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Trends in Thyroid Malignancies in Accra Ghana: A Retrospective Histopathological Review in the Department of Pathology (1994-2013), Korle-Bu Teaching Hospital

Malignancies of the thyroid gland are common in certain parts of the world. In Ghana there are no available data on the trends and gender characteristics of thyroid malignancies (TMs). The aim of this retrospective study was to determine the trends and gender characteristics of TMs in the Department of Pathology.
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Assessment of the Efficacy, Safety and Cost-Effectiveness of Micafungin Compared to Caspofungin and Low Dose Liposomal Amphotericin B for the Treatment of Candidaemia and Clinically Diagnosed Invasive Candidiasis: A Retrospective Audit

Despite several studies having highlighted that candidaemia and invasive fungal disease (IFD) are associated with high mortality and increased costs, there are currently few published studies which provide an insight into real-life practice of invasive candidal diseases. In a medium-sized district general hospital in the UK we sought to compare the efficacy, safety and treatment cost of micafungin versus caspofungin and low dose of liposomal amphotericin B (L-AmB) 1mg/kg/day for the treatment of confirmed candidaemia or clinically diagnosed invasive fungal disease (CDIFD). In the present retrospective audit, a total of 126 patients with candidaemia or CDIFD were reviewed from hospital records and 94 were included in our audit.
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Retrospective Analysis of 185 Occurrences of Clinical Neurological Signs in 181 South American Camelids

Medical records of each occurrence of neurologic signs in 181 South American Camelids admitted on 185 occasions (90 alpacas and 95 llamas) were evaluated. Age ranged from 0 days to 20 years, but 70.5% of cases were ≥ 1 year old. Specific clinical diagnosis was achieved by cerebrospinal fluid analysis (CSF), radiographs, computed tomography, laboratory testing, or necropsy in 74% of cases. 54% of cases survived; 46% of cases died or were euthanized. The most common diagnosis (31%) was parasitic myelopathy/encephalopathy (PME). CSF eosinophilia ≥10% was found in 85% of parasitic spinal migrations but only in 55% of intracranial migrations, and 73% had increased protein in CSF. There was a seasonal bias for PME with 79% of cases occurring between October and March. Survival of PME cases was 77% for spinal migration but only 7% when intracranial migration occurred. The most common diagnoses, excluding PME, were infectious disease (15%) and trauma (12%). Most trauma cases involved the cervical spine of which 50% survived.
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Does the Level of Chlamydia Serology Titre Correlate to the Degree of Tubal Disease at Laparoscopy? A Retrospective Controlled Study

In order to detect if there is any correlation between the level of total and specific Chlamydia serology titre and the degree of tubal disease at laparoscopy in sub fertile women and to compare the results with a control group. A retrospective controlled clinical study was conducted in a hospital setting (both inpatient and outpatient clinic). A total of hundred and twenty two sub fertile women who underwent laparoscopy/tubal surgery in the period between January 2011-January 2014 were included. This included 40 women with positive Chlamydia Trachomatis specific titre (group 1), 40 with positive Chlamydia serology total titre only (group 2) and 42 women with negative Chlamydia serology titre (control group). Chlamydia serology titre was measured by ELISA. The differentiated Chlamydia specific titres were measured using Microscopic Immunofluorescence Assay (MIF) to determine the immunity status. The Chlamydia Trachomatis IgG titres were classified for the purpose of the study into normal (<1/16), Mild (1/16), Moderate (1/32), and severe (>=1/64). Laparoscopic grading of tubal disease was performed into grades 1-3 according to the severity of the tubal damage which was compared to the Chlamydia titre. Pearson`s correlation test was used as a descriptive measure.
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Compliance in the Duration of Administration of Anticancer Chemotherapy: Comparative Study of Two Different Administration Modalities (PVC versus IVAD)

Objective: To evaluate the compliance of chemotherapy administration duration by comparing the peripheral venous catheter (PVC) route with the implantable venous access device (IVAD).Keywords: Chemotherapy; Gravity perfusion; Peripheral venous; Implantable venous access deviceIntroduction Methods: This was a retrospective study that analyzed 566 cycles of chemotherapy administered by PVC at the Cancer Unit of Yalgado Ouédraogo University Hospital and 258 cycles administered by IVAD at the Oncology Department of Treichville University Hospital in Abidjan. We compared the differences between the programmed duration of chemotherapy and the actual duration of administration according to the two routes of administration.
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Irrational Anti-Retroviral Therapy Prescription among Children Under 15 Years in Eastern Uganda

Highly Active Anti-Retroviral Therapy (HAART) has transformed HIV/AIDS into a manageable chronic illness with HIVinfected children having near-normal growth milestones as a result of virologic control and immunologic reconstitution.
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Historical Perspective of Dharwad Forensic Mental Health Services during Pre-Independence Era: A Retrospective Study

Background: History of forensic mental health services provide knowledge regarding its evolution that has undergone tremendous changes over the past two centuries. Aim: To study the forensic mental health services and management of psychiatric patients during pre-independence era. Settings and Design: Retrospective, hospital based chart-review and descriptive study. Methods and Materials: Medical records of 85 cases preserved with the 170-year old psychiatric institute were retrieved to study the variables related to socio-demographic characteristics, family background, clinical profile, treatment methods, admission-discharge procedures, and mortality by retrospective chart-review method. Data was analysed using descriptive statistical measures with significance of P<0.05.
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Retrospective Drug Use pattern of Antibiotics in Pediatric Ward of Shenan Gibe Hospital, Oromia Region, Ethiopia

Antibiotics are one of the most widely used groups of drugs. The development of antimicrobial drugs represents one of the most important advances in therapeutics. Irrational and uncontrolled use of these agents both in developing and developed countries has resulted in an evolution of resistant strains in addition to a poor health outcome. Despite this fact, antimicrobial agents are vastly over-prescribed in the inpatient setting and the availability of antimicrobial agents without prescription in many developing countries. The use antimicrobial agents in Infants and children have become a routine practice for the treatment of pediatric illness and it needs study to show the status and pattern of antimicrobial in this age group is critical hence they are most vulnerable population groups to counteract illness
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Syncope in Chronic Constitutional Hypotension: Gender based Retrospective observational study in symptomatic women

The association between chronic constitutional hypotension (CCH) and symptoms is uncertain both as pathophysiological correlation as a statistical link. The study was undertaken in order to investigate the existence of a significant association between CCH and symptoms and identify the most represented ones.
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Retinoblastoma: A Retrospective Study of 27 Cases in University Hospital of Lubumbashi-RDC

We conducted a retrospective study on 27children with retinoblastoma in the Lubumbashi University Hospital between January 2008 and October 2012. Al cases were diagnosis clinically and 11 cases were confirmed by histology.
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Gastroesophageal Cancer: Prognostic Factors and Treatment Results

The study presents the remote results of surgical treatment of 329 patients with cancer of gastroesophageal localization. Three 3-year survival rate is 37.1%, the 5-year survival rate is 26.2%. Prognosis after the surgery depends primarily on the extent of the tumour spread.
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Association between Delay in Surgical Treatment and Perforation in Acute Appendicitis

Acute appendicitis is a prevalent emergency surgical pathology and without prompt intervention may lead to gangrene, perforation and death. Increased mortality and morbidity will increase the hospital stay and the costs. We aimed to see the association between surgical treatment and perforation.
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Age Adjusted Charlson Comorbidity Index: Predictor of 90-Day Mortality after Radical Cystectomy

To evaluate the impact of age adjusted Charlson’s comorbidity index (ACCI) in predicting 90-day mortality in patients undergoing radical cystectomy for Muscle Invasive Bladder Cancer (MIBC) in a low volume center.
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Candidate Selection, Determinant Factor for a Good Result in Cardiac Retransplantation: our Experience

Cardiac retransplantation is the standard treatment for patients with advanced graft vasculopathy. It remains controversial due to the scarcity of donors and poor results when compared with the novo transplant.
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Surgical Outcome of Cubital Tunnel Syndrome Using the MHQ and DASH: A Retrospective Patient-Reported Assessment

In German speaking countries the cubital tunnel syndrome (CUTS) is better known as sulcus nervi ulnaris syndrome. Next to the carpal tunnel syndrome, it is the second most common neuropathic compression disease in the upper limb [1]. Due to the anatomical positioning of the ulnar nerve at the dorsal area of the elbow, it is located in a vulnerable area where it is exposed to stretch and compression forces in the ulnar nerve sulcus.
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