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Articles Related to species

Veterinary Considerations for the Theoretical Resurrection of Extinct Species

The de-extinction of the dinosaur is a dubious possibility but its consideration brings forth some issues that are at least worthy of scientific discussion. In this review, we discuss two distinct issues that have implications for a de-extinct species such as a dinosaur: the ability, or lack thereof, to safely sedate a rare and potentially fractious animal capable of harming the veterinary staff tasked with its care; and, disease risks associated with a species that has been extinct for millions of years. To identify potential sedatives, comparative pharmacology will be needed to uncover the links between receptor pharmacology and the desired clinical outcomes of activating established alpha-2 adrenergic, opioid, and benzodiazepine receptors. Specific to disease control, it will be necessary to understand the unique susceptibility of the new species to current diseases as well as predicting their reservoir capacity for potential human and veterinary pandemic diseases. While the topics presented herein are not exhaustive, this review highlights some of the foremost research that should be conducted in order to serve the unique veterinary needs of a de-extinct species using the dinosaur as a paradigm. Addressing these issues should be considered if an intact dinosaur genome becomes available, regardless of the feasibility of dinosaur resurrection.
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Protection and Valuation of Mediterranean Species: The Role of Aquaculture

The Mediterranean Sea is catalogued worldwide as one of the 25 “hot spots” in terms of biological diversity [1]. However, it hosts many threatened species including turtles, marine mammals, rays and sharks, with chondrichthyans being the group exposed to the highest risk, with 42% of the species living under some type of threat [2]. On the other hand, a third of the other species studied in these waters, are not under any apparent risk [3].
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Causes of Morbidity and Mortality of Wildlife Species Presented to a Wildlife Clinic in East Tennessee, USA, 2000–2011

To determine the causes of wildlife morbidity and mortality in East Tennessee, we performed a retrospective analysis using 14,303 records from cases presented to the wildlife clinic of the University of Tennessee between 2000 and 2011. The cases were first categorized into herptile (includes reptiles and amphibians), mammal, or avian and then classified into 1 of 20 groups based on the primary admitting/presenting sign. The top reasons for presentation were trauma, found abandoned/orphaned, hit by automobile, cat-related injury, and dog-related injury. Overall mortality was 45.3% for the herptile cases, 57.6% for mammal cases, and 65.1% for avian cases. There are a variety of reasons animals were presented to the clinic, and some appear to be attributed to anthropogenic factors such as automobiles (n = 1253) and habitat destruction (n = 218), while the origin of others, such as trauma and disease remain unknown. This study confirms the importance of monitoring wildlife morbidity and mortality as an indicator of ecosystem health and of focusing efforts to reduce the anthropogenic threat on native habitats and resident wildlife populations.
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Wildlife Forensic: Current Techniques and their limitations

The wildlife includes undomesticated and diverse forms of floral and faunal species, which is essential for ecological balance and human survival. The poaching and illegal trade has resulted in sharp decline of many wild species of flora and fauna around the world. The need of the time therefore is to utterly focus on wildlife protection for the sustainable development of biosphere and future viability of human beings. In this review we have focused on different techniques being utilized in wildlife forensic science for identification of wildlife species as well as their geographical origin. These techniques can be employed to control the wildlife crimes and convict the criminals involved in illegal trade of wildlife flora, fauna and their products. These techniques include footprints analyses, morphological and anatomical studies,
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Genetic Characterization and Sequence Variations in 12S rRNA of Mitochondrial Gene in Three Indian Civets (Viverridae) Species: Implication in Wildlife Forensics

Comparative genomics of 12S and 16S rRNAs, cytochrome b (Cyt b) and the control region (CR) of mtDNA genome are commonly used in phylogenetics and wildlife forensics. We document the genetic characteristics and sequence variations of 12S rRNA (384 bp) in Indian civets, viz., the common palm civet (Paradoxurus hermaphroditus) (n=9), small Indian civet (Viverricula indica) (n=7) and Himalayan palm civet (Paguma larvata) (n=5). The nucleotide compositions vary from 17.6% to 36.3%, and found one to two haplotypes in all three civet species. Observed sequence divergence was 0.001 to 0.002 and 0.057 to 0.110 within and between species respectively. The nucleotide diversity was 0.00102 to 0.00184. Tajima’s D value was negative (-0.097256 to -1.36240) but statistically non-significant in all three species. Based on genetic characteristics, we discuss the use of observed forensically informative nucleotide sequencing (FINS) and topology in species identification for forensic purposes among these three civet species.
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Septic Shock Secondary to Salmonella Enterica Ssp. Arizonae in an Immunocompetent Albanian Male

Salmonella-associated diarrhea is a common cause of community-acquired gastroenteritis. Some species of salmonella are associated with invasive diseases like meningitis, endocarditis and septicemia.
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Mitochondrial Actions for Fat Browning and Energy Expenditure in White Adipose Tissue

White adipose tissue (WAT) is an endocrine organ with crucial role in the development of obesity and related diseases. White adipocytes have less mitochondria than brown adipocytes; nevertheless, there is an increasing body of evidence showing that mitochondrial parameters play a relevant role in WAT physiology, such as proliferation, differentiation and triacylglycerol storage levels.
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Observations on Aeromonas Infection in 7 Patients with Acute Leukemia

Aeromonas infections in humans are becoming increasingly frequent. They have the potential to infect humans and are associated with a variety of illnesses, such as enterocolitis, septicemia, skin and soft tissue infectious and peritonitis.
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Stability Analysis of Human Islet Amyloid Polypeptide and Its Mutated Oligomeric Forms

Human islet amyloid polypeptide (hIAPP), a 37 residue peptide hormone is an ingenious factor in pancreatic amyloid deposits found in cases with type-2 diabetes. Its aggregation into small toxic oligomeric species is presumed to be the reason for cells debilitation and demise in case of diabetic patients.
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Toxic Effect of Titanium (Tio2) on Wistar Rat (Rattus Norvegicus) Injected by Intravenously

Titanium dioxide (TiO2) (<100 nm) has been widely used in the production of paints, paper, and plastics, as well as in food additives and colorants .It has been classified as biologically inert in both humans and animals. Here we studied the toxicity of TiO2 on Wister rat. Main exposure area of NPs is caudal vein of Wistar rat.
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Streptococcus Mutans and Lactobacillus Species Infection in Obese and Non- Obese School Children in Accra, Ghana

Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus species are major bacteria associated with dental caries. In the presence of fermentable sugars and poor oral hygiene these bacteria increase risk of caries. Some studies have associated obesity with dental caries while others did not. High sugar snacks are risks for both obesity and dental caries. This study aimed at determining Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus species infection and its relationship with dental caries among obese and non-obese children. Oral plaque was taken from 75 each of obese and non-obese children from private schools in Accra, Ghana. The plaque was pre-enriched in thioglycollate broth for 48 hours at 37 °C.
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Oral Hygiene Practices and Caries Prevalence among 9-15 Years Old Ghanaian School Children

Good oral hygiene protects against oral diseases such as caries and gum infections. Twice daily tooth brushing with fluoride pastes and flossing are recommended to keep mouth clean and reduce plaque bacterial growth. Poor access to oral cleaning material and dental care services expose children from poor backgrounds to oral diseases.
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The Flesh Fly Sarcophaga (Liopygia) crassipalpis Macquart 1839 as an Invader of a Corpse in Calabria (Southern Italy)

We present an indoor forensic case that occurred in spring 2013 in Cosenza (southern Italy). The entomological evidence collected at the scene consisted of Calliphoridae (Calliphora vicina, Lucilia sericata), Sarcophagidae (Sarcophaga crassipalpis), Fanniidae (Fannia scalaris) and Muscidae (Hydrotaea ignava).
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Perspectives and Potential Applications of Ruthenium-Based Nanocarriers for Cancer Therapy

Cancer is a highly heterogeneous disease characterised by continuous uncontrolled growth and expansion of abnormal cells. In general, in tumor cells the signalling pathways regulating cellular processes, as cell growth and division and cell to cellcommunication result strongly altered.
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The End of the Golden Age of Antibiotics?

The discovery of a substance with antibacterial properties was expected to permanently diminish the occurrence of bacterial infections posing a threat to health and life. Since the discovery of penicillin many new groups of antibiotics have been introduced into treatment of disease in people and animals, but their excessive and frequently unjustified use, and most importantly, incorrect dosage, have led to numerous unanticipated problems in contemporary human and veterinary medicine.
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Fabrication and Luminescence of Anodic Alumina with Incorporated Vanadyl Citrate Chelate Anions

Anodic aluminum oxide doped with vanadyl citrate chelate complex anions was formed by a two-step self-organized anodization in 2 wt. % sulfuric acid containing 0.04 M V2O5 and 0.08 M citric acid at voltage range 13-23 V, and at 0 and 15 oC. The combination of two temperatures and at least four voltages (depending on the applied temperature) was applied as the operating conditions of anodization.
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Editorial Board Members Related to species

Zeljko Jaksic

Associate Professor
Ruđer Bošković Institute
Center for marine Research Rovinj
Croatia

Mayavan Subramani

Postdoctoral Research Associate
Delaware State University
USA.

Sajjad Pourmozaffar

Assistant professor
Iranian Fisheries Science Research Institute
Iran

ABD EL-FATAH ABOMOHRA

School of Energy and Power Engineering
Jiangsu University
China

LOUISA B. TABATABAI

Professor
Roy J. Carver Department of Biochemistry, Biophysics and Molecular Biology
Iowa State University
United States

Bin Zhou

Scientist
J. Craig Venter Institute
United States

Monique Mancuso

Researcher
Coastal Marine Environment Institute (IAMC)
National Research Council (CNR)
Italy

Ana Margarida Violante Pombo

Professor
Department of Aquaculture
Polytechnic Institute of Leiria
Portugal

Shuvra Kanti Dey

Assistant Professor
Department of Microbiology
Jahangirnagar University
Bangladesh

IOANNIS D. BASSUKAS

Professor
Dermatology
School of Medicine
University of Ioannina
Greece
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