Top Links

Articles Related to drugs

Psychoactive Drugs Induced DNA Damage: A Review

Psychoactive substances, also known as psychotropic substances are substances that alter the mental state of a person by affecting the way the nervous system and brain work [1]. Psychoactive substances can cause intoxication and this is generally the major reason why most individuals engage in their use. Individuals who take psychoactive substances experience changes in brain function which alter their mood, consciousness, and/or perceptions. Psychoactive substances are present in different medications, alcohol, plants, and animals [2], many, but not all of which are addictive [1]. The most common psychoactive drugs used by people to alter their mental state are caffeine and alcohol [3]. Although they are available legally, yet, they are harmful both psychologically and physically when used in excess. Usually, the decision of how and when to use these psychoactive drugs is left to the individuals [3], however, in certain situations, the drugs are used for exploitation of others by the alteration of their mental state. For example, Rohypnol has been used as a date-rape [4]. Some of the psychoactive drugs are very unpleasant making the users quit their use. This is the case in certain classic psychedelics (e.g., psilocybin), powerful dissociatives (e.g., Salvia divinorum), and deliriants (e.g., Jimson weed) [5]. Addiction and dependence resulting from the misuse of psychoactive drugs have led to moral debate and legal measures, while governmental controls on prescription, supply, and manufacture have been efforts made to minimize the additive use of these drugs. Also, ethical concerns exist about the marketing of these drugs by manufacturers and their clinical over-use. However, in some countries, there are ongoing popular campaigns geared towards legalizing and decriminalizing the use of some recreational drugs such as cannabis. Many individual, genetic and environmental factors have been reported to work individually or synergistically to decrease or increase the probability that an individual will use a psychoactive drug and to what extent [6]. This review aimed at updating information on the different uses of various psychoactive drugs by humans, the different effects on the biological system, and their reported DNA damaging potential in simulated and real-life scenarios.
View complete article: PDF  |  Full-text

A Review on Veterinary Medical Waste Disposal and Management

The purpose of this review is to highlight environmentally sound disposal methods of veterinary pharmaceutcals wastes and the risks associated with its improper disposal, with a systematic review. Pharmaceuticals are produced and used in large volumes increasingly every year throughout the world. Medicinal waste products are medicinal products which are not fit for sale or supply. Waste produced in veterinary practice in common with other medical disciplines can be broken down into general waste similar to household waste, clinical waste and hazardous waste. Disposal of pharmaceutical compounds is becoming a complex environmental issue. The safety and health of the environment is directly affected by the disposal methods. Improper medical waste disposal and management causes all types of pollution (air, soil, and water). Proper waste management have to be undertaken to ensure that it does not affect the environment and not cause health hazards to the people living there. Different types of medical waste require different disposal techniques. The appropriate safe disposal method recommended will depend principally on the pharmaceutical dosage form of the drugs. One of the best advisable veterinary waste disposal practices is to store the waste properly before collection and transportation. Some general medical waste can be disposed of in landfill, others require specialist treatment such as a medical incinerator. Appropriate safety precautions, which minimize the risk to the health and safety of pharmacy staff, should be taken when handling medicinal waste products. Extra precautions should be taken by staff in high-risk groups as they may be at increased risk if they come into contact with particular substances. The cost of pharmaceuticals waste disposal comprises of direct costs of supplies and materials used for collection, transport, storage, treatment, disposal, decontamination and cleaning, the cost of labor and material for training and maintenance, and will vary depending on the treatment method chosen, the capacity of the treatment facility and according to the waste quantity and quality.
View complete article: PDF  |  Full-text

Antibiotics in Lebanese Surface Waters: Estimation of Population Exposure and Identification of High-Risk Drugs

The evaluation of the environmental risk of antibiotics and their byproducts is an important topic around the world viewing the increase of use of antibiotics and the absence of conventional water treatment plants. The objective of the study is to determine the consumption of antibiotics and evaluate their potential health hazard as contaminants of the Lebanese surface waters. Data of 704 antibiotics consumed in 2019 were provided by the Ministry of Public Health (MOPH).
View complete article: PDF  |  Full-text

Impaired Driving Associated with the Synthetic Cannabinoid 5F-ADB

Synthetic marijuana compounds are more potent than ∆9-tetrahydrocannabinol (∆9-THC) and are known to produce a wide variety of clinical symptoms including cardiac toxicity, seizures, and death. Erratic driving by a 45 y/o male was witnessed in the fall of 2017 and roadside evaluation of the driver by the responding law enforcement officer concluded that the driver was intoxicated. Comprehensive analysis of the cigarettes by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry detected the synthetic cannabinoid 5-fluoro-ADB (5F-ADB or 5F-MDMB-PINACA). Validated forensic liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) methods were used to detect the 5-fluoro ADB metabolite 7 (26.37 ng/mL) in the driver’s blood sample. No other drugs were detected. This case report is one of the first to conclusively show that designer synthetic cannabinoids, commonly referred to as “K2” and “Spice”, can significantly impair driving at relatively low concentrations.
View complete article: PDF  |  Full-text

A Systematic Review Caenorhabditis Elegans (C. Elegans) - A Host Model Organism to Study Drug-Induced Responses to the Effects of Stimulant and Depressant Drugs

Although there are many researches on drug of abuse behavior using C. elegans as model organism, the precise targets and mechanism shared by C. elegans accompanied with behavioral responses to substance misuse is still scarce. This alternative model for rodents and other animal organism has been used to investigate genetic mechanism and specific genes coding drug-induced behavioral response. However, there is very few papers reported to summarize and analyze findings from original researches to identify target/genes underpinning responses to drug addiction.
View complete article: PDF  |  Full-text

Drugs of Abuse and Addiction - Overview and Current Status

Today, both nonprescription and prescription drugs used by people for disease treatment, illicit or reward purposes have diverse effects on health permanently or long-lastingly. The effects may even continue and lead to the death or disabilities in child when a person is no longer use the substance. Substances that cause addiction trigger intense feeling of euphoria then lead to loss of control of self-behavior and perception.
View complete article: PDF  |  Full-text

Fatal road accidents in Spain: psychoactive substances in killed drivers in 2014

Road traffic accidents (RTAs) are often related to impairment by alcohol or drugs. The objectives of this study is to present toxicological data on drivers killed in traffic accidents in Spain in 2014 from a sample of 614 drivers and 240 (out of 614) with positive results for alcohol, illicit drugs and psychoactive medicinal drugs.
View complete article: PDF  |  Full-text

An Introduction to the Approaches of Novel Drug Delivery Systems for Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS)

The currently available anti HIV agents have several drawbacks such as short half life, low bioavailability, poor CNS penetration and retention, hepatic first pass metabolism, undesirable side effects and frequent dosing regimen.
View complete article: PDF  |  Full-text

The Ongoing Battle for Syringe Exchange

Syringe exchange programs (SEPs) have been shown to be effective in reduction of infectious disease rates in several studies over the years.
View complete article: PDF  |  Full-text

Nutritional and Biological Control Synergism against Gastrointestinal Nematodes in Small Ruminants

Parasitic gastroenteritis caused by gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN) continues to be a major constraint against profitable small ruminant production. The increasing prevalence and severity of anthelmintic-resistant nematodes in many parts of the world has led to a search for non-chemical control options.
View complete article: PDF  |  Full-text

Effects of Oxytocin and Carbetocin on Haemostatic Variables in Pregnant Women after Cesarean Section

Uterine atony is the first cause of haemorrhage at delivery. To prevent post partum major bleeding uterotonic prophylactic drugs are commonly used after caesarean section. Few studies showed an haemostatic activation after oxytocin infusion while no data are available on carbetocin.
View complete article: PDF  |  Full-text

Canakinumab in the Treatment of Erosive Hand Osteoarthritis: A Case Series

Erosive hand Osteoarthritis (EOA) is a common and debilitating form of hand OA for which there are no proven or efficacious therapies. Interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β) plays a prominent role in OA joint inflammation. Canakinumab is a selective IL-1β inhibitor.
View complete article: PDF  |  Full-text

Immunodeficiency and Microbial Infections

Immunodeficiency refers to failure of immune system to encounter infections by different microbial pathogens such as fungi, bacteria, viruses and protozoan. This is called acquired or secondary immunodeficiency syndrome (SIS).
View complete article: PDF  |  Full-text

A New Bi-Functional Derivative of Polyethylene Glycol as Molecular Carrier for Eugenol and Ibuprofen

Eugenol (EU) and ibuprofene (IBU) were covalently bound to a bi-functionalized PEG, used as molecular carrier of drugs and the release kinetics of the two bioactive molecules was studied in vitro in buffer solution at pH 7.4, in simulated gastric fluid and in mouse plasma.
View complete article: PDF  |  Full-text

Nanotechnology Approaches for Antiretroviral Drugs Delivery

The development of effective drug delivery approaches for the treatment of AIDS and HIV infection is a global challenge. The advent of multidrug, highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), have increased the life span of HIV-infected patients.
View complete article: PDF  |  Full-text


Editorial Board Members Related to drugs

Vural Fidan

Vural Fidan, M.D. Department of Otorhinolaryngology
Hacettepe University
Yunus Emre Government Hospital
Turkey

Zuhair Muhi-eldeen

Professor
Department of Medicinal chemistry
Petra University
Jordan

Viorica Lopez-Avila

Research Scientist
Agilent Technologies
United States

NORMA RANGEL

Professor Research
Division of Graduate Studies and Research
Institute of Technology Aguascalientes (ITA)
Technological Institute of Aguascalientes (ITA)
Mexico

KAZI MOHSIN

Assistant Professor
Department of Pharmaceutics
King Saud University
Saudi Arabia

Vincenzo Cuomo

Professor
Department of Physiology and Pharmacology
Sapienza University of Rome
Italy

Rula M. Darwish

Professor
Department of Pharmaceutical Microbiology
University of Jordan
Jordan

Esam Z. Dajani

Adjunct Professor of Medicine
Loyola University
USA

Rajat Subhra Das

Scientist
Omega Therapeutics
Cambridge
USA

Mojahid-ul-Islam

Professor
Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry
Lloyd Institue of management and Tech
India
Submit Manuscript


Open Access Journals

View All Journals