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Articles Related to pH

Introduction of Stem Cells in Ophthalmology

Stem cells are relatively undifferentiated, with unlimited proliferative ability; self-renewal capability and also they can differentiate into specialized cells. Somatic stem cells in adult organisms are responsible for regenerating and self-renewing tissue. Many different stem cell types reside in the eye.
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Estimation of Beta-Lactam Antibiotics-Serum Albumin Conjugated Proteins by High Performance Liquid Chromatography with Ultraviolet Detector

β-lactam antibiotics represented the oldest class of antibiotics used in the treatment of infections in a human being, livestock, and aquaculture. Drugs residues in the edible tissues or foodstuffs of animal pose a potential threat to human health. At present, extensive antibiotic-resistant strains are now being detected and the development of antibiotic-resistant strains of epidemic and zoonotic pathogens is a major concern. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to estimate the extent of β-lactam antibiotics-HSA/BSA conjugations via three conjugation methods by using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with ultraviolet (UV) detector. We wish that the technique will be applied to preliminarily detect the residues of β-lactam antibiotics may persist in edible tissues or foodstuffs in the livestock and aquaculture farms in clinical.
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Haemophagocytic Lymphohistiocytosis with Partial Albinism-Griscelli Syndrome Type II

Hypopigmentation syndromes represent a readily distinguished group of diseases. Pigment dilution may involve skin, hair and iris, and is generally manifested at birth. Genetic defects of melanin biosynthesis are inherited as autosomal recessive. Griscelli syndrome is a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterised by partial albinism with or without neurological/immunological abnormalities. We report a nine year old child with Griscelli Syndrome type II with Hemophagocytic Lymphohistiocytosis.
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Novel Alternative Treatment to Plasmapheresis in Evans Syndrome

Evans syndrome is a rare haematological disease characterised by concurrent occurrence of autoimmune haemolytic anaemia (AIHA) and idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura. The autoimmune haemolysis can lead to hyperbilirubinaemia, profound anaemia and haemodynamic instability. It can be difficult to treat and when refractory to medical treatment it could necessitate emergency splenectomy. Plasmapheresis is used in refractory haemolytic anaemia to aid removal of disease causing autoimmune complexes whilst immunomodulators act to reduce autoantibody response and effectiveness. However, this is an expensive and resource intensive process that is limited to tertiary referral centres. In this case study we present a successful novel alternative for life threatening AIHA in Evans Syndrome using haemofiltration with on-going fresh frozen plasma transfusion when resources are limited or it is not an accessible method.
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Genetic Polymorphisms Associated with Risk of Developing Age-Related Macular Degeneration in Patients with Chronic Aspirin Usage

Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of blindness in the elderly population. Aspirin usage has been reported to be associated with an increased risk of developing this disease. This study aims to determine whether the increased risk of AMD with chronic aspirin usage is related to genetic polymorphisms in the Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A (VEGFA) and Catechol-O-Methyltransferase (COMT) genes.
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Tomotherapy Treatment of Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia and Ocular Lymphoma

A sixty-five-years-old male patient with history of non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma of the right orbit and a fifty-years-old female patient with chronic lymphocytic leukemia with peripheral lymphocytosis were treated on TomoTherapy. In the first case, a 1 cm beam was used for planning a delivery of 30.6 Gy in 17 fractions with a sequential boost of 9 Gy in 5 fractions. Tumor involvement of the ipsilateral lens and lacrimal gland in the planning target volume necessitated a compromise between preserving patient’s vision and delivery of tumoricidal dose to the target. In the second case, 30 Gy in 20 fractions delivery was planned with a 2.5 cm beam. The tumor extended anteriorly and this technique allowed sparing more orbital tissue and required a high modulation factor.
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Prodromal Symptoms and Signs of First Episode Schizophrenia in Iraq

Onset of schizophrenia is often preceded by other symptoms and types of behaviour, usually referred to as prodromal symptoms. Identify the main prodromal symptoms and signs preceding the full blown picture of first episode schizophrenia. This is a cross-section study. 328 Iraqi first episode schizophrenic inpatients admitted to Ibn-Rushed psychiatric mental hospital were examined during the period June, 1st, 2009 to June, 1st, 2011. Diagnosis confirmed through a Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV-TR. List of sociodemographic and clinical data was used. Detailed psychiatric history taking and mental state examination were applied. Supplemental information was obtained from patients and family members.
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Endocardial Approach for Substrate Ablation in Brugada Syndrome: Epicardial, Endocardial or Transmural Substrate?

Background: Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) in Brugada syndrome (BrS) has been performed both endocardially and epicardially. The substrate in BrS is thus unclear. Objectives: To investigate the functional endocardial substrate and its correlation with clinical, electrophysiological and ECG findings in order to guide an endocardial ablation. Methods: Thirteen patients (38.7±12.3 years old) with spontaneous type 1 ECG BrS pattern, inducible VF with programmed ventricular stimulation (PVS) and syncope without prodromes were enrolled. Before to endocardial mapping the patients underwent flecainide testing with the purpose of measuring the greatest ST-segment elevation for to be correlated with the size and location of substrate in the electro-anatomic map
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The Efficacy and Safety of Prophylactic Fluconazole Prevent Invasive Fungal Infection in Preterm Very Low Birth Weight Infants: An Update Meta-analysis

We identified 8 eligible trials that enrolled 1392 infants. There was significant effect of prophylactic fluconazole on fungal colonization (RR, 0.31, 95%C1:-0.24 to 0.41; P<0.00001). Effect of prophylactic fluconazole on IFI in VLBW infants: RR: 0.42(95%CI 0.23 to 0.76; P=0.004.). However, prophylactic fluconazole did not reduce mortality in VLBW infants (RR 0.76, 95% CI 0.58 to 1.01; P = 0.06). Studies did not report significant adverse reactions.
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Osteoid Osteoma of the Ribs - Is Image Intensifier or Bone Scintigraphy a Mandatory Diagnostic Tool - A Case report with Review of Literature

Osteoid osteoma (OO) is a benign bone tumour. In 1935, the jaffe reported it first. The fifty percent of OOs occur in long bones of the lower extremities but it may affect any bone. Only 1 % OOs affects the ribs and surgical excision was reported only in 14 cases in the literature. Complete surgical excision is the standard treatment method for osteoid osteoma is complete surgical excision which is reserved for the patients not responding to conservative treatment. In this report, we present a case of osteoid osteoma of the posterior part of the shaft of the sixth rib affecting a 30-year-old male, who had presented with symptoms of severe pain over the affected area and underwent surgical resection. Excised rib segment showed no osteosclerotic lesion on X-ray so immediately extended resection of the sixth rib was done. Here we have tried to evaluate the importance of the presence of the skeletal scintigraphy or C Arm image intensifier intraoperatively by comparing our experience with the available literature.
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Superior Mesenteric Artery Embolus as a Delayed Complication of a Cocaine Induced Myocardial Infarction

Cocaine has acute and chronic effects on health as well as addiction and dependence and places a significant burden on healthcare systems. After cannabis, it is the most frequently used illicit drug worldwide. It is estimated that between 14 and 21 million people use the drug each year [1]. Its main adverse effects occur in the cardiovascular system. Cocaine causes sympathomimetic actions such as tachycardia, hypertension and coronary artery constriction due to enhancement of release of catecholamines. It enhances thrombus formation by activating platelets and potentiating thromboxane production [2]. The consequences of these effects include chest pain, myocardial infarction, aortic dissection, coronary artery aneurysm, myocarditis, cardiomyopathies and arrhythmias. Our case demonstrates a young patient who had a delayed presentation of a myocardial infarction, in the setting of recent cocaine use that was complicated by an apical thrombus which resulted in distal emboli to his superior mesenteric artery and left renal artery. It highlights the fact that in a young patient with no other risk factors how complications may arise, even weeks after cocaine use.
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Heavy Element Accumulation in Aquatic Beetles of the Genus Enochrus (Coleoptera: Hydrophilidae) in Erzurum Province

In the present study, fourteen heavy elements (Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Br, Sr, Pb) accumulation in sediment, water and Enochrus spp. species organs (total body) were evaluated. For this purpose, water, sediment and Enochrus spp. were collected from nine wetland sites in Erzurum province (Turkey).
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Giemsa Staining and Antibody Characterization of Colpodella sp. (Apicomplexa)

Colpodella species are free-living alveolates that possess an apical complex used for attaching to eukaryotic prey protists for ingestion of the cytoplasmic contents of the prey. Colpodella sp. are the closest relatives of the Apicomplexa, a phylum that includes the important human pathogens Plasmodium falciparum, Toxoplasma gondii and Cryptosporidium parvum. In this study, we investigated morphological characteristics of Colpodella (ATCC 50594) in a diprotist culture containing Bodo caudatus as prey in order to identify features differentiating both protists. The level of apical complex protein conservation among free living alveolate relatives of apicomplexans and intracellular apicomplexan pathogens is unknown. Antibodies against proteins of the apical complex in Colpodella sp. are currently unavailable. We performed staining and immunological characterization of Colpodella in a diprotist culture containing B. caudatus to aid routine differentiation of predator and prey in culture. Staining revealed distinguishing morphological features of both protists. The kinetoplast in B.caudatus was identified using Giemsa staining and was used to differentiate B. caudatus from Colpodella sp. trophozoites.
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Former Effective Immunotherapy without Adverse Events of Inoperable Epithelial Ovarian Cancers and a Prospect for the Immune Prophylaxis

Current cancer treatments by immune checkpoint blockades are limited due to severe adverse events caused by alteration of the immune system required for homeostasis of normal tissues. Common cancer chemotherapy alters the quality of patients’ lives. Platinum-based treatment can lead to severe neurotoxicity with chronic debilitation. Additionally, survival of patients with epithelial ovarian cancers (EOCs) has remained poor despite extensive cytoreductive surgery, high dose chemotherapy, checkpoint blockades and immunotherapies effective in some other types of cancer. The pathobiology of EOC cancer stem cells (CSCs) is not well understood. Observations demonstrate that EOCs exhibit in vivo two distinct CSC types - perivascular diploid CSCs dividing asymmetrically with the help of the host suicidal CD8+ T cells, and haploid CSCs at the cancer abdominal surface originating from meiosis I cytokinesis of bulk surface cancer cells. The perivascular CSCs contribute to the cancer cell bulk and, via left ovary venous blood, can cause EOC liver metastases. Haploid CSCs released from the bulk cancer surface cause the common pelvic and abdominal EOC spread. Former elimination of the host antibodies blocking T cell effectors by intermittent doses of cyclophosphamide exhibiting significant immunomodulatory anticancer effects, facilitation of the immune system reactivity against alloantigens of cancer cells by blood transfusions, and augmentation of anticancer immunity by bacterial toxins, resulted during the subsequent treatment-free period into rejection of inoperable EOCs without any adverse events during the treatnment. To help prevent cancer relapses, patients treated for advanced primary epithelial cancers should be considered as candidates for continuously stimulating immune anticancer activity by treatments such as daily metformin and weekly lentinan consumptions.
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Assessment of the Efficacy, Safety and Cost-Effectiveness of Micafungin Compared to Caspofungin and Low Dose Liposomal Amphotericin B for the Treatment of Candidaemia and Clinically Diagnosed Invasive Candidiasis: A Retrospective Audit

Despite several studies having highlighted that candidaemia and invasive fungal disease (IFD) are associated with high mortality and increased costs, there are currently few published studies which provide an insight into real-life practice of invasive candidal diseases. In a medium-sized district general hospital in the UK we sought to compare the efficacy, safety and treatment cost of micafungin versus caspofungin and low dose of liposomal amphotericin B (L-AmB) 1mg/kg/day for the treatment of confirmed candidaemia or clinically diagnosed invasive fungal disease (CDIFD). In the present retrospective audit, a total of 126 patients with candidaemia or CDIFD were reviewed from hospital records and 94 were included in our audit.
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Anodic Porous Alumina Array for Cyanine Fluorophore Cy3 Confinement

Self-organized anodic porous alumina films with hexagonal pore lattice have attracted a considerable attention for biological arrays and confinement of various organic probes dyes in solutions. A molecular structure with axial symmetry in bis-heterocyclic indole chains and conjugate system, such as cyanine fluorophore Cy3 dye, was investigated here with respect to its fluorescence when loaded in the anodic alumina pores.
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Recent Developments in Human Odor Detection Technologies

Human odor detection technologies have drawn attention due to the wide possibility of potential applications they open up in areas such as biometrics, criminal investigation and forensics, search for survivors under rubble, and security checkpoint screening. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) has been the most successful and powerful analytical approach developed to date for human odor analysis, and hundreds of human odorants have been identified using this tool.
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Analysis of Sweat Simulant Mixtures using Multiplexed Arrays of DNA-Carbon Nanotube Vapor Sensors

Carbon nanotube (NT) based electronic vapor sensors were tested against synthetic sweat solutions, consisting of 13 volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in saline, in order to probe the device ability to analyze and differentiate vapors derived from complex biological samples.
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Characteristic Human Scent Compounds Trapped on Natural and Synthetic Fabrics as analyzed by SPME-GC/MS

The collection of human odor volatiles is of interest to forensic applications as a path to investigate canine scent discriminations in legal investigations. A study using a selected array of previously identified human odor compounds has been conducted to determine the retention and release capabilities of five (5) natural and synthetic fabric types, cotton (mercerized fabric and gauze matrix), polyester, rayon and wool.
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The Effects of the Film Thickness and Roughness in the Anodization Process of Very Thin Aluminum Films

The anodization of aluminum foils having micrometer thickness is a common process and results in hexagonally self-ordered alumina membranes. However, anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) membranes fabricated from nanometer-thin films present new challenges to the anodization process, since aluminum films adheres poorly on supporting substrates and the smoothness of the film is highly related to the kind of substrate.
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Anodic Oxidation of Titanium in Sulphuric Acid and Phosphoric Acid Electrolytes

Anodisation of pure titanium has been carried out in sulphuric and in phosphoric acid solutions at potentials ranging from 50 to 150V. The SEM and AFM morphological analysis indicates that, within this potential range, oxidation in sulphuric acid solution produces better developed mesoporous oxide layers.
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Fabrication of Ordered Arrays of Anodic Aluminum Oxide Pores with Interpore Distance Smaller than the Pitch of Nano-pits formed by Ion Beam Etching

We investigated a method for preparation of ordered nanopore arrays with the interpore distance of 60 nm by guided self-organization of anodic aluminum oxide with a prepatterned array of pits in the starting Al film.
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Preparation of Large Area Anodic Alumina Membranes and their Application to Thin Film Fuel Cell

The design of an electrochemical reactor for the preparation of self-supported comparatively thin (up to 10 μm) and large area (up to 50 cm2) anodic alumina membranes is described allowing growth of porous alumina at high applied potential (up to 150 V) without burning.
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Fabrication of Vertical Cu2ZnSnS4 Nanowire Arrays by Two-Step Electroplating Method into Anodic Aluminum Oxide Template

Vertical Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) nanowire arrays have been synthesized via two-step electroplating method into anodized aluminum oxide template. For deposition of CZTS nanowires, anodized aluminum oxide (AAO) was used as the growth mask for the growth of the nanowires. AAO templates with hole sizes of 70 nm in diameter were used in the experiments.
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Editorial Board Members Related to pH

RAFFAELE MAROTTA

Associate Professor of Industrial Chemistry
Department of Chemical Engineering, Materials and Industrial Production
University of Naples Federico II
Italy

MING-JEN CHEN

Assistant Professor
Division of Gastroenterology
Department of Internal Medicine
Mackay Medical College
Taiwan

Chin-Chuan Wei

Associate Professor
Department of Chemistry
Southern Illinois University
United States

Vincenzo Cuomo

Professor
Department of Physiology and Pharmacology
Sapienza University of Rome
Italy

Parichat Phumkhachorn

Assistant Professor
Department of Biological Science
Ubon Ratchathani University
Thailand

Sherman Wessel Jack

Professor
Department of Pathobiology
Mississippi State University
United States

Guliz Kozdag

Cardiology and Internal Medicine Specialist
Montefiore Medical Center
USA

Sara Shishehgar

Faculty of Health
University of Technology Sydney
Australia

Yi Zhun Zhu

Professor
Department of Pharmacology
Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine
National University of Singapore
Singapore

Gordon L Fung

Professor
School of Medicine
University of California
United States
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