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Articles Related to review

Gangliocytic Paraganglioma of the Appendix; A Rare Case Report and Review

Gangliocytic paraganglioma (GP) (nonchromaffin paraganglioma, paraganglioma) is a morphologically distinct tumor most commonly occurring in the second part of the duodenum in the proximity of ampulla of Vater. We herein, present a case report of appendiceal mass in a 16-year-old male who presented with recurrent right iliac fossa pain and steno sing cecal tumor on CT abdomen. He underwent right hemicolectomy and histopathological examination of appendix showed infiltration of appendiceal wall with gangliocytic paraganglioma. To our knowledge this is the first reported case of gangliocytic paraganglioma of appendix in our area.
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An Unexpected Diagnosis of Plasmacytoma of The Thyroid: A Case Report and Review of The Literature

Plasmacytoma is a malignant proliferation of plasma cells that can arise in the bone marrow (osseous) and in the soft tissues. Extramedullary plasmacytomas most commonly occur in the upper respiratory tract. Thyroid involvement is rare. In this report, we describe a new case plasmacytoma of the thyroid gland in a 60-year-old man with a history of multinodular goiter present for several years and an unexpected rapid increase of the mass associated to dysphagia, dyspnea, and dysphonia. Histopathological examination of surgical specimen, along with immunohistochemical studies, unexpectedly led to the diagnosis of plasmacytoma. We also briefly summarize the last 30 years of literature on thyroid plasmacytoma and review the salient characteristics of this rare condition.
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Rare Heterozygous PCSK1 Variants in Human Obesity: The Contribution of the P. Y181H Variant and a Literature Review

Deficiency of proprotein convertase 1/3 (PC1/3), is a known cause of monogenic obesity. This protein is encoded by the proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 1 (PCSK1) gene and PC1/3 deficiency patients carry either homozygous or compound heterozygous PCSK1 variants. Previously, it was also reported that heterozygous PCSK1 variants, causing partial PC1/3 deficiency, resulted in a significant increased risk for obesity. This effect was almost exclusively generated by the rare p.Y181H (rs145592525, GRCh38.p13 NM_000439.5: c.541T>C) variant, which was shown to affect proper PC1/3 maturation but not its enzymatic capacity. As most of the identified individuals with the heterozygous p.Y181H variant were of Belgian origin, we performed a follow-up study in a population of 481 children and adolescents with obesity, and 486 healthy and lean individuals, recruited from Belgian hospitals. We identified three obese (0.62%) and four lean (0.82%) p.Y181H carriers (p = 0.506), indicating no association of the variant with obesity. Next, haplotype analysis was performed in 13 p.Y181H carriers, 20 non-carriers (10 with obesity and 10 lean) and two p.Y181H families. All heterozygous carriers were found to share the same haplotype (p < 0.001). Together with the higher frequency of this variant in Central European populations and the notably high frequency in the Belgian population, this indicates a possible founder effect for the p.Y181H variant. State-of-the-art literature concerning the role of rare heterozygous PCSK1 variants similarly implies them to be rarely associated to monogenic obesity, as first-degree carrier relatives of patients with PC1/3 deficiency are mostly not reported to be obese. Furthermore, recent meta-analyses have only indicated a robust association for scarce disruptive heterozygous PCSK1 variants with obesity, while clinical significance is less or sometimes lacking for most nonsynonymous PCSK1 variants.
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A Retrospective Analysis of 25 cases of Addisons Disease Caused by Adrenal Tuberculosis in Tibet and Review of Related Literature

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Progressive Supranuclear Palsy with Classic Radiological Signs: A Case Report and Literature Review

Progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) is a rare neurodegenerative parkinsonian syndrome with distinct clinical features which tends to be progressive, causing vertical supranuclear gaze palsy, frontal lobe cognitive decline, postural instability and progressive axial rigidity. Clinical examination typically reveals ocular motor dysfunction including restricted vertical gaze, slow vertical saccades and “eyelid opening apraxia” with intact vestibule ocular reflex. PSP falls under the rubric of Parkinsonism plus syndromes that are a group of heterogeneous degenerative neurological disorders that differ from the classical idiopathic Parkinson’s disease. PSP is often underreported, making it important for clinicians to be aware of this disorder. Here we report a case of PSP, which presented primarily with speech disturbances and recurrent falls due to postural instability. On investigating, the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed a classical sign diagnostic of PSP. This teaching case report describes management and prognosis of the disease
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Psychoactive Drugs Induced DNA Damage: A Review

Psychoactive substances, also known as psychotropic substances are substances that alter the mental state of a person by affecting the way the nervous system and brain work [1]. Psychoactive substances can cause intoxication and this is generally the major reason why most individuals engage in their use. Individuals who take psychoactive substances experience changes in brain function which alter their mood, consciousness, and/or perceptions. Psychoactive substances are present in different medications, alcohol, plants, and animals [2], many, but not all of which are addictive [1]. The most common psychoactive drugs used by people to alter their mental state are caffeine and alcohol [3]. Although they are available legally, yet, they are harmful both psychologically and physically when used in excess. Usually, the decision of how and when to use these psychoactive drugs is left to the individuals [3], however, in certain situations, the drugs are used for exploitation of others by the alteration of their mental state. For example, Rohypnol has been used as a date-rape [4]. Some of the psychoactive drugs are very unpleasant making the users quit their use. This is the case in certain classic psychedelics (e.g., psilocybin), powerful dissociatives (e.g., Salvia divinorum), and deliriants (e.g., Jimson weed) [5]. Addiction and dependence resulting from the misuse of psychoactive drugs have led to moral debate and legal measures, while governmental controls on prescription, supply, and manufacture have been efforts made to minimize the additive use of these drugs. Also, ethical concerns exist about the marketing of these drugs by manufacturers and their clinical over-use. However, in some countries, there are ongoing popular campaigns geared towards legalizing and decriminalizing the use of some recreational drugs such as cannabis. Many individual, genetic and environmental factors have been reported to work individually or synergistically to decrease or increase the probability that an individual will use a psychoactive drug and to what extent [6]. This review aimed at updating information on the different uses of various psychoactive drugs by humans, the different effects on the biological system, and their reported DNA damaging potential in simulated and real-life scenarios.
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A Review Study on Gender Determination with the Help of Bite Marks Analysis

Bite marks are commonly observed in cases such as slaughter, sexual assault, child abuse cases, and during sports events. Bitemark is a type of ‘patterned injury’ which played an important role as evidence in judicial system. Bite marks can find on various body parts and various edible leftovers at the Crime Scene which can be used as evidence for identification of the criminals. Teeth impression shows sexual dimorphism and therefore helps in gender estimation. The various dental characteristics are individual-specific. A piece of exhaustive information and examination of indentations can help in the vindication of the guiltless as well as give decisive proof to the conviction of criminals. In certain violations, indentation proof is the main proof on which conviction has been accomplished, especially in rape and kid abuse cases. The present review describes the importance of bite mark analysis, estimation of gender through bite marks, and stability of teeth impression in diverse conditions. This article can give a better comprehension of the methodology used in forensic dentistry when investigating dental impressions.
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A Review Study on Adulteration in Bakery Goods

Adulteration in packed bakery products is done by making the product impure or altering its original form by adding materials or elements that are not usually part of it, especially inferior ones. It is finished by making the item debased or modifying its unique structure by adding materials or components that are not as a rule part of it, particularly mediocre ones [1]. It very well may be done deliberately by eliminating substances from food or inadvertently because of obliviousness, imprudence or absence of offices for keeping up with the nature of food. Potassium bromate is a flour improver that goes probably as a creating trained professional. Potassium bromates changes over into potassium bromide at high temperature during the baking framework [3]. Regardless, in case an abundance of is added, then again accepting the bread isn’t warmed long enough or not at an adequately high temperature, then, an extra total stay in the cake kitchen things, which may be dangerous at whatever point gobbled up [2]. It can cause stomach torture, free entrails, nausea, hurling, kidney dissatisfaction, oligonuria, anuria, deafness, dazedness, and hypotension, Detection is finished by spectrophotometric technique, IC/Mass spectrometry gives identification, Ion Chromatography (IC), High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) Synthetic tones in prepared merchandise Blue. #1 (Brilliant Blue) caused kidney growths in mice. Red.#3 (Erythrosine) Recognized as a thyroid cancer-causing agent in creatures. Red.#40 (Allura Red) speeds up the presence of invulnerable framework cancers in mice. It additionally causes extreme touchiness (sensitivity like) responses in certain purchasers and might trigger hyperactivity in youngsters. Yellow. #5 (Tartrazine) causes serious excessive responses. Yellow. #6 (Sunset Yellow) Caused adrenal growths in creatures and sporadically causes extreme responses. Distinguishing proof of engineered food colors corruption by paper chromatography and spectrophotometric strategies. In Adulterated chocolate two defilements are utilized arrowroot and dim rye flour distinguished by Near-Infrared (NIR) spectroscopy [14].
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Benefits and Health Risks Associated with Energy Booster Drinks: A Review Study

There are several energy drinks available in the market such as Red Bull, Sting, Rebound, Power Up! Triple X Energy Drink, and so on. After the Red Bull drink was introduced in the market in1990s, Energy drinks started to gain popularity and afterwards it became a common name especially among teenagers and young adults [1]. Most energy drinks are caffeinated nonindulgent beverages that are professed to give an additional increase in energy for day-by-day work, increase alertness, and improve athletic performance and mood. There are even certain shreds of evidence present to substantiate these claims, but the effects of these drinks on mental and physical health cannot be neglected. There are reports of adverse events such as insomnia, anxiety, cardiovascular events, seizures, tachycardia, type-2 diabetes, and even death are associated with the consumption of these drinks [2]. This review will focus on energy drinks, their ingredients, health risks associated with these drinks, and will also suggest some recommendations such as changes in marketing, providing education to children regarding adverse effects of these drinks, and further research should be carried out in this domain.
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Relationship between Vitamin D Status and Tic Disorder: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Observational Studies

This study was conducted to summarize the published observational data on the relationship between vitamin D status and the likelihood of TD. Methods: A systematic research on published articles until June 2021 was conducted in PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, the Cochrane Library, CNKI, WangFang database and VIP database.
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Characterizing the Etiologies of Seizures and Cortical Myoclonic Activity in Covid-19 Patients and their Impact on Outcomes

Systematic literature review was conducted. Criteria included seizures, status epilepticus, and/or CMA developing prior to or during hospitalization, with concomitant COVID-19. COVID-19 severity was dichotomized into mild and severe cases, based on severity of respiratory symptoms. Good outcome was defined as discharge without severe deficits and/or return to near baseline.
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A Novel Coenzyme Q8A Mutation in a Case with Juvenile-Onset Coenzyme Q10D4: Case Report and Literature Review

Primary coenzyme Q10 deficiency-4 (CoQ10D4) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by childhood-onset of cerebellar ataxia and exercise intolerance. Molecular pathology responsible for clinical findings is mitochondrial respiratory chain dysfunction. The main clinical manifestation involves early-onset exercise intolerance, progressive cerebellar ataxia and movement disorders. Some affected individuals develop seizures and have mild mental impairment, indicating variable severity.
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Liquorice-Induced Pseudohyperaldosteronism with Severe Hypokalaemia in a Young Patient Living with HIV: A Rare Case Presentation and Literature Review

HIV-1 infection treatment has greatly improved with the availability of combined antiretroviral therapy (cART). Unlike Tenofovir Disoproxil Fumarate, Tenofovir Alafenamide has a more favourable renal profile, even if proximal tubulopathy and electrolyte disturbances have been reported. As earlier as 4000 years ago, liquorice root was used for some medical treatments. Excessive liquorice intake is described to cause a state of mineralocorticoid excess. However, liquorice-induced hypokalaemia usually occurs with mild clinical manifestations and a severe presentation is rare.
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Diverse Feed, Diverse Benefits - The Multiple Roles of Feed Diversity at Pasture on Ruminant Livestock Production - a Review

Several scientists called for a new paradigm in animal nutrition by implementing feed diversity in otherwise homogeneously fed livestock production systems as former was shown to have a notable impact on animal productivity and health and the ecological footprint thereby decrease concerns regarding global food security from a societal perspective. However, there are no specific definitions and no threshold values available, so far, for desired grazed grassland feed diversity levels on pastures that enable envisaged sustainable ruminant livestock production and possibly the production of animal products with particular human health-values. Therefore, we conceptualize grazed grassland feed diversity in multiple layers for the very first time in this review to define its relevance from an animal perspective and implications for human health. The data reviewed reveals a close relationship between grazed grassland feed diversity with regard to plant secondary metabolites and animal characteristics that include animal health, welfare, and behavior as well as product quality with possible human health value.
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Treatment of Erdheim-Chester Disease with High Dose Pegylated IFN-α: a Case Report and Literature Review

Erdhein-chester disease is a rare non-Langerhans histocytes that can involve multiple systems, with bone involvement as the most common. We reports a 39-year-old female who visited the hospital due to pain in both lower limbs, combined with clinical manifestations, imaging, and laboratory tests, Erdhein-Chester disease was prelimi narily diagnosed. The diagnosis was confirmed by the presence of BRAF V600E mutation and tissue cells on biopsy of the right tibia. We discussed the disease based on literature review, aiming to improve the understanding of clinicians.
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Editorial Board Members Related to review

Michael R Hamblin

Laser Research Centre Health Sciences
University of Johyannesburg
South Africa

Seyed Mahmoud Hashemi

Assistant Professor
Deaprtment of Immunology
Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences

Chang Ming Charlie Ma

Department of Radiation Oncology
Fox Chase Cancer Center
United States


Associate Professor
Department of Medicine
Virginia Commonwealth University
United States

Rajajeyakumar Manivel

Assistant Professor
Department of Physiology
Chennai Medical College Hospital & Research Centre (SRM Group)
Irungalur, Trichy, Tamilnadu

Jiban Shrestha

Nepal Agricultural Research Council
National Commercial Agriculture Research Program

Muntaha K Gharaibeh RN

Professor of Nursing
Jordan University of Science and Technology

Ronald E.P. Frenkel

Voluntary Professor of Ophthalmology
Bascom Palmer Eye Institute
University of Miami School of Medicine
United States


Department of Bioinformatics
Alagappa University

Monique Mancuso

Coastal Marine Environment Institute (IAMC)
National Research Council (CNR)
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