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Duodenal Contents Reflux can Induce Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma as Well as Adenocarcinoma

Esophageal carcinoma is the eighth most common cancer, and the sixth most common cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. Esophageal carcinomas in developing nations account for more than 80% of the total cases and deaths. Esophageal cancer can arise as esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) or esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC), which have distinct etiological and pathological characteristics. ESCC is the most common histological type of esophageal cancer in the Eastern world, and its incidence remains stable. In contrast, the epidemiology of esophageal cancer in developed nations has dramatically changed over the past 40 years. Forty years ago, ESCC accounted for more than 90% of esophageal cancer cases in the United States. However, adenocarcinoma has now become the leading type of esophageal cancer in the United States, representing 80% of cases.
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Acute Type C Botulism with Fatal Consequences in a Holstein Breeding Establishment in Northern Italy

BOTULISM is a neuro-paralytic intoxication illness caused by the ingestion of neurotoxins of Clostridium botulinum with contaminated water or food. The Gram-positive spore-producing bacterium Cl. botulinum is found worldwide and can survive in spore form for up to 30 years in numerous substrates in the environment. Cl. botulinum is classified into 7 or 8 different types (A, B, C (C1, C2), D, E, F, G) depending on the antigen properties of the botulinum neurotoxins (BoNT) produced, with intoxication mostly appearing in cattle following the ingestion of neurotoxins of type C and D and, less frequently, of type B.
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