Articles Related to horses
Preliminary Investigation of the Interaction of Misoprostol and Phenylbutazone on Bone Response to Injury in Horses
Phenylbutazone (PBZ) is commonly used in equine patients for treatment of orthopedic injuries. Phenylbutazone may adversely affect bone healing because of suppression of prostaglandin production. We hypothesized that administration of the prostaglandin analog misoprostol would enhance bone healing and mitigate the untoward effects of PBZ on bone response to injury in horses. The objectives of this study were to determine whether the administration of misoprostol would enhance bone healing and whether concurrent administration of PBZ and misoprostol would mitigate the untoward effects of phenylbutazone. Twenty horses were randomly assigned to one of four groups (n=5 per group): Group 1 (untreated control), Group 2 (phenylbutazone alone), Group 3 (misoprostol, alone), or Group 4 (concurrent treatment with phenylbutazone and misoprostol). A 4.5-mm diameter uni-cortical bone defect was created in one metacarpal III bone of all horses. Fluorochromic bone labels were administered intravenously on Days 0, 7, and 14. Computed tomographic osteoabsorptiometry and histomorphometric analyses were performed on the harvested metacarpal bones. Phenylbutazone treatment caused a decrease in endosteal new bone formation. Administration of misoprostol appeared to mitigate the magnitude of the PBZ effect on new bone formation (endosteal in-growth, p<0.06). Bone specific alkaline phosphatase serum activity decreased throughout the 14-day period of stall confinement. Mineral apposition rates increased in all groups during the period from 7 to 14 days after bone injury. Further research is needed to determine if this effect is significant. The administration of misoprostol may be beneficial to lessen the undesired impact of phenylbutazone on bone healing in horses.
Validation of an Anti-Protective Antigen ELISA for Quantitative IgG Evaluation in B. anthracis Immunized Horses
The potency test for anthrax vaccines has historically involved the challenge of actively or passively immunized laboratory animals with a fully virulent strain of Bacillus anthracis. Lethal challenge studies with the archetypal virulent strains such as B. anthracis Ames strain present considerable difficulties in laboratory management and handling and are too inefficient for the early evaluation of alternative preventative and therapeutic interventions. An ELISA for the evaluation of antibody response to protective antigen (PA) in horses immunized with the Sterne 34F2 strain spore vaccine was developed. The objective of this work was to study the performance of this assay in terms of the guidelines set forth by the International Conference on Harmonics (ICH) and the Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER) for analytical procedures. We have demonstrated a working range for this assay (73-1581 EU/ml) on the bases of the following parameters: linearity (25 and 1,662 EU/ml, r2 = 0.9988, p < 0.001), accuracy (94.8 - 105.4 %, recovery within the range of 25 and 1,662 EU/ml), precision (≤ 17.6 % CV, repeatability; ≤ 15.7 and ≤ 13.1 % CV, intermediate precision per day and per analyst, respectively), limit of detection (2.25 EU/ml) and limit of quantitation (25 EU/ml). The assay was also demonstrated to be specific for the evaluation of anti-PA IgG antibodies. Based on the assay performance characteristics it was determined that the assay was adequate for use in B. anthracis immunogenicity testing in horses.
Equines as Tools Vs Partners: A Critical Look at the Uses and Beliefs Surrounding Horses in Equine Therapies and Argument for Mechanical Horses
Horses have their own unique status as therapy animals due to their function in both physical and psychotherapies. Current models of Equine Assisted Activities and Therapies (EAAT) utilize horses for a range of physical, psychological and learning therapies to benefit humans, often referring to horses as therapeutic “partners”. To fulfill certification requirements for existing models of EAAT, practitioners are required to study equine behavior through the belief systems currently modeled in the natural horsemanship community. Despite requiring knowledge in horse behavior, studies and anecdotal evidence suggests that horses used in EAAT commonly display confusion or escape behaviors, “burn out” and/or display signs of depression. These behaviors could be a result of contradictions in the interpretation of equine behavior within the natural horsemanship practices or a lack of understanding and utilization of equine learning theory within the context of EAAT.
The veterinarian must confront many situations when working with thoroughbred horses in which he must solve and make decisions that lead to balance between the animal and trainer / owner of the horse, the above should be resolved in an ethical and professional manner.