyester, rayon and wool.
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The Effects of the Film Thickness and Roughness in the Anodization Process of Very Thin Aluminum Films

The anodization of aluminum foils having micrometer thickness is a common process and results in hexagonally self-ordered alumina membranes. However, anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) membranes fabricated from nanometer-thin films present new challenges to the anodization process, since aluminum films adheres poorly on supporting substrates and the smoothness of the film is highly related to the kind of substrate.
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Fabrication of Ordered Arrays of Anodic Aluminum Oxide Pores with Interpore Distance Smaller than the Pitch of Nano-pits formed by Ion Beam Etching

We investigated a method for preparation of ordered nanopore arrays with the interpore distance of 60 nm by guided self-organization of anodic aluminum oxide with a prepatterned array of pits in the starting Al film.
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Preparation of Large Area Anodic Alumina Membranes and their Application to Thin Film Fuel Cell

The design of an electrochemical reactor for the preparation of self-supported comparatively thin (up to 10 μm) and large area (up to 50 cm2) anodic alumina membranes is described allowing growth of porous alumina at high applied potential (up to 150 V) without burning.
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Fabrication of Vertical Cu2ZnSnS4 Nanowire Arrays by Two-Step Electroplating Method into Anodic Aluminum Oxide Template

Vertical Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) nanowire arrays have been synthesized via two-step electroplating method into anodized aluminum oxide template. For deposition of CZTS nanowires, anodized aluminum oxide (AAO) was used as the growth mask for the growth of the nanowires. AAO templates with hole sizes of 70 nm in diameter were used in the experiments.
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Fabrication and Luminescence of Anodic Alumina with Incorporated Vanadyl Citrate Chelate Anions

Anodic aluminum oxide doped with vanadyl citrate chelate complex anions was formed by a two-step self-organized anodization in 2 wt. % sulfuric acid containing 0.04 M V2O5 and 0.08 M citric acid at voltage range 13-23 V, and at 0 and 15 oC. The combination of two temperatures and at least four voltages (depending on the applied temperature) was applied as the operating conditions of anodization.
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Synthesis of BaTiO3 Nanowires via Anodic Aluminum Oxide Template Method Assisted by Vacuum-and-Drop Loading

In this paper, we report on the synthesis of BaTiO3 nanowires via the anodic aluminum oxide template method. To fill in the precursors of BaTiO3 into anodic aluminum oxide templates, the vacuum and drop loading method developed in our previous study was used. Ba(CH3COO)2 (barium acetate) and C12H28O4Ti (tetraisopropyl orthotitanate) were used as Ba and Ti sources, respectively. Anodic aluminum oxide membranes with the through-hole diameter of ~200 nm were used as the template for BaTiO3 nanowires.
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Editorial Board Members Related to TH

Jack Ho WONG

Research Associate
School of Biomedical Sciences
Faculty of Medicine
The Chinese University of Hong Kong
Hong Kong

Gam Lay Harn

Professor
School of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Universiti Sains Malaysia
Malaysia

Saeid Abroun

Associate Professor
School of Medicine
Tarbiat Modares University
Iran

Salam A. Ibrahim

Professor
Food and Nutritional Sciences
North Carolina A&T State University
USA

Hamidah Ibrahim

Professor
Faculty of Computer Science and Information Technology
Universiti Putra Malaysia
Malaysia

Lihua Song

Associate Professor
Chief, Laboratory of Rickettsiology
Beijing Institute of Microbiology and Epidemiology
China

Ravi Kumar Chittoria

Professor
Department of Plastic Surgery
Jawaharlal Institute of Postgraduate Medical Education and Research
India.

Lufang Zhou

Lufang Zhou
Assistant Professor
The University of Alabama
Birmingham
United Kingdom

Baha’ N. Noureddin

Professor and Chairman
Department of Ophthalmology
The American University of Beirut
Lebanon

SAJAL DAS

Assistant Professor
Department Chemistry
University of North Bengal
Darjeeling
India
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