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United States Air Force Academy: Identifying Areas at Risk for the Persistence of Plague using the Bioagent Transport and Environmental Modeling System (BioTEMS)

Introduction: Yersinia pestis, the etiologic agent of plague, has caused major pandemics in human history and continues to be both a natural and bioterrorist threat to human populations. Plague exists in nature in either an epidemic or enzootic state. Geographic models of the epidemic state have primarily been developed using flea and reservoir species, however little is known of the enzootic state and potential cryptic reservoir species and few endemic models have been produced.
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Gross and Histopathological Alterations in Experimental Trypanosoma Evansi Infection in Donkeys and the Effect of Isometamidium Chloride Treatment

Trypanosoma evansi (T. evansi) infection causes wasting and fatal animal trypanosomosis. This study was aimed at determining the gross and histopathological alterations in donkeys experimentally infected with T. evansi and the effect of isometamidium chloride treatment. Apparently healthy donkeys (N=18) of mixed sexes were randomly assigned to 3 groups; A1 (Infected-untreated), A2 (Infected, isometamidium-treated) and B (Uninfected, control) of six animals each. Each animal in infected groups had about 2.0x106 T. evansi injected through the jugular vein. Parasitaemia levels were evaluated using HCT and Mice Inoculation Test (support test). Gross and histopathological examinations were also conducted post-infection and post-treatment.
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Glucose Testing and Lifestyle Counseling of Obese and Overweight Patients: A Survey of Primary Care Physicians in the United States

In the United States (U.S.), the costs for health care and lost productivity due to diagnosed diabetes has increased from $174 billion in 2007 to $245 billion in 2012, making it one of the fastest growing public health burdens. Nearly 26 million adults have diabetes, and another 79 million have prediabetes, a condition that increases the risk for developing type 2 diabetes. Clearly to reduce the costs and improve health, preventing diabetes must be a priority.
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Breastfeeding Intentions and Practice among Vegetarians in the United States - A Pilot Study

Vegetarianism is a rapidly growing practice in the United States that is remarkably understudied. Currently, no study hasassessed the infant feeding behaviors among vegetarians or the sub-types to determine their breastfeeding patterns.
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Orally Disintegrating Tablets: A Short Review

This article summarizes the advantages of orally disintegrating tablets (ODTs) as well as critical issues during evaluation of ODTs such as bioequivalence and challenges and limitations of ODTs and finally present and the future of ODTs. ODTs have received everincreasing demand and the field has become a rapidly growing area in the pharmaceutical industry.
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Croscarmellose Sodium Efficiency in the Development of a Generic Capsule Formulation of Piroxicam, Comparable Dissolution Profile to the Innovator Product, Feldene

The objective of this study was to evaluate the encapsulation performance of Croscarmellose sodium, a superdisintegrant in a low-dose, poor-solubility drug formulation and the in-vitro dissolution performance of the Piroxicam capsules. Preparation, characterization and evaluation of the effects of the different concentrations of carmellose sodium and the amount of dried starch on in-vitro dissolution of Piroxicam capsules. Piroxicam was chosen for its very low solubility in biological fluids, which result in poor systemic bioavailability after oral administration. Piroxicam can be categorized as Class II drugs according to the Biopharmaceutics Classification System.
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A Reintegration Program for Elderly Prisoners Reduces Reoffending

Harsh sentences have resulted in many prisoners being elderly at the time of their release. However, the longer individuals have been incarcerated and the older they are, the more difficult it may be for them to re-enter free society. We developed a reintegration program to promote their successful adjustment to society and to prevent their reoffending, and evaluated its effectiveness. Participants were 25 older prisoners in Japan; all were homeless and more than 65 years old.
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Editorial Board Members Related to United States

Jonathan R. Keller

Principal Investigator
Hematopoiesis and Stem Cell Biology Section
Center for Cancer Research
National Cancer Institute
United States

EUGENE A. CIOFFI

Associate Professor
Department of Pharmacology
College of Medicine
University of South Alabama
United States

Nicholas Tsinoremas

Research Professor
Department of Medicine
University of Miami
United States

Meijun Zhu

Assistant Professor
School of Food Science
Washington State University
United States

Young Lee

Associate Professor
Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science
Texas A&M University-Kingsville
United States

LOUISA B. TABATABAI

Professor
Roy J. Carver Department of Biochemistry, Biophysics and Molecular Biology
Iowa State University
United States

Edralin A Lucas

Associate Professor
Department of Nutritional Sciences
Oklahoma State University
United States

ALI H. MOKDAD

Professor of Global Health
Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation (IHME)
University of Washington
United States

IRENE HATSU

Assistant Professor
Department of Human Science
The Ohio State University
United States

ILANA B. ADDIS

Associate Professor
Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology
University of Arizona College of Medicine
United States
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