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Articles Related to stimulation

Gingival Stimulation: An Important Metabolic Regulator?

This study aimed to determine whether a relationship exists between gingival stimulation and the levels of leptin, ghrelin, insulin and glucose, which are important regulators of energy homeostasis. Blood samples for ghrelin, leptin, glucose and insulin were taken from 15 male volunteers (mean age 25.5±2.3 years; mean body mass index 24.4±2.79 kg/m2), who did not brush their teeth for one day, after a 12 h-long overnight fasting and before standard breakfast (0 min) and thereafter at 30, 60, 120 and 180 min after breakfast. After toothbrushing after dinner and after a 12 h-long overnight fasting, blood samples were taken again before standard breakfast (0 min) and then after at the same time points following tooth brushing.A significant reduction was found in the leptin levels measured at 0, 30, 60, 120 and 180 min after tooth brushing (p < 0.005). The ghrelin levels also declined at these time points but were significant at 0, 30 and 120 min (p < 0.05). Despite the reduced insulin levels at 120 and 180 min after tooth brushing (p < 0.05), no significant change was observed in the glucose levels.
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Capnography Detects Phrenic Nerve Stimulation during Cryothermal Ablation

A 54 year old female presented for atrial fibrillation (AF) catheter cryoablation. She had experienced multiple pre-syncopal episodes prior to diagnosis and underwent a cardiac work-up including Holter monitor, transthoracic echocardiogram,stress test and tilt table test which was negative except for atrial fibrillation. She presented to the hospital for an AF ablation procedure under general anesthesia after transesophageal echocardiogram to rule out atrial thrombosis formation.
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New Adipocytokines

They are cytokines secreted by adipose tissue considered to be immunomodulating agents, however they can be more accurately put into the larger, growing list of adipose-derived hormones.
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Thoroughbred Race Horses Management: A Key Role of the Veterinarian

The veterinarian must confront many situations when working with thoroughbred horses in which he must solve and make decisions that lead to balance between the animal and trainer / owner of the horse, the above should be resolved in an ethical and professional manner.
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Editorial Board Members Related to stimulation

James Tao

Associate Professor
Department of Neurology
The University of Chicago
United States

Jianxun Song

Associate Proffesor
Department of Microbiology & Immunology
College of Medicine
Penn State University
United States

Alfonso Caracuel

Assistant Professor
Department of Psychology and Education
University of Granada
Spain

Antoine Trzcinski

Lecturer in Water and Environmental Engineering
Faculty of Engineering
University of Southern Queensland
Australia
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