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Articles Related to shell

Interrelationships between Body Weight and Dimensional Shell Measurements of Giant African Land Snails (Archachatina marginata) in Calabar, Nigeria

Two hundred Archachatina marginata snails, one hundred each of A. marginata var. saturalis and A. marginata var. ovum with weights ranging from 33.10 – 349.00 g and 127.60 – 443.40 g, respectively sorted out of a base population were used for this study. Phenotypic traits measured on each of these snail varieties/strains included shell length, shell width, aperture length, aperture width, spiral length, spiral width, diagonal length, length between aperture and first spiral, number of whorls and body weight. Data collected were used to estimate phenotypic correlations between pairs of traits and to predict the relationship between body weight and other dimensional shell measurements (DSM). Results of phenotypic correlations between body weight and the DSM and between the DSM of the two A. marginata varieties showed that all the pairs of phenotypic traits investigated on A. marginata var. ovum expressed positive correlation values, while the pairs investigated on A. marginata var. saturalis showed both positive and negative correlation values. The regression estimates of parameters and coefficients of determination for the simple linear function of A. marginata var. ovum snails showed slightly high and very strong interrelationship between body weight and one phenotypic trait, while the multiple linear function for predicting body weight using four phenotypic traits showed highly significant and very strong interrelationship. In A. maginata var. saturalis snails, both the simple and multiple linear regression equations showed highly significant and very strong interrelationships between body weight and shell parameters. The range values of coefficient of determination showed that 78 to 100% of the variability in both snail strains body weights can be explained by changes in the considered dimensional shell parameters. Also, the linear functions with four and two parameters/traits best predicted the live weights of A. marginata var. saturalis and A. marginata var. ovum snails, respectively. Prediction results showed that explainable traits best predicted live weight when more than one phenotypic/shell trait were fitted into the regression functions.
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Synthesis and Characterization of Clay Brick Using Waste Groundnut Shell Ash

Clay bricks have been made since ancient periods. The higher demand for this brick fails to support the needs. This is because clay is the non-renewable materials. Therefore, new artificial cement blocks have been introduced to satisfy the fast demand in the world. However, the clay bricks are the most eco-friendly and form green environment. Thus, the government, researchers, and engineers trying to introduce the clay bricks with the value addition of natural agro waste materials. In one way, these materials improve the physical properties of the clay as well as reduce the environmental pollutions. Our aim at this research was to introduce a green environment clay bricks of value-added Groundnut Shell Ash (GSA) as a partial substitution.
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Persisting Cough as the Single Presenting Symptom of an Intrathoracic Tumor in a Nine-Month-Old Child with Adenovirus Airway Infection

We report on a nine-month-old girl who presented with persisting cough, and diminished ventilation of the left hemithorax. Viral pneumonia was suspected after Adenovirus detection by PCR, but chest X-rays showed a persistent shadowing of the left hemithorax and persistent coughing despite clinical improvement. Because of the discrepancy between clinical and radiological signs further investigations by ultrasound and CT scan were performed, which visualized an intrathroracic tumor. Histopathology confirmed diagnosis of a teratoma.
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Law & Psychiatry in India: An Overview

The application of legal knowledge to psychiatry and of psychiatric knowledge to the legal issues is the subspecialty of psychiatry know as forensic psychiatry. In India, forensic psychiatry is still in its infancy. The legal issues pertaining to the mental health care in India appeared only after British Rule, with very minimal changes occurring post independence.
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Perspectives and Potential Applications of Ruthenium-Based Nanocarriers for Cancer Therapy

Cancer is a highly heterogeneous disease characterised by continuous uncontrolled growth and expansion of abnormal cells. In general, in tumor cells the signalling pathways regulating cellular processes, as cell growth and division and cell to cellcommunication result strongly altered.
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Editorial Board Members Related to shell

Antoine Trzcinski

Lecturer in Water and Environmental Engineering
Faculty of Engineering
University of Southern Queensland
Australia

RAYMOND C. MURRAY

Forensic Geologist
Montana
United States
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