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Melanotan®-Induced Hyperpigmentation of Oral Soft Tissues

A 39-years-old Caucasian man presented with the complaint of gingiva bleeding during tooth brushing. Additionally, generalised intrinsic blue-brown discoloration or hyperpigmentation of the gingiva was noticed. Upon request to report each alteration of life style and food and drink consumption during the last months, the patient reported weekly subcutaneous self-injections with Melanotan® during the last six months in order to realize a cosmetically attractive brown skin color. Melanotan I®, with the generic name afamelanotide, is thought to mimic the effects of endogenous α-melanocyte stimulating hormone, leading to increased cutaneous pigmentation. It was suspected that this drug also has the adverse effect of up-regulation of brown-black eumelanin synthesis in the oral soft tissues. Several cutaneous adverse effects of afamelanotide have been reported in the scientific literature, but no previous reports could be found on discoloration of the oral soft tissues.
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Endothelial Cells May Have Tissue-Specific Origins

Endothelial heterogeneity reflects many functions performed by endothelial cells (ECs) in various tissues. However, the origin of this heterogeneity is unclear. Here, we report that tissue-specific ECs in lungs, brain, and liver co-expressed the lineage markers of their coordinating tissue-specific cells at very early stages. Specifically, we found that the pulmonary EC population was significantly suppressed after pulmonary epithelial-specific (Nkx2.1-Cre mediated) deletion of fetal liver kinase-1 (Flk1). Together, the results suggest that tissues-specific ECs may originate from the same progenitor cells as tissue-specific cells.
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Former Effective Immunotherapy without Adverse Events of Inoperable Epithelial Ovarian Cancers and a Prospect for the Immune Prophylaxis

Current cancer treatments by immune checkpoint blockades are limited due to severe adverse events caused by alteration of the immune system required for homeostasis of normal tissues. Common cancer chemotherapy alters the quality of patients’ lives. Platinum-based treatment can lead to severe neurotoxicity with chronic debilitation. Additionally, survival of patients with epithelial ovarian cancers (EOCs) has remained poor despite extensive cytoreductive surgery, high dose chemotherapy, checkpoint blockades and immunotherapies effective in some other types of cancer. The pathobiology of EOC cancer stem cells (CSCs) is not well understood. Observations demonstrate that EOCs exhibit in vivo two distinct CSC types - perivascular diploid CSCs dividing asymmetrically with the help of the host suicidal CD8+ T cells, and haploid CSCs at the cancer abdominal surface originating from meiosis I cytokinesis of bulk surface cancer cells. The perivascular CSCs contribute to the cancer cell bulk and, via left ovary venous blood, can cause EOC liver metastases. Haploid CSCs released from the bulk cancer surface cause the common pelvic and abdominal EOC spread. Former elimination of the host antibodies blocking T cell effectors by intermittent doses of cyclophosphamide exhibiting significant immunomodulatory anticancer effects, facilitation of the immune system reactivity against alloantigens of cancer cells by blood transfusions, and augmentation of anticancer immunity by bacterial toxins, resulted during the subsequent treatment-free period into rejection of inoperable EOCs without any adverse events during the treatnment. To help prevent cancer relapses, patients treated for advanced primary epithelial cancers should be considered as candidates for continuously stimulating immune anticancer activity by treatments such as daily metformin and weekly lentinan consumptions.
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Malignant Soft Tissue Sarcoma at the Site of Corticosteroid Injection in a Dog

An 11-year-old spayed female dog was presented for a large mass on the left proximal pelvic limb. The mass appeared three months prior to presentation in the location of a previous corticosteroid injection, Kenalog (0.05 mg/kg triamcinolone, CAS# 76-25-5). No vaccinations or injections had been previously given in this area. The mass spanned from the left stifle to the coxofemoral joint and was firm, circular, non-moveable, and diffusely mixed within the musculature of the thigh. A left external complete hemipelvectomy was performed. Histopathology was consistent with a Grade III fibromyxosarcoma. The dog died naturally at home five months after surgery. This is the first account of association of a corticosteroid injection with formation of a fibromyxosarcoma in a dog.
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B-Lines on Chest Ultrasound Predicts Elevated Left Ventricular Diastolic Pressures

Background: Echocardiography and lung ultrasound are important tests for assessing left the ventricular function in patients presented to the emergency department with acute pulmonary edema. Chest ultrasound is becoming an important tool in diagnosing acute pulmonary edema. Aim: To investigate the relationship between the B profile on ultrasound chest and Spectral tissue Doppler echocardiography (E/e’ratio) in patients presented with the suspicion of acute pulmonary edema. Methods: This paper reports a prospective observational study of 61 consecutive patients, which was presented with symptoms and signs of pulmonary edema and B - profile detected by echocardiography with a 5 MHz curvilinear probe. Critical care physicians trained in ultrasound examination performed echocardiography and chest ultrasounds.
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Two-Dimensional Infrared Correlation Spectroscopy, Linear Two-Dimensional Infrared Spectroscopy and Non-Linear Two-Dimensional Infrared Spectroscopy Comparative Study on Malignant and Benign Human Cancer Cells and Tissues under Synchrotron Radiation with the Passage of Time

In the current study, we have experimentally and comparatively investigated and compared malignant human cancer cells and tissues before and after irradiating of synchrotron radiation using Two-Dimensional Infrared Correlation Spectroscopy, Linear Two-Dimensional Infrared Spectroscopy and Non-Linear Two-Dimensional Infrared Spectroscopy.
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Immunohistochemical Localization of Ghrelin and IGF-I (Insulin-Like Growth Factor-I) in the Liver and Kidney Tissues of Melatonin-Treated Rats

This study was conducted to investigate the immunohistochemical localization of ghrelin and IGF-I in the liver and kidney tissues in melatonin-treated rats. Rats were divided into three groups as a control, a sham and a treatment groups. While the treatment group received melatonin (10 mg/kg i.p.) for 3 weeks, only ethanol and saline solution were administered to the sham group. The control group received nothing.
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DNA Polymerase as Therapeutic Intervention for Treating Patients with Multiple Sclerosis

In recent years, increasing evidence has pointed to the potential role of fibrinolysis in the pathogenesis of MS. Based on hypotheses describing the aggressive autoimmune responses observed in MS patients, a result of impaired between (t-PA and PA1-1) which are a key molecules in both fibrinolysis and extracellular proteolysis. The present study was done to investigate the therapeutic potential of polymerase enzyme in modulating the changes occurred between levels of Tissue- type plasminogen activator (t-PA) and its inhibitor (PAI-1) in patients with multiple sclerosis. A pilot study was carried out on a total of twenty-one patients (17 females, 4 males; aged 22-46 years) with demyelination suggestive of MS and clinically silent T2 brain lesions on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).
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Co-culture of Buccal Mucosal Epithelial Cells Downregulate CTGF Expression in Urethral Stricture Fibroblasts

Buccal mucosal urethroplasty has revolutionized the surgical management of urethral strictures but the success of the procedure has been variable in different series. We have attempted to understand the interplay between buccal mucosal epithelial cells (BME) and the fibroblasts at the molecular level using connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) as a marker so that translation of this information would help in better urethroplasty outcomes. Materials and Methods: The morphological and functional characteristics of normal urethral fibroblasts (NUF) and urethral stricture fibroblasts (UStF) with and without co-culture with BMEs are compared. The intracellular and extracellular level of CTGF expression in the UStF co-cultured with BMEs was analyzed by using molecular biology methods.
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Potentials, Limitations and Future Directions of MR Contrast Media in Ablation Therapies

ImagingIntroductionMR contrast media have become an indispensable part of magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, but their roles in ablation therapies are still controversial. The interactions between physical/biological properties of MR contrast media (Longitudinal=T1, transverse=T2 and susceptibility=T2* relaxation times) and diseased tissues (perfusion, edema, hemorrhage and coagulative necrosis) play important roles in differentiating pathologic and ablated tissues.
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Breast Cancer Detection by Determination of Optical Properties of Non-Malignant and Malignant Breast Tissues

Breast cancer being one of the most frequent form of cancer, is the leading cause of cancer deaths in women worldwide. Early detection can greatly improve a woman`s chances for survival. In this paper we introduce an economic and accurate optical system for breast cancer detection.
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Improvements to In Vitro Culture Media for Use in Bovine IVF

In assisted reproduction of cattle the design and preparation of in vitro culture media has been instrumental in supporting the development of bovine oocytes and embryos. In vitro production (IVP) involves three main sequential steps: oocyte aspiration and in vitro maturation (IVM); in vitro fertilization (IVF); and in vitro culture (IVC) of early pre-implantation embryos.
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Prone Airway Management in Patients with Pressure Ulcers

Pressure ulcers are a critical but manageable complication commonly seen in bed-bound patients. Utilizing the Wound Bed Preparation (WBP) model, it is often necessary to perform surgical debridement in prone position for patients with stage III or IV sacral pressure ulcers to avoid infection and further complications.
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Mitochondrial Actions for Fat Browning and Energy Expenditure in White Adipose Tissue

White adipose tissue (WAT) is an endocrine organ with crucial role in the development of obesity and related diseases. White adipocytes have less mitochondria than brown adipocytes; nevertheless, there is an increasing body of evidence showing that mitochondrial parameters play a relevant role in WAT physiology, such as proliferation, differentiation and triacylglycerol storage levels.
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Sudden Death Due to Sarcoma: An Unusual Case and Literature Review

Sudden death has varied causes, and autopsy is usually required to determine cause of death. Sarcoma involvement is very infrequent, and detailed pathological evaluation is needed for correct diagnosis.
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Editorial Board Members Related to tissue

Jian Yang

Associate Professor
Department of Bioengineering
Pennsylvania State University
United States

Xueqin Gao

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery
University of Texas Health Science Center
USA

Sheldon R. Gordon

Professor
Department of Biological Sciences
Oakland University
United States

Paraj V. Mandrekar

Research Scientist
Genetic Identity team
Promega Corporation
United States

Dagmara McGuinness

Research Associate
College of Medical
Veterinary & Life Sciences
Institute of Cancer Sciences
Western Infirmary Glasgow
Scotland

LEONID B. MARGOLIS

Visiting Professor
Ilia University
Republic of Georgia
Georgia

Syed Ameer Haider Jafri

Assistant professor
Department of pedodontic and preventive dentistry
King Salman North West Armed Force Hospital
Saudi Arabia

Scott Asbill

Professor
Department of pharmaceutics
Presbyterian College School of Pharmacy
United States

Shengwen Calvin Li

Faculty Scientist
Center for Neuroscience and Stem Cell Research
University of California-Irvine School of Medicine
United States

Fatemeh Baghbani

Faculty of Biomedical Engineering
Amirkabir University of Technology
Iran
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