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Articles Related to pathogen

Estimation of Pathogen Proportions of Infectious Diseases: Models, Approaches and Evaluations

Attribution of etiology for disease syndromes is critical to guide appropriate public health interventions. Partial latent class analysis model (pLCM) methods have recently been developed to address this area of research; however, model parameters, assumptions, and performance are not well understood for the general etiology problem.
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The Roles of IL-33 and TGF-Β1 in the Pathogenesis of Stevens-Johnson Syndrome/ Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis: Potential Biomarkers for Disease Severity

MicroscopyStevens-Johnson syndrome/toxic epidermal necrolysis (SJS/TEN) is a disease continuum of potentially life threatening, severe allergic drug reactions which result in cellular apoptosis in the skin, mucous membranes, and ocular surface. The exact pathophysiologic mechanisms leading to this apoptosis is unclear but genetic predisposition and abnormal immune regulations play a role.
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Prevalence of Mastitis and Associated risk factors in Jimma Town Dairy Farms, Western Ethiopia

Across sectional study of epidemiological risk factors and associated bacterial pathogens was conducted on 216 lactating dairy cows in jimma town from Oct. 2016 to April 2017 to determine the overall prevalence rate, associated bacterial pathogens and to assess effect of risk factors on prevalence of mastitis. Upon physical examination of udder and teats the prevalence of clinical mastitis was 2.3% at cow level and 0.96% at quarter level. Using the California mastitis test (CMT) for detection of sub clinical mastitis, the prevalence of sub clinical mastitis at cow level and quarter level was 60.65 and 38.4% respectively. The overall prevalence of mastitis was 62.96. Out of 323 (38.4%) CMT positive quarters with evidence of sub clinical mastitis, the quarter infection rate for the right rare quarter was highest (41.3%) followed by left rear (38.8%), right and left front (each 36.7%). Up on microbiological examination of milk samples for both clinical and subclinical quarters, out of a total of 331 cultured, 271(81.9%) yielded bacteria whereas 60(18.1%) yielded no bacteria. A total of 263 bacterial pathogens were isolated whereas 8 were mixed infections with more than two different colonies. The main bacterial pathogens isolated were coagulase negative staphylococci (CNS) (26.6 %), Staphylococcus aureus (24.7%), Escherichia coli (13.31%), Streptococcus species (9.13%), and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (8.8%). Other bacteria isolated with low isolation rate were micrococcus species (3.04%), Corynebacterium species (3.4%), Actinomyces pyogenes (3.8%), Bacillus species (3.42%) and other gram negative rods (3.8%). Host factors such as breed, age parity and lactation stage had significant effect on the prevalence of mastitis (p‹0.05). Managemental and environmental factors such as bedding, ventilation, frequency of barn cleaning, udder washing and use of communal towel had significant effect on the occurrence of mastitis (p‹0.05). Whereas milking practice, drainage had insignificant effect on the prevalence of mastitis (p›0.05).
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Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans) Used as a Whole Model Organism to Identify New Anti-Infectives Therapeutic Agent for MRSA Pathogens - A Review Paper

Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is one of the greatest fears with the number of serious infections on human health regarding antibiotic resistance. It causes a wide range of infections and bacteremia, ranging from inconsequential superficial skin infections, wound suppuration, even pneumonia or deep-seated tissue infections, which may lead to sepsis and fatalities.
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Dawn of the Biofilm Disease: Highlights about Biofilm in Bone and Joint & Prosthetic Joint Infections Pathogenesis, Diagnosis and Treatment

I present some key considerations of the biofilm disease as part of two complex pathologies such as bone and joint infections and prosthetic joint infections, taking into account the bacterial pathogenic factors to understand the particular nature of these infections, and to achieve an accurate diagnosis and management beyond the antimicrobial therapy. I mention some personal experience of many years in the medical microbiology laboratory and next to the patient’s bed.
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United States Air Force Academy: Identifying Areas at Risk for the Persistence of Plague using the Bioagent Transport and Environmental Modeling System (BioTEMS)

Introduction: Yersinia pestis, the etiologic agent of plague, has caused major pandemics in human history and continues to be both a natural and bioterrorist threat to human populations. Plague exists in nature in either an epidemic or enzootic state. Geographic models of the epidemic state have primarily been developed using flea and reservoir species, however little is known of the enzootic state and potential cryptic reservoir species and few endemic models have been produced.
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A Study of Immune Response in Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) Fed Levamisole Incorporated Diet

This study was undertaken to evaluate the influence of levamisole on the immune enhancement of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) against potential bacterial pathogens, Fish with weight of 98±5 g were randomly distributed into seven groups each at a rate of 20 fish per 300-L aquarium and fed on a diet containing 0.0, 250, 500, 750, 1000, 1250 or 1500 mg levamisole/kg diet for eight weeks.
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Isolation and Identification of Lactic Acid Bacteria from Algerian Durum Wheat (Triticum Durum) Natural Fermented in Underground Silos Matmora “El-Hammoum” and their Antimicrobial Activity Again Pathogenic Germs

In human nutrition, cereals constitute the basis of the food pyramid. In Algeria, storage of durum wheat (triticum durum) performs in underground silos matmour in some rural areas, these traditional methods rather simple conservation is an alternative for small producers; but starts to disappear because of settlement of the farming populations in the urban areas.
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Bacteriological Quality of Milk in Raw Bovine Bulk Milk in the Selected Milk Collection Centers: Smallholder Dairy Processing Ethiopia

Cross-sectional study was conducted to examine and identify quality of raw bovine milk from in Arsi Zone and East Shewa Zone, in Oromia, Ethiopia. The purpose of the study was to assess hygienic practices during milking, milk collection and bacteriological quality of cow’s milk in Arsi and East Shewa Zones milk collection centers.
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Antifungal Potential in Crude Extracts of Five Selected Brown Seaweeds Collected from the Western Libya Coast

The present study confirms the potential use of seaweed extracts as a source of antifungal compound and may constitute a basis for promising future applied research that could investigate the use of seaweeds.
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Immunodeficiency and Microbial Infections

Immunodeficiency refers to failure of immune system to encounter infections by different microbial pathogens such as fungi, bacteria, viruses and protozoan. This is called acquired or secondary immunodeficiency syndrome (SIS).
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Extraction of Mastitis Pathogen DNA from Sample Collecting Cards: Practical Consequences

Shipment of liquid milk samples for bacteriological examination is a limitation to large scale epidemiological studies. Sampling bulk tank milk (BTM) with sample collection cards (WhatmanTM FTATMMiniCard) was identified as an interesting procedure to ease sample collection and shipment.
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Osteomyelitis of the Hip secondary to Aspergillus fumigatus - A Case Report and Comprehensive Review of the Literature

Aspergillus infection in an immunocompetent human host is a rare entity. In most cases it presents as an opportunistic pathogen in immunocompromised patients. The portal of entry is usually the respiratory tract or direct inoculation of the organism to the site. Aspergillus osteomyelitis is a debilitating and severe form of Invasive Aspergillosis.
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Reduction of Bitterness and Enhancing Palatability of Cetirizine Oral Liquid Dosage Forms by Cyclodextrins

The aim of this manuscript is to study cyclodextrins (CDs) as a potential excipient to suppress bitterness and enhance palatability of pediatric liquid preparations for Cetirizine, an extremely bitter drug. Natural α, β and γ CDs; and β CD derivatives such as hydroxyl propyl (HP), randomly methylated (RM) and sulfobutyl ether (SBE) β-CDs were screened in different molar ratios of 1:1, 1:2 and 1:3 for their inhibition of the extremely bitter taste of Cetirizine using the human gustatory sensation test.
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Surgical Wound Management in Dogs using an Improved Stable Chlorine Dioxide Antiseptic Solution.

Three surgical case reports are presented to demonstrate the clinical efficacy of using an improved aqueous solution of chlorine dioxide complex (160 ppm) as a topical antiseptic in the post operative management of serious wounds in dogs. In vitro studies are included to demonstrate the antiseptic properties of this new chlorine dioxide complex.
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Editorial Board Members Related to pathogen

LEONID B. MARGOLIS

Visiting Professor
Ilia University
Republic of Georgia
Georgia

Nandadulal Bairagi

Associate Professor
Centre for Mathematical Biology and Ecology
Jadavpur University
India

Mamatha Ballal

Professor
Melaka Manipal Medical College
Manipal University
India

Sameh S.M. Soliman

Assistant Professor
Department of Medicinal Chemistry
University of Sharjah
UAE

Emmanuel Andres

Professor
Department of Internal Medicine
University Hospital of Strasbourg
France

Frank Portugal

Associate Professor
Department of Biology
The Catholic University of America
United States

Kelly A Brayton

Associate Professor
Department of Veterinary Microbiology & Pathology
Washington State University
United States

VICTORIA J VIEIRA-POTTER

Assistant Professor
Department of Nutrition and Exercise Physiology
University of Missouri
United States

PERNG GUEY CHUEN

Associate Professor
Department of Microbiology and Immunology
National Cheng Kung University
Taiwan

Jayasimha Rao

Associate Professor
Jefferson College of Health Sciences
Department of Medicine
USA
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