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Application of Vegetable Oil Based Machining Fluids in Green Manufacturing Processes, A Review

Cutting fluids are an inherent part of the modern manufacturing system. In the vegetable oil based cutting fluids, the base fluids should be some vegetable oil. In general, vegetable oil is highly attractive substitutes for petroleum based oils because they are environmentally friendly, renewable, less toxic and readily biodegradable. In this review paper, the author investigates some of the published research papers on the application of vegetable oil based machining fluids (including Nano-fluids) in the different machining processes like turning, milling, grinding and drilling. Besides that, this study also summarize the effect of the different biodegradable oil based machining fluids on the performance factors such as surface integrity, machining force, tool wear, power consumption, and temperature produced during the machining process. It has been reported in various literature that using vegetable oil based Nano machining fluid results high surface features, reduced tool wear, cutting force, power consumption and lower temperature rise in the machining process due to better lubrication and cooling properties.
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Forensic Applications of Raman Spectroscopy a Review

The any field of science they have many different techniques method for examine the substance. There have been several major advances in the use of Raman spectroscopy instruments. This method is now a full established method along with, infrared spectroscopy. The process ultimately led to its entry into the forensic science laboratory, and to simplify the process, this article introduces a comprehensive review of Raman spectroscopy; emphasizes how and why this less commonly used method can be a very useful tool for analysing a various evidence. The concepts and principle of Raman spectroscopy are described in two categories the first categories of this article which includes theory, instrumentation, and spectrum data obtained using infrared and Raman techniques for numerous analyse and the Second categories discusses forensic applications of Raman spectroscopy to examine various types of evidence and substance. In this article we study how to examine forensic evidences by using the Raman spectroscopy and make review report on it.
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A Review: State of Plastic Pollution in Nigeria and Measure to Tackle Them

Marine organisms, scientists, governmental and non-governmental organizations face a significant challenge as a result of the ubiquitousness of plastic and microplastics in the aquatic environment, particularly in Nigeria where there is little or no policy put in place to address the issue of microplastic pollution. Nigeria ranks ninth globally in terms of its contribution to ocean plastic pollution and currently does not have a federal ban on the majority of single-use plastics and equipment. This paper aimed to present the status of plastic pollution in Nigeria and some policies to curb the menace. Data analysis reveals that Bayesa, Katsina, Lagos, and Oyo are the four states that generate the majority of the plastic waste in Nigeria. The number of industries, markets, and urbanization in a location affect the quantity of plastic waste that is produced there and is not dependent on the population. This paper makes some policy suggestions and recommendations such as the federal prohibition and taxation on the use of plastic, ocean clean-up, technological innovation that will support the recycling industry in Nigeria, and the need for additional plastic research. Nigeria can apply the most recent plastic waste management strategies in European and Asian nations as a model and adopt them to reduce marine plastic pollution.
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Medial Meniscus Dislocation: One Case Report and Literature Review

We present rare case of medial meniscus dislocation, in a 25 years old female patient who was admitted in emergency department. With painful locked left knee. Arthroscopy was done next day showing isolated dislocation of medial meniscus with the absence of any medial meniscus tear. Only reduction of the medial meniscus was done. Postoprative MRI confirmed the diagnosis and showed no tears in the medial meniscus. Physiotherapy and clinical follow up were done with good results and no recurrence for 4 months postoperative.
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Gangliocytic Paraganglioma of the Appendix; A Rare Case Report and Review

Gangliocytic paraganglioma (GP) (nonchromaffin paraganglioma, paraganglioma) is a morphologically distinct tumor most commonly occurring in the second part of the duodenum in the proximity of ampulla of Vater. We herein, present a case report of appendiceal mass in a 16-year-old male who presented with recurrent right iliac fossa pain and steno sing cecal tumor on CT abdomen. He underwent right hemicolectomy and histopathological examination of appendix showed infiltration of appendiceal wall with gangliocytic paraganglioma. To our knowledge this is the first reported case of gangliocytic paraganglioma of appendix in our area.
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An Unexpected Diagnosis of Plasmacytoma of The Thyroid: A Case Report and Review of The Literature

Plasmacytoma is a malignant proliferation of plasma cells that can arise in the bone marrow (osseous) and in the soft tissues. Extramedullary plasmacytomas most commonly occur in the upper respiratory tract. Thyroid involvement is rare. In this report, we describe a new case plasmacytoma of the thyroid gland in a 60-year-old man with a history of multinodular goiter present for several years and an unexpected rapid increase of the mass associated to dysphagia, dyspnea, and dysphonia. Histopathological examination of surgical specimen, along with immunohistochemical studies, unexpectedly led to the diagnosis of plasmacytoma. We also briefly summarize the last 30 years of literature on thyroid plasmacytoma and review the salient characteristics of this rare condition.
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A Retrospective Analysis of 25 cases of Addisons Disease Caused by Adrenal Tuberculosis in Tibet and Review of Related Literature

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Progressive Supranuclear Palsy with Classic Radiological Signs: A Case Report and Literature Review

Progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) is a rare neurodegenerative parkinsonian syndrome with distinct clinical features which tends to be progressive, causing vertical supranuclear gaze palsy, frontal lobe cognitive decline, postural instability and progressive axial rigidity. Clinical examination typically reveals ocular motor dysfunction including restricted vertical gaze, slow vertical saccades and “eyelid opening apraxia” with intact vestibule ocular reflex. PSP falls under the rubric of Parkinsonism plus syndromes that are a group of heterogeneous degenerative neurological disorders that differ from the classical idiopathic Parkinson’s disease. PSP is often underreported, making it important for clinicians to be aware of this disorder. Here we report a case of PSP, which presented primarily with speech disturbances and recurrent falls due to postural instability. On investigating, the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed a classical sign diagnostic of PSP. This teaching case report describes management and prognosis of the disease
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Psychoactive Drugs Induced DNA Damage: A Review

Psychoactive substances, also known as psychotropic substances are substances that alter the mental state of a person by affecting the way the nervous system and brain work [1]. Psychoactive substances can cause intoxication and this is generally the major reason why most individuals engage in their use. Individuals who take psychoactive substances experience changes in brain function which alter their mood, consciousness, and/or perceptions. Psychoactive substances are present in different medications, alcohol, plants, and animals [2], many, but not all of which are addictive [1]. The most common psychoactive drugs used by people to alter their mental state are caffeine and alcohol [3]. Although they are available legally, yet, they are harmful both psychologically and physically when used in excess. Usually, the decision of how and when to use these psychoactive drugs is left to the individuals [3], however, in certain situations, the drugs are used for exploitation of others by the alteration of their mental state. For example, Rohypnol has been used as a date-rape [4]. Some of the psychoactive drugs are very unpleasant making the users quit their use. This is the case in certain classic psychedelics (e.g., psilocybin), powerful dissociatives (e.g., Salvia divinorum), and deliriants (e.g., Jimson weed) [5]. Addiction and dependence resulting from the misuse of psychoactive drugs have led to moral debate and legal measures, while governmental controls on prescription, supply, and manufacture have been efforts made to minimize the additive use of these drugs. Also, ethical concerns exist about the marketing of these drugs by manufacturers and their clinical over-use. However, in some countries, there are ongoing popular campaigns geared towards legalizing and decriminalizing the use of some recreational drugs such as cannabis. Many individual, genetic and environmental factors have been reported to work individually or synergistically to decrease or increase the probability that an individual will use a psychoactive drug and to what extent [6]. This review aimed at updating information on the different uses of various psychoactive drugs by humans, the different effects on the biological system, and their reported DNA damaging potential in simulated and real-life scenarios.
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A Review Study on Gender Determination with the Help of Bite Marks Analysis

Bite marks are commonly observed in cases such as slaughter, sexual assault, child abuse cases, and during sports events. Bitemark is a type of ‘patterned injury’ which played an important role as evidence in judicial system. Bite marks can find on various body parts and various edible leftovers at the Crime Scene which can be used as evidence for identification of the criminals. Teeth impression shows sexual dimorphism and therefore helps in gender estimation. The various dental characteristics are individual-specific. A piece of exhaustive information and examination of indentations can help in the vindication of the guiltless as well as give decisive proof to the conviction of criminals. In certain violations, indentation proof is the main proof on which conviction has been accomplished, especially in rape and kid abuse cases. The present review describes the importance of bite mark analysis, estimation of gender through bite marks, and stability of teeth impression in diverse conditions. This article can give a better comprehension of the methodology used in forensic dentistry when investigating dental impressions.
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A Review Study on Adulteration in Bakery Goods

Adulteration in packed bakery products is done by making the product impure or altering its original form by adding materials or elements that are not usually part of it, especially inferior ones. It is finished by making the item debased or modifying its unique structure by adding materials or components that are not as a rule part of it, particularly mediocre ones [1]. It very well may be done deliberately by eliminating substances from food or inadvertently because of obliviousness, imprudence or absence of offices for keeping up with the nature of food. Potassium bromate is a flour improver that goes probably as a creating trained professional. Potassium bromates changes over into potassium bromide at high temperature during the baking framework [3]. Regardless, in case an abundance of is added, then again accepting the bread isn’t warmed long enough or not at an adequately high temperature, then, an extra total stay in the cake kitchen things, which may be dangerous at whatever point gobbled up [2]. It can cause stomach torture, free entrails, nausea, hurling, kidney dissatisfaction, oligonuria, anuria, deafness, dazedness, and hypotension, Detection is finished by spectrophotometric technique, IC/Mass spectrometry gives identification, Ion Chromatography (IC), High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) Synthetic tones in prepared merchandise Blue. #1 (Brilliant Blue) caused kidney growths in mice. Red.#3 (Erythrosine) Recognized as a thyroid cancer-causing agent in creatures. Red.#40 (Allura Red) speeds up the presence of invulnerable framework cancers in mice. It additionally causes extreme touchiness (sensitivity like) responses in certain purchasers and might trigger hyperactivity in youngsters. Yellow. #5 (Tartrazine) causes serious excessive responses. Yellow. #6 (Sunset Yellow) Caused adrenal growths in creatures and sporadically causes extreme responses. Distinguishing proof of engineered food colors corruption by paper chromatography and spectrophotometric strategies. In Adulterated chocolate two defilements are utilized arrowroot and dim rye flour distinguished by Near-Infrared (NIR) spectroscopy [14].
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Benefits and Health Risks Associated with Energy Booster Drinks: A Review Study

There are several energy drinks available in the market such as Red Bull, Sting, Rebound, Power Up! Triple X Energy Drink, and so on. After the Red Bull drink was introduced in the market in1990s, Energy drinks started to gain popularity and afterwards it became a common name especially among teenagers and young adults [1]. Most energy drinks are caffeinated nonindulgent beverages that are professed to give an additional increase in energy for day-by-day work, increase alertness, and improve athletic performance and mood. There are even certain shreds of evidence present to substantiate these claims, but the effects of these drinks on mental and physical health cannot be neglected. There are reports of adverse events such as insomnia, anxiety, cardiovascular events, seizures, tachycardia, type-2 diabetes, and even death are associated with the consumption of these drinks [2]. This review will focus on energy drinks, their ingredients, health risks associated with these drinks, and will also suggest some recommendations such as changes in marketing, providing education to children regarding adverse effects of these drinks, and further research should be carried out in this domain.
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Relationship between Vitamin D Status and Tic Disorder: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Observational Studies

This study was conducted to summarize the published observational data on the relationship between vitamin D status and the likelihood of TD. Methods: A systematic research on published articles until June 2021 was conducted in PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, the Cochrane Library, CNKI, WangFang database and VIP database.
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Characterizing the Etiologies of Seizures and Cortical Myoclonic Activity in Covid-19 Patients and their Impact on Outcomes

Systematic literature review was conducted. Criteria included seizures, status epilepticus, and/or CMA developing prior to or during hospitalization, with concomitant COVID-19. COVID-19 severity was dichotomized into mild and severe cases, based on severity of respiratory symptoms. Good outcome was defined as discharge without severe deficits and/or return to near baseline.
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A Novel Coenzyme Q8A Mutation in a Case with Juvenile-Onset Coenzyme Q10D4: Case Report and Literature Review

Primary coenzyme Q10 deficiency-4 (CoQ10D4) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by childhood-onset of cerebellar ataxia and exercise intolerance. Molecular pathology responsible for clinical findings is mitochondrial respiratory chain dysfunction. The main clinical manifestation involves early-onset exercise intolerance, progressive cerebellar ataxia and movement disorders. Some affected individuals develop seizures and have mild mental impairment, indicating variable severity.
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Editorial Board Members Related to review

Clemente Maia S. Fernandes

Professor
Sao Paulo State University
Araraquara, Sau Paulo
Brazil

Maged A. Tanios

Associate Clinical Professor of Medicine
David Geffen School of Medicine
UCLA
USA

Rasmia Sayed Sayed Darwesh

Professor
Central Laboratory for Date Palm Research and Development
Agriculture Research Center
Egypt

Ashraf Naeem

Associate professor
Department of Anatomy & Embryology
Zagazig University
Egypt

SANJEEV KUMAR SINGH

Professor
Department of Bioinformatics
Alagappa University
India

Syed Zulkarnain Syed Idrus

Senior Lecturer
School of Human Development and Technocommunication
University Malaysia Perlis
Malaysia

Joseph Pergolizzi

Adjunct Assistant Professor
Department of Medicine
Johns Hopkins University
United States

Syed Ameer Haider Jafri

Assistant professor
Department of pedodontic and preventive dentistry
King Salman North West Armed Force Hospital
Saudi Arabia

SEBASTIANO MERCADANTE

Director of Anesthesia & Intensive Care and Pain Relief & Supportive Care Unit
La Maddalena Cancer Center, Palermo
Italy

Fatih Yalcin

Professor
Department of Cardiology
Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions
USA
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