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Articles Related to flexion

An Investigation into the Range of Movement and Forces Involved by the Application of Wrist Flexion Restraint Techniques - Pain Inducing or Not?

Although the use of physical restraint (PR) is accepted, it remains controversial as staff are required to balance professional, ethical and legal tensions between maintaining everyone’s safety, upholding human rights, and minimising harm. One such tension relates to the use of Wrist Flexion Techniques (WFT) used in some health, social care and custodial settings. WFT impose load onto the musculoskeletal structures of the wrist to gain control or compliance from a restrained person, and can result in discomfort, pain, injury, psychological trauma and be detrimental to therapeutic relationships. Current evidence and guidance on WFT are absent with debate existing as to whether WFT can be used without inducing pain. Twenty adults participated in the study. The mean discomfort angle was 90.1° (± 8.6) of flexion with 2.8 Kg (± 1.1) of force, and the mean pain angle was and 98.4° (± 7.9) of flexion with 4.4 Kg (± 1.8) of force, therefore only 8.3° of movement and 1.6 Kg of force separate pain free from pain inducing WFT. Genders did not differ in relation to angle of discomfort or pain. Females experienced discomfort with 1.1Kg less force (p = 0.021) and experienced pain with 1.7Kg less force (p = 0.023). This research challenges the assertion that WFT can exist as non-pain inducing and pain inducing PR techniques since the margin between them may be too small for practitioners to discriminate, particularly during the struggle of real world restraint. Further research may consider other potential pain inducing techniques, and the role and use of PIT during restraint.
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Relevance of extra digital flexion creases: A study in North India

The proposed study was undertaken among 152 male and 155 female participants belonging to one population group of North India within age range 18-60 years. They were examined for extra digital flexion creases on the volar surface of all digits. Palm prints were obtained from both the right and left hand of each individual. The result showed that out of 3070 digits of 307 participants, 46 digits from 23 (16 male and 7 female) participants show the prevalence of extra digital flexion crease either on right or left palm.
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Closed Traumatic Avulsion of Extensor Digitorium Communis and Extensor Indicis Proprius of Index Finger at the Musculotendinous Junction

Closed traumatic rupture of extensor tendons of the fingers at the musculotendinous is rare. In fact the common sites of a closed rupture are distal attachment at the distal phalanx as well as at the attachment of the central slip at the base of the middle phalanx.
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Descriptive Study of Exposure to Inhalation Zanamivir and Pregnancy-Related Outcomes

The Health Improvement Network (THIN) provided data from UK General Practitioners (GPs) for 144 pregnant women who were prescribed zanamivir and 144 age- and date-matched untreated comparators with no recorded diagnosis of influenza. Groups were assessed for baseline characteristics, treatment-emergent diagnoses in the mother, pregnancy outcomes and congenital malformations diagnosed in the offspring within 28 days of birth.
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