Top Links

Articles Related to pH

Temperature Variation on Sulphur Removal from Laterite Nickel Leaching Residue and Iron Extraction

Nickel production for electric vehicle batteries increases by 30% every year. As the country with the most nickel production in 2021, Indonesia will operate six nickel refining plants with High-pressured acid leaching technology and one development of Step Temperature Acid Leach technology. Problems arise with many hydrometallurgical-based nickel refining plants where the leach residue will continue to accumulate and potentially pollute the soil environment. Lateritic nickel leach residue has a high Fe content reaching 44.45% in the form of hematite and an S content of around 1.3%. Besides, demand growth in the iron and steel industry is greater than the availability of its raw materials. Thus, secondary sources for raw materials for the iron and steel industry are needed. The maximum S content for steel raw materials is 0.1%, so the sulfur content in leach residue must be removed. This research focuses on removing sulfur content in lateritic nickel leach residue by roasting at a temperature of 500 °C until 1100 °C. The experiment was continued with reduction roasting at various temperature profiles. The reduced phase of the roasted leach residue sample is then compared with the reduced phase of the initial leach residue sample. Sulfur content decreases with increasing roasting temperature. Sulfur content reaches ~0% at a roasting temperature of 1100 °C. The optimum initial sample reductive roasting temperature of lateritic nickel leach residue was 1400 °C with 95.9% Fe content and 0.1% S in metal. The optimum reductive roasting temperature for 1100 °C roasted samples was 1200 °C with 94.6% Fe content and 0% S. Roasting treatment can reduce the optimum temperature for the reduction roasting process.
View complete article: PDF  |  Full-text

Reversed-Phase High Performance Liquid Chromatography Procedure for the Determination of Isavuconazole in Human Plasma

Introduction: Isavuconazole is an antifungal drug used for treating patients with invasive fungal infections. Efficacy and safety of isavuconazole is monitored by measuring plasma isavuconazole concentration using LCMS which is a non-affordable method. We used the HPLC system with a UV detector to measure plasma Isavuconazole concentration. Objective: Improved Reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography procedure with UV detection is described which is cost effective, simple, precise and easily processed for the measurement of Isavuconazole, a drug used to treat the patients with invasive fungal infections, in blood plasma. Method: The method involves protein precipitation, addition of ammonium dihydrogen phosphate and chromatographic separation on a Hypurity C18 Column using an isocratic mobile phase of acetonitrile and ammonium acetate buffer (pH 8.0, 10 mM) (55:45, v/v). The UV detection was performed at 285 nm. The method provides rapid resolution of Isavuconazole in a 50 uL injection. Result: Lower limit of Quantification (LLOQ) is 0.25 μg/ml in a 50 uL injection volume for Isavuconazole with a recovery consistently > 100 %. The assay is validated over linear range of 0.25 to 10 μg/ml. The intra-assay precision is < 3.53 % and inter-assay is <6.38% relative standard deviation of Isavuconazole. The method demonstrated clean separation, clinically acceptable detection limit and a linear range upto 25 ug/mL. Conclusion: The assay demonstrated applicability in quantifying the drug level and monitoring the therapeutic dose for maintaining effective biological level to have better response in fungal infected patients. The method is cheaper as compared to LC-MS/MS and Tandem Mass spectrometry and the results are reportable on the same day of blood collection.
View complete article: PDF  |  Full-text

Exhaled Volatile Organic Compounds in Patients with Colonic Polyps

Background: Exhaled Volatile Organic Compounds (E-VOCs) may help to early detection of colonic polyps Objective: Assess whether a new ambulatory device is able to detect specific E-VOCs in patients recently diagnosed with colonic polyps. Material and Methods: All data were collected during routine consultations for Small Intestinal Bowel Overgrowth. A breath test was performed by X-PID 9500®. Results: 203 patients older than 45 years of age were included. 31patients (15.3%) reported colonic polyps. 74 patients presented with gastroduodenal or jejunal (GDJ) liquid at ultrasound examination despite fasting. 96 patients (47.3%) exhaled numerous E-VOCs with a retention time between 12 to 45s (E-VOCs 12 to 45s). All patients of the polyp group exhaled E-VOCs 12 to 45s. 69 patients with GDJ liquid exhaled E-VOCS 12 to 45s. 11 patients out of these 69 cases (15.9%) present with polyps. 27 patients exhaled E-VOCs 12 to 45s and did not have GDJ, 20 of whom (74.1%) presented with polyps. When GDJ liquid is not objectivized after fasting, the sensitivity of the E-VOCs 12 to 45s to identify patients with colonic polyps is equal to 100.0% and the specificity is 93.6%. The positive predictive value is 74.1% and the negative predictive value is 100%. Conclusion: After fasting, X-PID 9500® is able to detect E-VOCs associated with colonic polyps, when GDJ liquid is excluded.
View complete article: PDF  |  Full-text

The Combined Effect of 2,4-Epibrassinolide and Chilling Stress on Tomato Cultivars Differing in Maturity

Low temperature (but above-freezing) during germination and early seedling growth of chilling-sensitive crop is one of the most significant limiting factors in the productivity. 2,4-Epibrassinolide (24-EB) is one of the most active forms of brassinosteroids are multifunctional plant hormones that can regulate development and respond to abiotic stresses. The effect of seed-pretreatment with 24-EB (12.5 μg/L) on photosynthetic characteristics, membrane permeability, lipid peroxidation and antioxidant activities under chilling stress were investigated in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) cultivars: Kulon (early ripening) and Yakhont (mid-early). Results showed that the use of 24-EB led to more pronounced changes in the pigment composition in Yakhont in the absence of a stress factor, whereas in Kulon under chilling stress (2 o C for 24 h). 24-EB pretreatment minimized the damage to cell membranes in tomato plants caused by chilling stress. The tolerance to chilling stress in Yakhont was higher than Kulon (by electrolyte leakage and content of malondialdehyde assay). Under these conditions, oxidative processes in plants of Yakhont did not show significant difference. We have not established the effect of 24-EB on the level of low molecular weight antioxidants in tomato cultivars (measured by inhibition of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl free radical method). The antioxidant activity of leaf extracts in Yakhont was twice as high as in Kulon under all experimental conditions (with/without 24-EB, 22/2 o C). It was concluded that the less pronounced reaction of plants of Yakhont to the use of 24-EB and chilling stress is due to their genetically determined higher cold resistance than that of Kulon.
View complete article: PDF  |  Full-text

Medial Meniscus Dislocation: One Case Report and Literature Review

We present rare case of medial meniscus dislocation, in a 25 years old female patient who was admitted in emergency department. With painful locked left knee. Arthroscopy was done next day showing isolated dislocation of medial meniscus with the absence of any medial meniscus tear. Only reduction of the medial meniscus was done. Postoprative MRI confirmed the diagnosis and showed no tears in the medial meniscus. Physiotherapy and clinical follow up were done with good results and no recurrence for 4 months postoperative.
View complete article: PDF  |  Full-text

An Innovative Look at Buckling of Cracked Ghraphene Nano Sheets Using Novel Extended Molecular Mechanics Method

In this paper, we take a creative look at the effect of cracking on the buckling of graphene sheets. We introduced a significant improvement in molecular mechanical calculations that more accurately examine the behavior of atomic bonds during the instability of nanostructures in the presence of defects. A molecular mechanics method based on the modified couple stress (MCS) theory to consider the size effect on the graphene plate is introduced. Primary cracks with different lengths, orientations, and numbers were examined. For each crack, buckling parameters such as critical load and buckling modes of graphene sheets were investigated. This model has better computational performance and less computational compactness than other models. Our studies show that cracks perpendicular to the load direction have a greater effect on buckling parameters, including modes and critical buckling load than cracks aligned to the critical load. Increasing the crack length will further reduce the critical buckling load. The effect of the number of cracks in two directions in buckling parameters was investigated. Increasing the number of cracks always decreases a critical buckling load. Increasing the number of cracks affects the first buckling mode more than others. The study of the eccentricity of cracks shows that with increasing the eccentricity distance, in cracks perpendicular to the loading direction, the critical buckling load will be further reduced. However, for cracks aligned with the load direction, increasing the eccentric distance has less effect on reducing the critical buckling load.
View complete article: PDF  |  Full-text

Radiation Dose to Oesophagus in Breast Cancer Patients Receiving Radiation Therapy: A Retrospective Study

Background: Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women worldwide. Management of Breast cancer requires multidisciplinary team approach (viz, Surgery, Chemotherapy, Radiation therapy, Hormonal therapy & Targeted therapy). Radiotherapy reduces the risk of breast cancer mortality for women after breast conserving surgery and for women after mastectomy for node-positive disease. One of the organs at risk in breast cancer therapy is esophagus. As such, there is potential to expose greater volumes of esophagus to radiation. This may result in increased frequency and severity of acute radiation esophagitis during treatment. Aims and Objectives: To evaluate dosimetric parameters such as mean dose (Dmean) maximum dose (Dmax) which may influence the incidence and severity of esophagitis in breast cancer patients receiving radiotherapy. Material and Methods: Treatment plans of post mastectomy patients who had already received adjuvant RT of dose 50 Gy in 25 # over 5 weeks to the chest wall along with Supraclavicular field (SCF) using 3-Dimensional Conformal Radiation Therapy (3D CRT) and Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy (IMRT) were selected. Mean dose (Dmean) and maximum dose (Dmax) to esophagus was assessed. Results: Dosimetric parameters assessed are Dmean and Dmax. Dmean assessed up to less than or equal to 11Gy and Dmax assessed upto less than or equal to 34Gy. The average of Dmean in this study is 8.34Gy which is within normal limits of prescribed dose. The mean Of Dmax in this study is 24.80Gy which is in limits of prescribed dose. Conclusion: Increased dose to esophagus in observed when IMRT is used especially when supraclavicular or internal mammary nodes are involved. Routine contouring of esophagus and planning accordingly may reduce oesophageal dose and acute oesophageal toxicity.
View complete article: PDF  |  Full-text

Socio-Demographic, Clinical Characteristics and Blood Lipid profiles of Type 1 Diabetic Patients Followed in Regional Hospitals in The Northern Zone of Cameroon

Background and Objective: In Cameroon, given the galloping growth in the prevalence of diabetes, in particular type 1 diabetes in the northern regions, we undertook this study, with the objective to improve the management of type 1 diabetes by determining the socio-demographic, clinical characteristics and lipid profiles of the patients followed in the care centers of regional hospitals of Maroua, Garoua and Ngaoundere. Methods: We undertook a descriptive cross-sectional study from 07 August 2018 to 07 May 2019 in the care centers of the regional hospitals. Sociodemographic and clinical data were collected by interview to consent patient through structured questionnaires in the survey sheet. Anthropometric data were also determined during the survey, and the blood was collected in referred laboratory for determination of some lipid profiles parameters. Results: On a sample of 467 Patient suffering from diabetes, 68 were of type 1, representing a prevalence of 26%. Type 1 diabetes Patients were mostly female (61.8%) and the mean age was 20.72 ± 3.4 years with a high percentage between 20-30 years (51.5%). More than half of our patients were pupils and students, many of them practiced Muslims as religion (58.8%). In most of cases (51.3%), the disease was diagnosed after one year as a result of illness. The majority of our patients were non-smokers (98.5%) and less athletic (32.4%). The mean Body Mass Index (BMI) was 23.03 ± 2.7 kg /m2 with an average waist circumference of 80.26 ± 9.23 cm in men and 82.15 ± 10.45 in women. Their treatment was based essentially on insulin therapy, mainly using regular and intermediate insulins. More than half of the subjects had high blood glucose (78.1%), high triglyceride (34.1%) and HDL-cholesterol (29.3%) levels. Most of the patients suffered from overweight/obesity, high blood pressure, arthritis, kidney failure and other diseases (malaria, jaundice, stomach ache). No significant relation was found between clinical and the sociodemographic and blood lipid profiles. Conclusion: It emerges from this study that type 1 diabetes represent high proportions of diabetes cases in septentrional area of Cameroon, and affect mostly young of less than 30 years old, dominated by women, practicing Muslim as religion. Their clinical profile characterized by high frequency of overweight/obesity, kidney failure and arthritis vary, but not significantly, with neither their sociodemographic nor their blood lipid profiles. Absence of sport, female and less control of their hypoglycemia are factors risks of the progression of the disease.
View complete article: PDF  |  Full-text

Demographic and Socioeconomic Influence on Antenatal Care Utilization Among Pregnant Women in Wa Municipality of The Upper West Region of Ghana

Introduction: It remains unclear if benefits of antenatal care can be attributed to the amount and content of care or to uncontrolled risk factors that might also affect its use. An understanding of the factors influencing antenatal care is still a challenge because the pathways through which the effects are obtained remain elusive. Objective: The study examined the factor influencing antenatal care utilisation in the Wa Municipality. Methodology and Data: The study employed a retrospective cohort design. The probability proportionate to size sampling was used to select the sub-district health catchment facilities, while the systematic random sampling was used to select respondents. Data was collected from 353 women based on the status of Antenatal care utilization. Results: The results suggest that the educational status, maternal knowledge on adequacy of four or more antenatal care, score for general services received, number of tetanus toxoid doses received and anaemia status at Antenatal care registration were significant predictors to adequate antenatal care utilization. Conclusion: The study further found that women who had anaemia at antenatal care registration, General quality of received women received at antenatal care, level of Tetanus doses as well as knowledge on the adequacy of antenatal care were significant factors that influence antenatal care usage among reproductive aged women in the Wa municipality. The implication is that, attention should be drawn by health management authorities to ensure an improvement in the coverage antenatal care in Wa Municipal while health staff are encouraged to enforce to the latter all due protocols in the discharge of their duties at antenatal care utilisation in Ghana
View complete article: PDF  |  Full-text

Pharmacodynamic Equivalence of Ovine Enoxaparin to Porcine Enoxaparin (Lovenox®) In Healthy Volunteers: A Randomized, Open-Label, 2-Way Cross-Over, Single Dose Study

Aim: to demonstrate the PK/PD equivalence of an ovine enoxaparin to the reference product, the originator porcine enoxaparin, Lovenox® from Sanofi, and to assess its safety and tolerability in healthy volunteers with s.c. administration. Methods: a randomized, open-label, 2-way cross-over, single-dose study with 7 days wash-out period was conducted in healthy volunteers of both sexes. A single s.c. injection of 6,000 IU ovine enoxaparin from Metiska Farma (the test drug, T) or Lovenox® from Sanofi (the reference drug, R) was given randomly to each subject in fasting condition. The PD endpoints measured were anti-FXa and anti-FIIa activities in plasma, whereas the PD parameters determined for these endpoints were AUEC0-t (area under the effect curve from time 0 to the last measured activity (t)) and Amax (maximum activity). Bioequivalence (BE) is based on anti-FXa activity, the 90% CIs for GMR T/R (geometric means ratio of Test/ Reference) of AUEC0-t and Amax must fall within the BE limits of 80.00 – 125.00%. The anti-FIIa data are in vivo supportive evidence only. Results: a total of 23 healthy volunteers completed this study. The 90% CIs for GMR T/R of AUEC0-t and Amax for anti-FXa were 107.55 – 116.33% and 110.17 – 117.68%, respectively, while those for anti-FIIa were 100.93 – 122.56% and 105.19 – 124.44%, respectively. All parameters fell within the BE criteria of 80.00 – 125.00%. One AE (adverse event) occurred in one volunteer after s.c. injection of ovine enoxaparin, i.e. bruising which disappeared after a few days. Conclusions: the ovine enoxaparin from Metiska Farma was bioequivalent to the reference porcine enoxaparin (Lovenox®) from Sanofi. Both enoxaparin products were shown to have high safety and tolerability after a single dose in healthy volunteers. This is the first study showing BE of a nonporcine enoxaparin to the reference porcine enoxaparin in Indonesia, a Moslem country
View complete article: PDF  |  Full-text

Forensic Examination of Heroin and Its Cutting Agents

In order to successfully counter the ever-growing drug problem, there is an increasing need, to identify conspiracy links and trafficking routes and to gather background intelligence concerning both the number of sources of drugs and whether those sources are within a country or are “internationally” based and also the points of distribution and distribution networks. A scientific tool to complement routine law enforcement investigative work in this field is the characterization and impurity profiling and cutting agents of seized drugs. Drug characterization studies have shown that it is possible to link samples, to classify material from different seizures into groups of related samples and to identify the origin of samples. Such information can be used for evidential (judicial, court) purposes or it can be used as a source of intelligence to identify samples that may have a common origin or history.
View complete article: PDF  |  Full-text

Hypoglycemic Potential of Ziziphus spina-christi Fruit on Alloxan induced Hyperglycemic Rats

Hyperglycaemia is a key symptom in diabetes mellitus associated with long term damages, dysfunction and eventually failure of organs, especially the eyes, kidneys, nerves, heart and blood vessels. This study is to evaluate the hypoglycaemic potential of orally administered aqueous and ethanol extracts of Zyziphus spina-christ fruit on alloxan induced hyperglycaemic Wistar rats. The plant was extracted using maceration using aqueous and 80% ethanol as extraction solvents. Qualitative phytochemical analysis was done. An in vitro assessment of both aqueous and ethanol extract to demonstrate hypoglycaemic activity via inhibition of alpha amylase enzyme and alpha glucosidase enzymes were done. Total of 45 albino rats were used in the study of both sexes divided in 9 groups. Group 1: normal control group, group 2: diabetic control group, group 3: positive control group (metformin 300mg/kg), group 4-6: (150mg/kg, 300mg/kg and 600mg/kg) aqueous extract and group 7-9: (150mg/kg, 300mg/kg and 600mg/kg) ethanol extract. Groups were compared using one way ANOVA for significant differences and Dunnet’s posthoc test was deployed were differences exit. Data were represented as mean ± SEM and p value <0.005 The aqueous and ethanol extract yielded 35.59%% and 46.68% respectively. Phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, terpenoids, tannins, Saponins, Saponins glycosides, steroids, Phytosteroids, carbohydrate and volatile oil. An in vitro assessment of aqueous and ethanol extract demonstrated hypoglycaemic activity via inhibition of both alpha amylase enzyme and alpha glucosidase enzymes. The percentage inhibition of alpha amylase was presented as IC50 of 0.14, 0.19 and 0.58 for the acarbose, ethanol extract and aqueous extract respectively. Alpha glucosidase inhibition was represented by the IC50 of 0.7mg/ml, 0.9mg/ml and 0.7mg/ml for acarbose, ethanol extracts and aqueous extracts. The aqueous and ethanol extracts significantly decrease the blood glucose level. Elevation of cholesterol and LDL was seen in diabetic control group. The results from the studies showed that Ziziphus spina-Christi fruit aqueous and ethanol extracts has an anti-hyperglycaemic potential which is not a dose dependent both in Vitro and in Vivo. Ziziphus spina-Christi fruit aqueous and ethanol extract also causes a significant reduction in cholesterol level.
View complete article: PDF  |  Full-text

The Presence of Minority HIV Drug Resistance Variants in The Protease and Gag Regions Confers Poor Response to Therapy Among Subtype A And D Patients

Objective: To determine the prevalence of minority drug resistance variants in the protease and Gag regions among patients failing a protease inhibitor (PI) based regimen with or without a susceptible genotype based on Sanger sequencing technology. Methods: Samples were obtained from patients who were failing on a protease inhibitor-based regimen (n = 500). Sanger based sequencing was performed as part of the standard of care. Mutation analysis was performed using the Stanford HIV drug Resistance database. A subset of these patient samples was grouped into two categories: those failing a PI based with mutations in the protease region (n = 100) and those failing on a PI based regimen without mutations in the protease region (n = 128). These samples were then analyzed in the protease and Gag regions using Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) technology and analysis of the drug resistance mutations was performed at the 20% and 1% cutoffs. Results: An initial analysis of the protease region for patients failing with drug resistance mutations revealed that most patients harbored mutations that confer resistance to Lopinavir and Atazanavir, but these mutations had little effect on Darunavir. Furthermore, NGS revealed that in patients failing with and without drug resistance mutations, minority drug resistance mutations were present at each of the drug resistance codons and at codons that confer multi-drug resistance to protease inhibitors. Further analysis of the Gag gene revealed more genetic diversity among patients failing with no mutations in the protease as evidenced by the proportion of polymorphisms at each codon. Conclusion: Based on Sanger sequencing, a proportion of patients fail a PI based regimen with a susceptible genotype. However, these patients harbor minority variants in the protease and numerous polymorphisms in the Gag region which when combined these could explain their poor response to therapy. Therefore, in order to improve patient care in low resource settings, there is need to adapt NGS as the standard genotyping technique so that minority variants are captured much earlier. In addition, since mutations in the Gag region also play a role in response to PIs, this region should be included in the routine monitoring for response to therapy in patients on a PI based regimen.
View complete article: PDF  |  Full-text

A Rare Case of Albrights Hereditary Osteodystrophy presenting as Recurrent Hypocalcemic Tetany

An internist with an eagle’s eye can diagnose many hidden diseases through careful examination. One such hereditary metabolic disorder is Albright’s Hereditary Osteodystrophy (AHO). Characteristic presentations in an individual affected by AHO were short stature, obesity, mild mental retardation and brachydactyly especially of 4th and 5th digits, which are the phenotypic features of genetic mutation. Pseudohypoparathyroidism (PHP) is characterized by inability of the body to respond appropriately to parathormone, mainly characterized by hypocalcaemia, increased serum parathormone concentration, insensitivity to the biological activity of parathormone and hyperphosphatemia. AHO when seen in association with resistance to parathormone (PTH), it is called PHP. Here is a case report of 22-year-old female patient with AHO with distinctive physical characteristics who presented to us with recurrent hypocalcaemic tetan
View complete article: PDF  |  Full-text

Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever and Rapidly Progressive Glomerulonephritis (RPGN): A New Persuasion

Dengue is a prevalent arthropod-borne viral disease in tropical and subtropical areas of the globe. Dengue clinical manifestations include asymptomatic infections; undifferentiated fever; dengue fever, which is characterized by fever, headache, retro orbital pain, myalgia, and arthralgia; and a severe form of the disease denominated dengue hemorrhagic fever/dengue shock syndrome, characterized by hemoconcentration, thrombocytopenia, and bleeding tendency. However, atypical manifestations, such as liver, central nervous system, and cardiac involvement, have been increasingly reported called expanded dengue syndrome. The renal complications of dengue virus infection cover a wide spectrum of manifestations from acute kidney injury to glomerular injury with nephritic/nephrotic syndrome. Majority of cases remain symptom free and show full recovery. We report a 55 years old lady with atypical and rare presentation of dengue disease marked by rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis. Condition improved after initial 5 days pulse methylprednisolone followed by oral prednisolone therapy and mycophenolate mofetil. The main mechanism of dengue glomerulonephritis is still unknown though both direct viral infection and immune mediated damage have been suggested to be the cause. To avoid otherwise preventable morbidity and mortality, physicians should have a high index of suspicion for renal complications in patients with dengue illness and should manage this accordingly
View complete article: PDF  |  Full-text

Anodic Porous Alumina Array for Cyanine Fluorophore Cy3 Confinement

Self-organized anodic porous alumina films with hexagonal pore lattice have attracted a considerable attention for biological arrays and confinement of various organic probes dyes in solutions. A molecular structure with axial symmetry in bis-heterocyclic indole chains and conjugate system, such as cyanine fluorophore Cy3 dye, was investigated here with respect to its fluorescence when loaded in the anodic alumina pores.
View complete article: PDF  |  Full-text

Recent Developments in Human Odor Detection Technologies

Human odor detection technologies have drawn attention due to the wide possibility of potential applications they open up in areas such as biometrics, criminal investigation and forensics, search for survivors under rubble, and security checkpoint screening. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) has been the most successful and powerful analytical approach developed to date for human odor analysis, and hundreds of human odorants have been identified using this tool.
View complete article: PDF  |  Full-text

Analysis of Sweat Simulant Mixtures using Multiplexed Arrays of DNA-Carbon Nanotube Vapor Sensors

Carbon nanotube (NT) based electronic vapor sensors were tested against synthetic sweat solutions, consisting of 13 volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in saline, in order to probe the device ability to analyze and differentiate vapors derived from complex biological samples.
View complete article: PDF  |  Full-text

Characteristic Human Scent Compounds Trapped on Natural and Synthetic Fabrics as analyzed by SPME-GC/MS

The collection of human odor volatiles is of interest to forensic applications as a path to investigate canine scent discriminations in legal investigations. A study using a selected array of previously identified human odor compounds has been conducted to determine the retention and release capabilities of five (5) natural and synthetic fabric types, cotton (mercerized fabric and gauze matrix), polyester, rayon and wool.
View complete article: PDF  |  Full-text

The Effects of the Film Thickness and Roughness in the Anodization Process of Very Thin Aluminum Films

The anodization of aluminum foils having micrometer thickness is a common process and results in hexagonally self-ordered alumina membranes. However, anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) membranes fabricated from nanometer-thin films present new challenges to the anodization process, since aluminum films adheres poorly on supporting substrates and the smoothness of the film is highly related to the kind of substrate.
View complete article: PDF  |  Full-text

Anodic Oxidation of Titanium in Sulphuric Acid and Phosphoric Acid Electrolytes

Anodisation of pure titanium has been carried out in sulphuric and in phosphoric acid solutions at potentials ranging from 50 to 150V. The SEM and AFM morphological analysis indicates that, within this potential range, oxidation in sulphuric acid solution produces better developed mesoporous oxide layers.
View complete article: PDF  |  Full-text

Fabrication of Ordered Arrays of Anodic Aluminum Oxide Pores with Interpore Distance Smaller than the Pitch of Nano-pits formed by Ion Beam Etching

We investigated a method for preparation of ordered nanopore arrays with the interpore distance of 60 nm by guided self-organization of anodic aluminum oxide with a prepatterned array of pits in the starting Al film.
View complete article: PDF  |  Full-text

Preparation of Large Area Anodic Alumina Membranes and their Application to Thin Film Fuel Cell

The design of an electrochemical reactor for the preparation of self-supported comparatively thin (up to 10 μm) and large area (up to 50 cm2) anodic alumina membranes is described allowing growth of porous alumina at high applied potential (up to 150 V) without burning.
View complete article: PDF  |  Full-text

Fabrication of Vertical Cu2ZnSnS4 Nanowire Arrays by Two-Step Electroplating Method into Anodic Aluminum Oxide Template

Vertical Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) nanowire arrays have been synthesized via two-step electroplating method into anodized aluminum oxide template. For deposition of CZTS nanowires, anodized aluminum oxide (AAO) was used as the growth mask for the growth of the nanowires. AAO templates with hole sizes of 70 nm in diameter were used in the experiments.
View complete article: PDF  |  Full-text


Editorial Board Members Related to pH

SAJAL DAS

Assistant Professor
Department Chemistry
University of North Bengal
Darjeeling
India

Zeliha Selamoglu

Department of Medical Biology
Faculty of Medicine
Nigde Ömer Halisdemir University
Turkey

Yanni Sun

Assistant Professor
Department of Computer Science and Engineering
Michigan State University
United States

Peter Parker

Professor
London Research Institute
United Kingdom

Arif Gulzar

Department of Material Science and Chemical Engineering
Harbin Engineering University
China

Pierre Deviche

Professor of Environmental Physiology
School of Life Sciences
Arizona State University
USA

Clifton L Smith

Professor
Electron Science Research Institute
Edith Cowan University
Australia

Vincenzo Cuomo

Professor
Department of Pharmacology
University of Rome
Italy

Charles J. Malemud

Professor
Department of Medicine and Anatomy
Case Western Reserve University
United States

Yu-Hsuan Joni Shao

Associate professor
Graduate Institute of Biomedical Informatics
Taipei Medical University
Taiwan
Submit Manuscript


Open Access Journals

View All Journals