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Articles Related to pH

Superior Mesenteric Artery Embolus as a Delayed Complication of a Cocaine Induced Myocardial Infarction

Cocaine has acute and chronic effects on health as well as addiction and dependence and places a significant burden on healthcare systems. After cannabis, it is the most frequently used illicit drug worldwide. It is estimated that between 14 and 21 million people use the drug each year [1]. Its main adverse effects occur in the cardiovascular system. Cocaine causes sympathomimetic actions such as tachycardia, hypertension and coronary artery constriction due to enhancement of release of catecholamines. It enhances thrombus formation by activating platelets and potentiating thromboxane production [2]. The consequences of these effects include chest pain, myocardial infarction, aortic dissection, coronary artery aneurysm, myocarditis, cardiomyopathies and arrhythmias. Our case demonstrates a young patient who had a delayed presentation of a myocardial infarction, in the setting of recent cocaine use that was complicated by an apical thrombus which resulted in distal emboli to his superior mesenteric artery and left renal artery. It highlights the fact that in a young patient with no other risk factors how complications may arise, even weeks after cocaine use.
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Heavy Element Accumulation in Aquatic Beetles of the Genus Enochrus (Coleoptera: Hydrophilidae) in Erzurum Province

In the present study, fourteen heavy elements (Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Br, Sr, Pb) accumulation in sediment, water and Enochrus spp. species organs (total body) were evaluated. For this purpose, water, sediment and Enochrus spp. were collected from nine wetland sites in Erzurum province (Turkey).
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Giemsa Staining and Antibody Characterization of Colpodella sp. (Apicomplexa)

Colpodella species are free-living alveolates that possess an apical complex used for attaching to eukaryotic prey protists for ingestion of the cytoplasmic contents of the prey. Colpodella sp. are the closest relatives of the Apicomplexa, a phylum that includes the important human pathogens Plasmodium falciparum, Toxoplasma gondii and Cryptosporidium parvum. In this study, we investigated morphological characteristics of Colpodella (ATCC 50594) in a diprotist culture containing Bodo caudatus as prey in order to identify features differentiating both protists. The level of apical complex protein conservation among free living alveolate relatives of apicomplexans and intracellular apicomplexan pathogens is unknown. Antibodies against proteins of the apical complex in Colpodella sp. are currently unavailable. We performed staining and immunological characterization of Colpodella in a diprotist culture containing B. caudatus to aid routine differentiation of predator and prey in culture. Staining revealed distinguishing morphological features of both protists. The kinetoplast in B.caudatus was identified using Giemsa staining and was used to differentiate B. caudatus from Colpodella sp. trophozoites.
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Former Effective Immunotherapy without Adverse Events of Inoperable Epithelial Ovarian Cancers and a Prospect for the Immune Prophylaxis

Current cancer treatments by immune checkpoint blockades are limited due to severe adverse events caused by alteration of the immune system required for homeostasis of normal tissues. Common cancer chemotherapy alters the quality of patients’ lives. Platinum-based treatment can lead to severe neurotoxicity with chronic debilitation. Additionally, survival of patients with epithelial ovarian cancers (EOCs) has remained poor despite extensive cytoreductive surgery, high dose chemotherapy, checkpoint blockades and immunotherapies effective in some other types of cancer. The pathobiology of EOC cancer stem cells (CSCs) is not well understood. Observations demonstrate that EOCs exhibit in vivo two distinct CSC types - perivascular diploid CSCs dividing asymmetrically with the help of the host suicidal CD8+ T cells, and haploid CSCs at the cancer abdominal surface originating from meiosis I cytokinesis of bulk surface cancer cells. The perivascular CSCs contribute to the cancer cell bulk and, via left ovary venous blood, can cause EOC liver metastases. Haploid CSCs released from the bulk cancer surface cause the common pelvic and abdominal EOC spread. Former elimination of the host antibodies blocking T cell effectors by intermittent doses of cyclophosphamide exhibiting significant immunomodulatory anticancer effects, facilitation of the immune system reactivity against alloantigens of cancer cells by blood transfusions, and augmentation of anticancer immunity by bacterial toxins, resulted during the subsequent treatment-free period into rejection of inoperable EOCs without any adverse events during the treatnment. To help prevent cancer relapses, patients treated for advanced primary epithelial cancers should be considered as candidates for continuously stimulating immune anticancer activity by treatments such as daily metformin and weekly lentinan consumptions.
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Assessment of the Efficacy, Safety and Cost-Effectiveness of Micafungin Compared to Caspofungin and Low Dose Liposomal Amphotericin B for the Treatment of Candidaemia and Clinically Diagnosed Invasive Candidiasis: A Retrospective Audit

Despite several studies having highlighted that candidaemia and invasive fungal disease (IFD) are associated with high mortality and increased costs, there are currently few published studies which provide an insight into real-life practice of invasive candidal diseases. In a medium-sized district general hospital in the UK we sought to compare the efficacy, safety and treatment cost of micafungin versus caspofungin and low dose of liposomal amphotericin B (L-AmB) 1mg/kg/day for the treatment of confirmed candidaemia or clinically diagnosed invasive fungal disease (CDIFD). In the present retrospective audit, a total of 126 patients with candidaemia or CDIFD were reviewed from hospital records and 94 were included in our audit.
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How Digital and Physical Care Team Interaction Affect Processing Times: A Case Study of Hospitalists

Hospitalist physicians face increasing pressure to maximize productivity while maintaining high quality of care. Their success, however, depends on the effective exchange of information among a patient’s care team. The latter comprises the digital team (caregivers who document in—not just access—the patient’s electronic health record) and a physical team (caregivers who directly communicate with the hospitalist). To determine the association between hospitalist total daily processing time per patient and the size and evolution over the patient’s LOS of the digital and physical teams as well as patient-level characteristics. We measured hospitalist daily processing times and captured the physical team through a time-and-motion study of hospitalists. The digital team interactions were extracted from patient Electronic Health Records. Northwestern Memorial Hospital, a large academic urban hospital in Chicago. Participants Our case study selected four hospitalists at random who cared for 107 inpatient stays over 17 days in June-July 2014 and collaborated with 2046 caregivers: 301 were observed physical collaborators and 1745 were digital-only collaborators.
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Exercise and Eating Habits in Relation to BMI in Female College Students of Almareefa Colleges in Ad Diriyah

The benefits of exercise have been known a long time ago, physical activity is an important factor to reduce the risk of unhealthy weigh. Certain types of foods, eating habits have been linked to weight and BMI. The purpose of the study was to identify the relationship between exercise, eating habits and BMI. This was an observational descriptive cross-sectional university-based study of 100 female medical students of Almaarefa Colleges from level 3 to 8, participants were chosen randomly and questionnaires were distributed among them and anthropometric measurements were taken for BMI calculations. Out of 100 female medical students, 52% were of a normal weight category at level 5-6. Obesity was only seen among level 3-4 (12%).57% of normal weight participants don’t eat very fast. 52% of normal weight participants exercise and 35% of them exercise 3 times or more a week. No obese participants were seen in those who exercise 3 times a week or more. 60% of overweight/obese participants exercise 2 times or less a week. This study revealed a strong association between physical activity and BMI, also fast eating was found to be associated with obesity.
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Relationship of YWHAH Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms to Markers of Rheumatoid Arthritis Disease Severity

Introduction: Serum 14-3-3 eta provides diagnostic and prognostic information in Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA). It is coded by the YWHAH gene with single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) linked to bipolar disorder and schizophrenia. It was hypothesized that 6 previously described YWHAH SNPs might relate to markers of RA disease severity such as seropositivity or erosive changes. Association study performed at an academic hospital Rheumatology Clinic. Subjects studied were 18 years of age or older with RA. TaqMan analysis screened for YWHAH SNPs rs2246704, rs2853884, rs3747158, rs4820059, rs7291050, rs933226. Primary endpoint was presence of at least one copy of the YWHAH SNPs with the markers of RA disease severity.
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The Association Between Strength, Balance and Physical Function with the Body Mass Index in Dyslipidemia

The coexistence of chronic diseases has led to greater negativity in patients than the negativity of diseases individually speaking. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of the body mass index on metabolic profile, isometric and isokinetic muscle strength, static and dynamic balance, and anaerobic capacity in dyslipidemia patients, as well as to emphasize what exercises should be recommended for recovering the experienced functional loss of the patients. Forty five patients (26 women, 19 men) between 40 and 75 years of age and who were newly diagnosed as dyslipidemia were enrolled into this study. The patients were divided into two groups according to their body mass indexes (BMI): group 1 (n:18) or those whose BMI was lower than 25 kg/m2, and group 2 (n:27) or those whose BMI was higher than 30 kg/m2. Biochemical blood sampling was done. The Get Up and Go, single leg stance, anaerobic capacity, and isometric as well as isokinetic muscle strength tests were performed in order to evaluate functional capacities. There were no statistically significant differences shown at gender distribution, age, or height (p>0.05) between groups. The weight and BMI’s between the groups were statistically significantly different (p<0.05). The fasting glucose levels and triglyceride levels of group 2 was statistically significantly higher than group 1 (p<0.05), whereas other biochemical parameters showed no differences (p>0.05). The static balance tests results between groups have shown no statistically significant differences (p<0.05); however the dynamic balance test results for group 2 was statistically significantly worse than those of group 1 (p<0.05). The parameters of the results of the anaerobic testing, alongside those of the isometric and isokinetic testing for group 1 patients were statistically significantly higher than those of group 2 (p<0.05). Obesity negatively affects dyslipidemic patients’ metabolic and functional capacities. An exercise program for dyslipidemic patients with a high BMI should include strengthening and balance as well as dynamic balance exercises in order to positively influence both their metabolic profiles and functional status.
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Metaphysical Analysis of the Nutritional and Therapeutic Value of Baobab (Adansonia Digitata L.)

Realistic assessment of the yield and nutritional value of baobab as well as the elucidation of its inhibitory action against oxidative stress were the targets of the study. An average baobab tree can yield 80kg fruits, 14kg pulp, 23kg seeds and 130kg leaves per year. Despite considerable variability, the leaves outstrip in mean Ca (1241 mg/100g dry sample), Fe (40mg/100g dry sample) and ß-carotene (135μg/100g dry sample) content.
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Cell Culture, Cytopathic Effect and Immunofluorescence Diagnosis of Viral Infection

Viruses are obligate intracellular parasites that require living cells in order to replicate. Cell culture for propagation and identification of viruses is an important component of the clinical virology laboratory. In general, diagnostic tests can be grouped into three categories: direct detection, virus isolation and serology. Direct examination methods can usually give a result either within the same or the next day. Immunofluorescence is widely used for the rapid diagnosis of virus infections by detection of virus antigen in clinical specimens and detection of virus-specific antibodies.
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Complete Clinical Response after Induction Chemotherapy Followed by Chemoradiotherapy in Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma: Impact on Oncologic Outcomes

Objective: Concomitant chemoradiation (RCT) represents the standard of care for locally-advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC).Nevertheless induction chemotherapy (IC) followed by RCT is currently an attractive approach. Some trials showed a survival benefit of this therapeutic strategy. The aim of this study was to analyze complete clinical response (CCR) after IC and to assess its impact on disease control and survival.
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A Nutrition and Physical Activity Education Model for Cancer Risk Reduction Improves Knowledge and Dietary Behaviors among Students in the Alabama Black Belt

An age-appropriate, culturally sensitive Nutrition and Physical Activity Education Model (NPAEM) for cancer risk reduction was developed and implemented. NPAEM was underpinned by the social-cognitive theory. Participants (N=86) were 8 to 11-year-old students from public elementary schools in Macon County, Alabama. The NPAEM comprised of 11 topics and activity/worksheets. Lesson plans, evaluation and hands-on activity/worksheets were developed. The 15-week intervention was cross-sectional, with a pre- and post-assessment design and weekly 45-minute lessons.
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Neuropsycological Function, Insight, and Treatment Adherence among Patients with Schizophrenia

Research has suggested that poor insight in patients with schizophrenia is associated with poorer treatment compliance. One factor ontributing to poor insight may be neurocognitive deficits. The aim of the current study is to explore the relationship between cognitive insight, clinical insight, treatment adherence, executive functions and sustained attention within patients with schizophrenia. The study was conducted on 41 patients with schizophrenia using the Beck cognitive insight scale, the schedule for assessment of insight, the drug attitude inventory and two neuropsychological tests.
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Phyto-Nutrient Diversity in Morinda Citrifolia L. Genotypes of Andaman Islands, India

The Indian mulberry or Noni (Morinda citrifolia L.) is one of the emerging sources of natural antioxidants for herbal and pharmaceutical industry. The genus Morinda has more than 150 species in which M. citrifolia is identified as most important for health and economic point of view. Present study revealed significant (p < 0.05) diversity in 33 genotypes of M. citrifolia from Andaman and Nicobar Islands (India) for phyto-constituents. The promising genotypes viz. FRG-14, JGH-5, TRA-1, TRA-2 and HD-6 were identified for commercial uses. Correlation analysis in M. citrifolia germplasm showed strong correlation between carotenoids and ascorbic acid (r2 =0.973; p<0.05), tannin (r2 =0.598; p<0.05), flavonoids (r2 =0.691; p<0.05) and phenol (r2 =0.598; p<0.05). The genotypes showed wide range for antioxidant capacity which showed positive correlation with carotenoids (r2 =0.335; p<0.05), flavonoids (r2 =0.249; p<0.05) and Cu (r2 =0.953; p<0.05), Mn (r2 =0.953; p<0.05) and Mg (r2 =0.582; p<0.05). The diversity analysis is useful for designing breeding strategies for phyto-nutrient rich genotypes for better recovery in health products.
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Anodic Porous Alumina Array for Cyanine Fluorophore Cy3 Confinement

Self-organized anodic porous alumina films with hexagonal pore lattice have attracted a considerable attention for biological arrays and confinement of various organic probes dyes in solutions. A molecular structure with axial symmetry in bis-heterocyclic indole chains and conjugate system, such as cyanine fluorophore Cy3 dye, was investigated here with respect to its fluorescence when loaded in the anodic alumina pores.
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Recent Developments in Human Odor Detection Technologies

Human odor detection technologies have drawn attention due to the wide possibility of potential applications they open up in areas such as biometrics, criminal investigation and forensics, search for survivors under rubble, and security checkpoint screening. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) has been the most successful and powerful analytical approach developed to date for human odor analysis, and hundreds of human odorants have been identified using this tool.
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Analysis of Sweat Simulant Mixtures using Multiplexed Arrays of DNA-Carbon Nanotube Vapor Sensors

Carbon nanotube (NT) based electronic vapor sensors were tested against synthetic sweat solutions, consisting of 13 volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in saline, in order to probe the device ability to analyze and differentiate vapors derived from complex biological samples.
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Characteristic Human Scent Compounds Trapped on Natural and Synthetic Fabrics as analyzed by SPME-GC/MS

The collection of human odor volatiles is of interest to forensic applications as a path to investigate canine scent discriminations in legal investigations. A study using a selected array of previously identified human odor compounds has been conducted to determine the retention and release capabilities of five (5) natural and synthetic fabric types, cotton (mercerized fabric and gauze matrix), polyester, rayon and wool.
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The Effects of the Film Thickness and Roughness in the Anodization Process of Very Thin Aluminum Films

The anodization of aluminum foils having micrometer thickness is a common process and results in hexagonally self-ordered alumina membranes. However, anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) membranes fabricated from nanometer-thin films present new challenges to the anodization process, since aluminum films adheres poorly on supporting substrates and the smoothness of the film is highly related to the kind of substrate.
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Anodic Oxidation of Titanium in Sulphuric Acid and Phosphoric Acid Electrolytes

Anodisation of pure titanium has been carried out in sulphuric and in phosphoric acid solutions at potentials ranging from 50 to 150V. The SEM and AFM morphological analysis indicates that, within this potential range, oxidation in sulphuric acid solution produces better developed mesoporous oxide layers.
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Fabrication of Ordered Arrays of Anodic Aluminum Oxide Pores with Interpore Distance Smaller than the Pitch of Nano-pits formed by Ion Beam Etching

We investigated a method for preparation of ordered nanopore arrays with the interpore distance of 60 nm by guided self-organization of anodic aluminum oxide with a prepatterned array of pits in the starting Al film.
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Preparation of Large Area Anodic Alumina Membranes and their Application to Thin Film Fuel Cell

The design of an electrochemical reactor for the preparation of self-supported comparatively thin (up to 10 μm) and large area (up to 50 cm2) anodic alumina membranes is described allowing growth of porous alumina at high applied potential (up to 150 V) without burning.
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Fabrication of Vertical Cu2ZnSnS4 Nanowire Arrays by Two-Step Electroplating Method into Anodic Aluminum Oxide Template

Vertical Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) nanowire arrays have been synthesized via two-step electroplating method into anodized aluminum oxide template. For deposition of CZTS nanowires, anodized aluminum oxide (AAO) was used as the growth mask for the growth of the nanowires. AAO templates with hole sizes of 70 nm in diameter were used in the experiments.
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Editorial Board Members Related to pH

Magdy Kharoshah

Forensic Medicine Authority
Ministry of Justice

Xueliang Pan

Department of Biomedical Informatics
The Ohio State University
United States

Mehdi Razzaghi-Abyaneh

Professor and Head
Department of Mycology
Pasteur Institute of Iran

Saeed Abdelwhab Saeed Afifi

Department of Internal Medicine and Nephrology
Faculty of Medicine
Ain Shams University


Associate Professor
Department of Surgery
State University of New York at Buffalo
United States

Sayed M. Hassan

Senior Research Scientist
University of Georgia

Zafar K. Khan

Department of Microbiology and Immunology
Drexel University
United States

Baojun Xu

Associate Professor
Division of Science and Technology
Beijing Normal University-Hong Kong Baptist University
United International College

Craig S. Atwood

Associate Professor
School of Medicine and Public Health
University of Wisconsin-Madison
United States

Shaddel Rezvan

Visting Scholar
Food Science and Technology Department
Rutgers University
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