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Articles Related to pain

An Investigation into the Range of Movement and Forces Involved by the Application of Wrist Flexion Restraint Techniques - Pain Inducing or Not?

Although the use of physical restraint (PR) is accepted, it remains controversial as staff are required to balance professional, ethical and legal tensions between maintaining everyone’s safety, upholding human rights, and minimising harm. One such tension relates to the use of Wrist Flexion Techniques (WFT) used in some health, social care and custodial settings. WFT impose load onto the musculoskeletal structures of the wrist to gain control or compliance from a restrained person, and can result in discomfort, pain, injury, psychological trauma and be detrimental to therapeutic relationships. Current evidence and guidance on WFT are absent with debate existing as to whether WFT can be used without inducing pain. Twenty adults participated in the study. The mean discomfort angle was 90.1° (± 8.6) of flexion with 2.8 Kg (± 1.1) of force, and the mean pain angle was and 98.4° (± 7.9) of flexion with 4.4 Kg (± 1.8) of force, therefore only 8.3° of movement and 1.6 Kg of force separate pain free from pain inducing WFT. Genders did not differ in relation to angle of discomfort or pain. Females experienced discomfort with 1.1Kg less force (p = 0.021) and experienced pain with 1.7Kg less force (p = 0.023). This research challenges the assertion that WFT can exist as non-pain inducing and pain inducing PR techniques since the margin between them may be too small for practitioners to discriminate, particularly during the struggle of real world restraint. Further research may consider other potential pain inducing techniques, and the role and use of PIT during restraint.
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Is it Just Shoulder Pain or Insidious Foot Step of Parkinson’S Disease? A Minireview of the Literature

Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a chronic, disabling hypokinetic movement disorder with a broad spectrum of symptomatology including motor and non-motor complaints. Since non-motor symptoms of the disease such as musculoskeletal pain including shoulder pain is often underestimated, and is prone to occur during the course of the disease, as well as the prodromal phase of PD, it is important to keep in mind that shoulder pain may be a foot step of an evolving PD, and may need further investigation in terms of PD.
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Prevalence of Low Back Pain among Higher Secondary School Teachers of Kanpur, India

Low back pain is a global health issue, potentially affecting the individual’s functionality in daily life. Teaching is regarded as a human service occupation and in recent years it is been identified as a highly stressful occupation.
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Impact of Inverted Interrupted Skin Suturing Versus Continous Suturing in Episiotomy on Postpartum Pain in Primigravida

Episiotomy is an incision that is made in perineum at the end of part of second stage of delivery. There are Long term sequels of episiotomy repair. A considerable number of ladies complains from perineal pain and up to twenty percent have long term complications e.g., dyspareunia [1]. The best method for repairing episiotomy is the method that isnot time consuming and lesser materials and causes lesser pain in the immediate and long term periods.
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The Use of Gingipain DNA Vaccine Against Virulence of Porphyromonas Gingivalis: A Literature Review

Porphyromonas gingivalis (P. gingivalis) is a primary etiologic agent of generalized aggressive and chronic forms of periodontitis. It releases toxins called ‘gingipains’.Gingipains, (Arginine-and Lysine-specific cysteine proteinases) are proteases that are critical virulence factors in progression of periodontitis and degradation of cytokines expressed during inflammation. HRgpA and RgpB (products of two distinct but related genes) induce vascular permeability by activation of the kallikrein/kinin pathway and activating the blood coagulation system which in turn induces gingival crevicular fluid production and progression of inflammation leading to alveolar bone loss.
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Management-of-Postoperative-Pain-in-Patients-Undergoing-Surgery-for-Mandibular-Fracture

The mandible is one of the most frequently fractured bones in the facial skeleton. Postoperative pain control is an important outcome in assessing overall treatment success and patient satisfaction. However, few focused studies have reviewed protocols for postoperative pain management in patients with mandibular trauma. The aim of this study is to evaluate the protocol for the management of postoperative pain in patients undergoing surgery for a mandibular fracture in our department.
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A Randomized Double-Blind Placebo Controlled Clinical Trial Evaluating the Effects of an Investigational Study Product on Exercise Induced Muscle Soreness, Markers of Inflammation, Muscle Damage and Exercise Performance in Healthy Males

Gherkin, a pure botanical extract from cucumber is a phytonutrient rich vegetable which may have been shown to have anti-inflammatory and pain relieving properties. The purpose of this randomized double-blind placebo study was to determine the effects of Gherkin (Cuvitus™, Actido®)on exercise performance, markers of inflammation and acute muscle soreness in healthy males.
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Chronic Pain – Can It Be Cured?

Chronic pain is currently treated with several drugs and therapies that can be helpful, but usually do not cure chronic pain. In fact, many drug therapies make the pain worse or are toxic to the patient. Chronic pain treatment frequently involves oral or injected drugs because the perception is that chronic pain comes from an internal source. Chronic pain, and all other forms of pain, should be treated in the skin. Mechanisms of induction of chronic pain will be discussed and skin targets for the treatment and cure of chronic pain will be presented.
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Update on the Importance of Medical Education in the Changing Field of Pain Medicine

Chronic pain is a pandemic that has spawned the disproportionate opioid epidemic of overuse and overprescription in the United States. This challenge warrants review of physician education and curriculum to become more effective in pain management. Our current system for educating present and future physicians, as well as pain specialists, is flawed in a number of ways. The vast majority of physicians will encounter and manage chronic pain patients during their careers, but reviews have demonstrated dissatisfaction among medical students and practitioners with pain education and curriculum.
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Treatment of Chronic Back Pain with Radiculopathy by Selective Nerve Root Block or Pulsed Radiofrequency - Randomised, Open Label, Clinical Trial

Lumbosacral radicular pain (LRP) is a common symptom, its annual prevalence in the general population is reported to be from 9.9% to 25% and it is characterized by a shooting, radiating pain to one or more dermatomes, which is often caused by irritation of the corresponding nerve root. The initial treatment should be conservative with oral medications, exercise, and physiotherapy. When conservative treatments fail, epidural steroid injections and other interventional treatments should be considered. Surgical interventions are indicated when all other treatments have failed.
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Fatal road accidents in Spain: psychoactive substances in killed drivers in 2014

Road traffic accidents (RTAs) are often related to impairment by alcohol or drugs. The objectives of this study is to present toxicological data on drivers killed in traffic accidents in Spain in 2014 from a sample of 614 drivers and 240 (out of 614) with positive results for alcohol, illicit drugs and psychoactive medicinal drugs.
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Case Report of Severe Preeclampsia and Associated Postpartum Complications

Preeclampsia is clinically defined by hypertension and proteinuria, with or without pathologic edema that occurs after 20 weeks’ gestation, but can also present up to 4-6 weeks post-partum. Worldwide, incidence of preeclampsia is 5-14 percent of all pregnancies, while severe preeclampsia can develop to about 25 percent of all cases of preeclampsia.
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Serum Haptoglobin Responses following Rumenotomy in the Sahel Goat

Fifteen Sahel goats were randomly allocated into three groups A, B and C to evaluate Serum Haptoglobin (Hp) profiles following rumenotomy as markers of surgical stress using Quantitative ELISA.
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Hepatic Dysfunction as Presenting Manifestation of Hodgkin’s lymphoma

Hepatic dysfunction is rarely the presenting feature of malignancy, however it is important to recognize early on as the quick institution of chemotherapy could potentially reverse the liver disease.
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Unusual Presentation of Flexor Tendon Sheath Massive Ganglion

We report a unusual case of a flexor tendon sheath ganglion in a 78 years old, right hand dominant female presented with right little finger large multiloculated swelling involving the whole volar aspect of the little finger leaving the patient with fears of malignancy, swollen finger with limited mobility and distal tip numbness.
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Editorial Board Members Related to pain

Alfonso Caracuel

Assistant Professor
Department of Psychology and Education
University of Granada
Spain

Somchai Amornyotin

Professor
Department of Anesthesiology
Mahidol University
Thailand

Rafael Luque

Professor
Department of Organic Chemistry
University of Cordoba
Spain

Michael P. Namaka

Associate Professor
Faculty of Pharmacy and Medicine
University of Manitoba
Canada

Tao Liu

Children's Cancer Institute
University of New South Wales
Australia

Andreu Palou

Professor
Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Nutrition and Biotechnology
University of the Balearic Islands
Spain

Ana Rita Ramalho Figueiras

Faculty of Pharmacy
University of Coimbra
Portugal

ZAHID AKHTAR RAO

Associate Professor
Department of Anesthesiology, Pain and Intensive care
Bahria University Medical & Dental College
Pakistan

Martin A. Katzman

Clinic Director and Staff Psychiatrist
START Clinic for Mood and Anxiety Disorders
Canada

Roberto de la Plaza Llamas

Department of Surgery
Hospital Universitario de Guadalajara
Spain
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