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Articles Related to toxicity

The Present Scenario of Lathyrisum Regarding Public Health in 2021

Backgrounds: Neurolathyrism is a disease, which is linked with the consumption of Lathyrus sativus ( L. sativusi) pulse that contain the neurotoxin-beta-N-oxalyl-L-alpha-beta-diamino propionic acid (beta-ODAP). Patients with Lathyrisum suffer with gradual enhancement in spasticity and bony changes, which are responsible for appearing the crippling condition throughout life. Objective: The present study has been done as to establish the present situation of L. sativusi consumption and Lathyrisum. Materials and Methods:We performed the survey in the village of Mohammadabad Block of Gazipur district in Eastern Uttar Pradesh (a state with maximum population in India) which have population of million, and L. sativusi is the main pulse of the year, which sustains the economy of these populations. Results:Out of 21,234 subjects L. sativusi eating population for more than 10 years, none had Lathyrisum. On contrary, to popular belief, this population enjoys various dishes made by L. sativusi pulse which in popular are local delicacy. Conclusions:There is no evidence of L. sativusi causing Lathyrisum in 2021. On contrary, L. sativusi pulses have become an inheriting part of the food habits in these populations.
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Psychoactive Drugs Induced DNA Damage: A Review

Psychoactive substances, also known as psychotropic substances are substances that alter the mental state of a person by affecting the way the nervous system and brain work [1]. Psychoactive substances can cause intoxication and this is generally the major reason why most individuals engage in their use. Individuals who take psychoactive substances experience changes in brain function which alter their mood, consciousness, and/or perceptions. Psychoactive substances are present in different medications, alcohol, plants, and animals [2], many, but not all of which are addictive [1]. The most common psychoactive drugs used by people to alter their mental state are caffeine and alcohol [3]. Although they are available legally, yet, they are harmful both psychologically and physically when used in excess. Usually, the decision of how and when to use these psychoactive drugs is left to the individuals [3], however, in certain situations, the drugs are used for exploitation of others by the alteration of their mental state. For example, Rohypnol has been used as a date-rape [4]. Some of the psychoactive drugs are very unpleasant making the users quit their use. This is the case in certain classic psychedelics (e.g., psilocybin), powerful dissociatives (e.g., Salvia divinorum), and deliriants (e.g., Jimson weed) [5]. Addiction and dependence resulting from the misuse of psychoactive drugs have led to moral debate and legal measures, while governmental controls on prescription, supply, and manufacture have been efforts made to minimize the additive use of these drugs. Also, ethical concerns exist about the marketing of these drugs by manufacturers and their clinical over-use. However, in some countries, there are ongoing popular campaigns geared towards legalizing and decriminalizing the use of some recreational drugs such as cannabis. Many individual, genetic and environmental factors have been reported to work individually or synergistically to decrease or increase the probability that an individual will use a psychoactive drug and to what extent [6]. This review aimed at updating information on the different uses of various psychoactive drugs by humans, the different effects on the biological system, and their reported DNA damaging potential in simulated and real-life scenarios.
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PSII Photosystem Protection by Soil Amendment with Biochar and Adequate Nitrogen Fertilizer Availability Attenuate Cadmium Induced-Photoinhibition and Phytotoxicity in Solanum Lycopersicon

The aim of this research was to assess the biochar ability to protect the photosynthesis process face to Cd contamination, especially, when nitrogen fertilizer was added at adequate amount. Culture of tomato seedlings was conducted on pots containing soil added with different portion of biochar (0, 3.5 and 7%) and nitrogen (3 or 6g NH4NO3). Irrigation was done by water (control condition) or Cd solution (150µM). Data showed that regardless presence of Cd, synchronously addition of high nitrogen fertilizer (6g) and biochar (7%) in the culture medium resulted in fresh matter production, photosynthetic pigment (Chlorophyll a) and mineral elements content enhancement. Similar observation was shown concerning the mineral nutrition (nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium contents).
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Chemical Characterization, Antimicrobial-Antifungal Activity on Probiotic Micro organisms and Genotoxicity–Cytotoxicity Effects of Lamiaceae Family Essential Oils from Different Plants

Pipermint, thyme, rosemary, sage and basil species which have major characteristic specialities of Lamiaceae family, have antimicrobial activities on pathogene microorganisms. Probiotic microorganisms have valuable effects on human body and inhibition of probiotics causes many diseases. In this present study, it was aimed to determine indicate probiotic resistance against natural antimicrobial agents (as essential oils) compare to pathogenes in previous studies.
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Suicidal Poisoning by Ingestion of Taxus Baccata Leaves: A Case Report with Review of the Literature

Taxus baccata is one of the most poisonous trees in the world. It contains taxanes and toxic alkaloids: the most dangerous one is the taxine. It is a fairly common plant in our environment and could be extremely dangerous; however, yew poisoning is quite rare. Cases may occur by voluntary or accidental ingestion. Therefore, the rapid orientation and diagnosis of suspected episode are important, in order to treat it quickly.
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The Dose and its Acute Toxicology: A Systematic Review Article in the First Phase of Experimental Pharmacology

Hundreds and thousands of acute toxicity studies are conducted in experimental pharmacology with assumption hypothesis every year. It is usually concluded with inadequately validated data during the period of investigation within 24 hours.
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Cisplatin-Gemcitabine Related Cardiomyopathy in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer NSCLC Patient: A Case Study

Gemcitabine is a pyrimidine analog and cisplatin is a platinum agent, they are usually combined to form a chemotherapeutic doublet used to treat different types of oncological cancers, including non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Although these agents are not known to cause such events, few cases related to possible cardiotoxicity side effects have been reported ; including angina, chronic heart failure, arrhythmias, and cardiac ischemia. A 52-year-old African male presented with Stage IV lung adenocarcinoma metastatic to the bone, pleura and lymph node, EGFR wild type. Patient has a history of hypertension, diabetes, and atrial fibrillation and on rate control medications. He was treated initially with cisplatin-gemcitabine, after which he developed cardiomyopathy.
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Biological Effect Tetra-Branched Anti-TNF-Peptide and Coating Ratio-Dependent Penetration of the Peptide-Conjugated Cerium3/4+ Cation-Stabilized Gamma-Maghemite Nanoparticles into Rat Inner Ear after Transtympanic Injection Visualized By MRI

Jing.Zou@staff.uta.fi
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Ventricular Arrhythmia Due to Yellow Phosphorus Poisoning

Ratol paste (Yellow Phosphorus) is a local and systemic toxin affecting almost all the organs of the body especially liver, kidney, brain and heart. There is no specific antidote for yellow phosphorus poisoning. Heart is one of the many organs affected by the YP. However cardiac toxicity following acute ingestion of YP has been reported rarely.
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A Non-Contact Passive Approach for the Effective Collection of Target Explosive Volatiles for Canine Training Aid Development

The use of real explosive materials for canine training involves inherent dangers, toxicity risks exposure, and often limited availability of the training material all of which may affect the reliable training of canine teams. For this reason, the development of a training aid suitable for daily operations is beneficial to provide safe and effective explosive detection training that can provide for enhanced detection capabilities.
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A Review on Nanoprobes for Sensing, Imaging and Disease Detection

This review focuses on imaging, visualization and detection of diseases using nanoprobes. Several currently available nanoprobes such as fluorescent nanoprobes, upconversion nanoparticle probes, supermagnetic iron oxide nanoprobes, and polymer- and liposome based nanoprobes are discussed.
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Lead (Pb) Toxicity Trigger Schizophrenia in Battery Workers of North Region of India

Total production of Pb acid batteries in India is about 8 million per year and nearly 10,000 Kg of Pb is consumed in the production of batteries.
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Anti-GnRH Receptor Monoclonal Antibodies, First-In-Class GnRH Analog

A monoclonal antibody (Mab) designated as GHR106 was generated against the extracellular domain (N1-29 synthetic peptide) of human gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) receptor. It is a first-in-class GnRH analog and can serve as a drug candidate for potential applications in the treatment of human cancers and/or fertility regulations.
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Street Drug, an Inotrope in Heart Failure?

Methamphetamine is one of the most commonly abused illegal stimulants and causes the release of dopamine, norepinephrine and serotonin. These neurotransmitters trigger vasospasm, causing persistent tachycardia, hypertension, and direct myocardial toxicity. Moderate usage of methamphetamine can increase cardiac output and myocardial contractility. However, larger doses can cause depression of the myocardium.
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Amyloid beta precursor protein: forgotten facts of the most studied protein in the 21st Century*

The amyloid precursor protein (APP) is mainly known for being the precursor of the ß-amyloid peptide, which accumulates in plaques found in the brain of Alzheimer’s disease patients. Expression in different tissues and the degree of sequence identity among mammals indicate an essential and non-tissue specific physiological function.
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Editorial Board Members Related to toxicity

PAULA M. CHILTON

Assistant Professor
Department of Microbiology & Immunology
University of Louisville
United States

Osama Mohamed Ahmed

Professor of Physiology
Physiology Division
Zoology Department
Faculty of Science, Beni-Suef University
Egypt

David J. MacEwan

Professor
Department of Molecular & Clinical Pharmacology
Institute of Translational Medicine
University of Liverpool
United Kingdom

A. F. M. Motiur Rahman

Associate Professor
Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry
College of Pharmacy, King Saud University
Saudi Arabia

Bidyut Roy

Professor
Human Genetics Unit
Indian Statistical Institute
India

Maria Amália da Silva Jurado

Assistant Professor
Department of Life Sciences
University of Coimbra
Portugal

MENG-YANG ZHU

Associate Professor
Department of Pharmacology
Quillen College of Medicine
East Tennessee State University
United States

Remigius U Agu

Associate Professor
Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences
University of Kentucky
United States

Trevor Archer

Department of Psychology
Uppsala University
Sweden

Vincenzo Cuomo

Professor
Department of Pharmacology
University of Rome
Italy
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