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Articles Related to mechanisms

Mechanisms of Resistance to Kinase Inhibitors and Strategies to Prevent the Development of Drug Resistance

Targeting mutant proteins and associated signaling pathways of driver oncogenes by small molecule kinase inhibitors (KIs) are a promising strategy of cancer therapy. However, despite the initial success of treatment, KIs often become ineffective as intrinsic and acquired resistance. This article reviews the English-language literature to explore the underlying mechanisms of drug resistance and to present a challenge for developing drugs to overcome resistance. Mechanisms of acquired resistance include 1) the selection of pre-existing subclones with other mutations, 2) the emergence of secondary mutations in the target kinase domain, 3) upregulation of kinases both within the same kinase family and their related kinase families, as well as activation of alternative bypass pathways, 4) epithelial-mesenchymal transition, 5) overexpression of pro-survival Bcl-2 family proteins and 6) drug efflux mechanisms. Currently available methods are to obtain tumor biopsy samples at recurrence or progression if the tumor lesion is accessible to a biopsy and to use the second- and third-generation KIs based on the individual need of each patient. Furthermore, recent computational challenges provide design principles to prevent the development of drug resistance. In conclusion, we provide an overview of the postulated resistance mechanisms and highlight the future direction of computational structure-based design of new potent KIs.
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Combating Childhood Obesity with an Integrated School Curriculum

The prevalence of overweight and obesity among US adults is well-documented and lifestyle intervention remains the foundation for all overweight and obesity treatment interventions, even when bariatric surgery is offered. Unfortunately, lifestyle intervention, though clearly a vital part of any obesity treatment, including bariatric surgery, has not been found to be as effective in achieving health benefits as hoped for.
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Orally Disintegrating Tablets: A Short Review

This article summarizes the advantages of orally disintegrating tablets (ODTs) as well as critical issues during evaluation of ODTs such as bioequivalence and challenges and limitations of ODTs and finally present and the future of ODTs. ODTs have received everincreasing demand and the field has become a rapidly growing area in the pharmaceutical industry.
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Molecular Mechanisms of Mismatch Repair Genes in Cancer – A Brief Review

The DNA mismatch repair (MMR) system is necessary for the maintenance of genomic stability. The MMR system promotes genomic fidelity by repairing base-base mismatches, insertion-deletion loops (IDLs) and heterologies generated during DNA replication and recombination.
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Salmonella Serovars and Their Host Specificity

Salmonella is a causative agent for a wide variety of pathological diseases in humans, cattle, poultry and other farm animals and hence Salmonella infections are a major cause of concern to humans, veterinary animals and to food industry.
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Editorial Board Members Related to mechanisms

Faheem Ahmad

Assistant Professor
Department of Botany
Aligarh Muslim University
India

QIANG LIU

Professor
School of Life Science
University of Science and Technology
China

Dayong Wu

Associate Professor
Friedman School of Nutrition Science and Policy
Tufts University
United States

Craig S. Atwood

Associate Professor
School of Medicine and Public Health
University of Wisconsin-Madison
United States

Parameswaran Ramakrishnan

Assistant Professor
Experimental Pathology
Case Western Reserve University
United States

Jana Barlic-Dicen

Assistant Professor
Department of Cell Biology
University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center
United States

SANTAMARIA RITA

Associate Professor
Department of Pharmacy
University of Naples Federico II
Italy

Zhiping Yu

Assistant Professor
Department of Nutrition and Dietetics
University of North Florida
United States

Walter Royal

Professor
Department of Neurology
University of Maryland
United States

CHIA-YI KUAN

Associate Professor
Department of Pediatrics
Center for Neurodegenerative Disease
Emory University School of Medicine
United States
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