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Articles Related to diabetes

Socio-Demographic, Clinical Characteristics and Blood Lipid profiles of Type 1 Diabetic Patients Followed in Regional Hospitals in The Northern Zone of Cameroon

Background and Objective: In Cameroon, given the galloping growth in the prevalence of diabetes, in particular type 1 diabetes in the northern regions, we undertook this study, with the objective to improve the management of type 1 diabetes by determining the socio-demographic, clinical characteristics and lipid profiles of the patients followed in the care centers of regional hospitals of Maroua, Garoua and Ngaoundere. Methods: We undertook a descriptive cross-sectional study from 07 August 2018 to 07 May 2019 in the care centers of the regional hospitals. Sociodemographic and clinical data were collected by interview to consent patient through structured questionnaires in the survey sheet. Anthropometric data were also determined during the survey, and the blood was collected in referred laboratory for determination of some lipid profiles parameters. Results: On a sample of 467 Patient suffering from diabetes, 68 were of type 1, representing a prevalence of 26%. Type 1 diabetes Patients were mostly female (61.8%) and the mean age was 20.72 ± 3.4 years with a high percentage between 20-30 years (51.5%). More than half of our patients were pupils and students, many of them practiced Muslims as religion (58.8%). In most of cases (51.3%), the disease was diagnosed after one year as a result of illness. The majority of our patients were non-smokers (98.5%) and less athletic (32.4%). The mean Body Mass Index (BMI) was 23.03 ± 2.7 kg /m2 with an average waist circumference of 80.26 ± 9.23 cm in men and 82.15 ± 10.45 in women. Their treatment was based essentially on insulin therapy, mainly using regular and intermediate insulins. More than half of the subjects had high blood glucose (78.1%), high triglyceride (34.1%) and HDL-cholesterol (29.3%) levels. Most of the patients suffered from overweight/obesity, high blood pressure, arthritis, kidney failure and other diseases (malaria, jaundice, stomach ache). No significant relation was found between clinical and the sociodemographic and blood lipid profiles. Conclusion: It emerges from this study that type 1 diabetes represent high proportions of diabetes cases in septentrional area of Cameroon, and affect mostly young of less than 30 years old, dominated by women, practicing Muslim as religion. Their clinical profile characterized by high frequency of overweight/obesity, kidney failure and arthritis vary, but not significantly, with neither their sociodemographic nor their blood lipid profiles. Absence of sport, female and less control of their hypoglycemia are factors risks of the progression of the disease.
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The Simultaneous Activation of Nrf2 and Antioxidant Compounds may reduce the Risk, Progression, and Improve the Management of Diabetes by Reducing Oxidative and Inflammatory Damages

Despite extensive research, the incidence of diabetes continues to increase, and the management of diabetes needs improvement, because in 2016, more than 100,000 patients had lower extremity amputated, suffered ischemic heart disease and stroke. Analysis of investigations indicates that increased oxidative stress and chronic inflammation enhance the risk, progression, diabetic–related complications, and reduce effectiveness of drug therapy. Therefore, simultaneously attenuation of these cellular abnormalities may help in reducing the risk of development, progression, and prolonging the effectiveness of drug therapy.
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Comparative Effect of a High Fat with or without High Levels of Sucrose Diets on Peripheral Neuropathy in C57BL/6J Mice

Feeding mice a diet containing high fat and high sucrose has been promoted as a good model for type 2 diabetes. This study sought to determine the effect of feeding mice a high fat and high sucrose diet on neuropathy compared to mice fed only a high fat diet and mice fed a high diet and treated with streptozotocin.
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Effects of Ramadan Fasting on Anthropometric Measures, Blood Pressure and Glucose Level among Type 2 Diabetic Patients on Metformin Treatment

Fasting from dawn to dusk during Ramadan is obligatory for all healthy adult Muslims.
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Metabolic Effects of an Inositol-Resveratrol Nutraceutical Combination in Non-Diabetic Overweight/Obese Subjects with Altered Glucose Tolerance

Insulin resistance (IR) is almost constistently associated with overweight or obesity in both diabetic and non-diabetic subjects. Nutraceutical compounds improving insulin resistance (IR) may be useful in prevention and treatment of cardiovascular (CV) risk factors in metabolic diseases.
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The Effects of Vitamin D on Obesity, Insulin Resistance and Type 2 Diabetes

Vitamin D is a fat-soluble vitamin. It is also referred to as a steroid hormone with an active form that can bind to receptors. The main way to obtain vitamin D is its synthetization on the skin with the effect of ultraviolet light. It is activated in the body by two hydroxylation reactions in the liver and kidneys. Vitamin D is said to have other effects besides those on the bone metabolism. Vitamin D deficiency is a global social health problem. It is associated with cardiovascular diseases, obesity, metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes, various types of cancer, immune deficiencies and increased mortality. It is frequently observed in obese individuals. A possible molecular mechanism of the relationship between obesity and vitamin D deficiency may be associated with the metabolism in mature adipocytes, oxidative stress, inflammation and the gene expression regulation capacity of vitamin D which is related to the adipogenesis process. Vitamin D may lead to an increase in insulin secretion and a decrease in insulin resistance by regulating the immune system. Inflammatory cytokine production is thought to be one of the mechanisms of action of vitamin D on insulin resistance. Inflammatory cytokines appear to be associated with obesity and insulin resistance. Low levels of vitamin D may cause disruption of insulin secretion. Vitamin D may be involved in β-cell secretion activity and changes in tissue response to insulin. There is a relationship between inadequate 25(OH)D levels and β-cell dysfunction. Vitamin D may have beneficial effects on β-cell function by suppressing the renin-angiotensin system. Based on all this information, it may be concluded that vitamin D is associated with obesity, insulin resistance and diabetes, and vitamin D deficiency may form the basis for these conditions.
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Fuel Metabolism Following 3 Days on a Carbohydrate-Free Diet vs. 3 Days of Fasting in Men with Type 2 Diabetes: A Randomized Controlled Crossover Trial

A 72-h fast results in a rapid decrease in circulating glucose to a lower level without a change in non-water body mass. Several metabolic adjustments are necessary. A nutrient-sufficient, carbohydrate (CHO)-free diet also has been reported to result in a decrease in glucose, and similar metabolic perturbations. However, direct comparisons are not available in subjects without, or with, type 2 diabetes (T2DM).
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Selenium Supplementation in Obese Patients with Subclinical Hypothyroidism and Type 2 Diabetes

Selenium (Se) is a trace element present in many foods. Selenium-protein co-factor plays a critical anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory role in thyroid function, but quite recently its ability to prevent adipocyte hypertrophy and adipogenesis has also been evaluated. The aim of our study was to assess whether thyroid function, as well as, body mass index (BMI) and body composition might improve in Se-treated obese patients as compared to those getting placebo (P).
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The Management and Care of the Type 1 Diabetic Athlete

Diabetes poses many unique challenges to all individuals affected by the disease, particularly the diabetic athlete due to the effect that exercise has on blood glucose levels within the body. Patients and professionals must demonstrate significant understanding of the complex interaction of many physiological and environmental components that contribute to the maintenance of glucose homeostasis, or lack thereof. Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus is the form of Diabetes most often seen in elite athletes.
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Blonanserin N-Oxide Lowers Glucose Levels in Animal Models

The N-oxide of anti-psychotic drug Blonanserin (BLNO) was synthesized and tested as a novel molecule to understand its ability in reducing blood glucose levels.
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Epidemiologic Characteristics of Diabetes in an Affected South Texas Population

Our research study on diabetic patients in a community in South Texas have shown that increasing age, male gender, married status, smoking history, limited education, and birth in Mexico are risk factors for observed increasing HbA1c and FBG. Elevated lipoprotein levels are particularly observed in type 2 diabetes. Low insulin levels and high BMI in this high risk population correlate to the severity of their diabetes. Moreover we have observed that being born in Mexico influences the patient’s method of treatment with use of oral or combined oral and parenteral routes with poor control of their diabetes. Perhaps the Hispanics born in Mexico may have limited knowledge of their disease influenced by their educational level, socioeconomic status, and prior misconceptions on appropriate methods of treatment(s).
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The Use of Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy in Cancer Patients with Heart Failure

Investigate the use of cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) in cancer patients with heart failure (HF); assess factors associated with ischemic and non-ischemic HF. Many newer cancer therapies are cardiotoxic; thus, the incidence of HF has been increasing in this high-risk patient population. CRT has beneficial effects on morbidity, mortality, and left ventricular function in patients with non-ischemic cardiomyopathy, yet cancer patients and survivors who develop severe HF and are eligible for CRT often does not receive it.
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Physical Activity and the Prevalence of General and Abdominal Obesity among Saudi Women of Reproductive Age in Jeddah City

Obesity and physical inactivity are growing problems that are associated with major health problems. However, the current information on the association between obesity and physical activity (PA) in Saudi women of reproductive age is insufficient to design and develop intervention programs. To explore the rates of two types of obesity (general and abdominal obesity) and the level of PA and to evaluate the relationship between obesity risk factors, the use of exercise equipment at home, A cross-sectional study was conducted in 2014 using a stratified two-stage cluster sample. The sampling weight and design effect were incorporated into the analysis. Body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) data were collected from all participants.and obesity measurements.
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Association between Insertion/Deletion Polymorphism of ApoB Gene with Dyslipidemia and Obesity Risk in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes

Several studies have suggested that Insertion/Deletion polymorphism of ApoB gene is associated with obesity, dyslipidemia, diabetes and coronary heart disease (CHD).
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The Prevalence of Obesity among Subjects with Chronic Kidney Disease – Cross Sectional Study of Sri Lanka Population

The burden of chronic kidney disease (CKD) is growing rapidly around the world, particularly in Asia. Over the last two decades Sri Lanka has experienced an epidemic of CKD, especially in the “Mahaweli” river basin in North Central region of the island that was not attributable to conventional risk factors - hence widely termed “CKD-unknown”.
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Editorial Board Members Related to diabetes

Josep Bassaganya-Riera

Professor
Virginia Bioinformatics Institute
United States

Nikolai N. Modyanov

Professor
Department of Physiology and Pharmacology
The University of Toledo College of Medicine
United States

Yu Huang

Professor
School of Biomedical Sciences
Chinese University of Hong Kong
Hong Kong

Gary Lee Francis

Professor
Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism
Medical College of Virginia
United States

Ashraf Eljedi

Associate Professor of International Public Health
Faculty of NUrsing
The Islamic University of Gaza
Palestine

Sheila Barrett

Assistant Professor
Department of Nutrition
Northern Illinois University
United States

Zhiping Yu

Assistant Professor
Department of Nutrition and Dietetics
University of North Florida
United States

WANG CHI CHIU

Professor
Department of Obstetrics & Gynecology
The Chinese University of Hong Kong
Hong Kong

Henrique Serezani

Assistant Professor
Department of Microbiology and Immunology
Indiana University
United States

Mridula Chopra

Senior Lecturer
School of Pharmacy and Biomedical Sciences
University of Portsmouth
United Kingdom
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