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Recently, transdermal drug delivery system (TDDS) has become a more and more important approach to administering drugs. Based on its advantages, which are not achievable by other modes of administration, many researchers are dedicated to the study of it, and have made great progress. Although the skin offers a painless interface for systemic drug delivery, it also presents limitations which are mainly caused by the stratum corneum.
Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase (MAPK) pathway is a signal transduction pathway that functions in a wide range of physiological and pathophysiological cellular events including cell proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, migration, inflammation, metabolic disorders and diseases.