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Ecological Risk Assessment of Desalination Plants Discharges on the Marine Environment Red Sea, Egypt

Desalination has become one of the main alternatives to compensate for water shortages. Although seawater desalination is expensive and has many environmental risks, it is still an important option to compensate for water shortages in Egypt. The discharge of liquid waste (especially heavy metals) from the station into the sea has a negative impact on the water, so the spatial distribution of heavy metals (lead, cadmium, and copper) shows high concentrations near the outlets of both AlQusayr and the port of Al-Qusayr. Hamata desalination plants in the southern Red Sea. As for higher quantities of heavy metals - higher than the standard values - such as (Cu, Pb, Cd), they are classified as seawater pollutants, whether they show evidence of toxicity or not. The study demonstrated that seaweed has bio-absorption properties and can effectively absorb heavy metals from the surrounding water, and thus it can serve as a bio-indicator in tools for monitoring the degree of pollution, as well as evaluating water desalination activities
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Comprehensive Study of Various Chemical Samples in Forensic Toxicology: Focus on Urine Sample

Toxicology deals with the measurement and analysis of toxins. It is itself a vast branch of science, though it has several branches and one of these is forensic toxicology. Forensic toxicology is a branch of toxicology that lines up with other disciplines, namely clinical chemistry, postmortem forensic toxicology, human performance toxicology and forensic drug testing, providing medical jurisprudence of adverse effects such as drug abuse, poisoning and death. The key role of forensic toxicology is to identify and analyse the toxin compounds found during adverse events. This review paper aims to draw an idea about the toxin, in the collected biological chemical samples such as urine samples and their effects on their day-to-day life
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Entomological Observations on a Decomposing Pig (Sus scrofa) in Nebraska: Late Spring to Early Summer

The determination of the postmortem interval (PMI) towards assisting in medicolegal investigations is a frequent requirement in any developed jurisdiction. Each of the latter has prevailing peculiarities, especially with many operating variables that include seasonal changes. There is a dearth of information about the decompositional pattern and progress of cadavers deposited on the ground in Nebraska, a jurisdiction lying within the Central Great Plains of North America. The present study, using an experimental pig was designed to consider the entomological peculiarities within a geographical area exhibiting taphonomic characteristics, and during a defined season.
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Transboundary Water Pollution in Ghana: Addressing the Environmental Footprint of Illegal Mining through Legal and Policy Solutions

In Ghana, where pristine waters once flowed freely, a dark tide of transboundary pollution casts a shadow. Illegal mining, a hydra-headed monster, spews its venom into rivers and streams, poisoning ecosystems and threatening communities across borders. This qualitative study, based on a meticulous analysis of 45 key papers, dives deep into the causes and consequences of this environmental scourge.
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Leveraging Electronic Medical Records for Legal Compliance and Improved Reimbursement Efficiency

Background and Objective: Septic shock remains an impatient cause of morbidity and mortality. Early restitution of the circulation improve tissue oxygen delivery and increase survival. This study is a prospective randomized single center study its main objective is to investigate the therapeutic value of hypertonic saline in patients with septic shock. Methods: Fifty-two critically ill patients admitted with septic shock divided into two groups, the first group received isotonic saline (control group) starch, while the second received hypertonic saline 5%.
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Sigmoid Vaginoplasty in Patient with Complete Androgen Insensitivity: Technique and Outcomes

Androgen Insensitivity Syndrome (AIS), also known as testicular feminization, is a rare medical condition that has garnered increased attention in recent years due to evolving research and therapeutic approaches [1,2], as well as the psychological repercussions it has on patients and the risk of being associated not only with sex cord–stromal tumors but also with rare mesenchymal tumors [3]. AIS results from anomalies in the X chromosome and leads individuals with an XY genotype to exhibit various degrees of female physical traits or complete feminine characteristics
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On the Self-Organization of Dielectric Barrier Discharges

The present paper contains experimental analysis of the spatiotemporal structure of atmospheric pressure dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) in a packet-pulse excitation mode widely used as an effective tool for plasma modification of various media. The motivation is the need to optimize the conditions for DBD plasma obtaining with a homogeneous diffuse structure. It is shown that for a discharge gap of the millimeter range (1–3 mm) in atmospheric air, under certain conditions, a number of new plasma phenomena are possible - the effects of an increase in the density (total number) of filamentary discharges over time, both unchanged and with a decrease in the area of the filaments, as well as the formation of complex space-time structures. An interpretation of this phenomenon is proposed. Homogeneous diffuse discharges are obtained in a standard electrode configuration with a single dielectric
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In-vitro Regeneration in Maize (Zea Mays L.) from Mature Embryo

Maize is an economically important crop worldwide. As the world population increases, there is a great need to develop high yielding and stress resistant maize varieties. To provide a future platform for maize improvement, we tested mature embryos as alternative explants for the regeneration of three economically important maize inbred lines: CML331, CML442 and CML444.
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Pulmonary Congestion Dynamics According to Inter-Dialytic Intervals in Hemodialysis

Lung ultrasound (LUS) is reliable in detecting and quantifying of pulmonary congestion in hemodialysis (HD) patients. Pulmonary congestion holds a negative prognostic value in HD patients even when it is asymptomatic. The pathophysiology of pulmonary congestion in HD is complex and includes volume and non-volume dependant factors. We examined the impact of different inter-dialytic intervals on pulmonary congestion by studying its dynamics using lung ultrasou
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Haosmc Growth on Various Sustainable Nano/Micropatterned Surface Topographies Utilising Reusable Surface Templatin

The aim of controlling/regulating cellular processes by surface patterning of biomaterials is a crucial concept in emerging research fields, where the precise fabrication of micro-nano surface topographies is required at manufacturing scales to meet consumer demand. Photolithography is typically employed for surface patterning; however, the high cost, process complexity, and lack of environmentally friendly and sustainable methodologies represent steep barriers for many researchers. Soft lithographic methods have been utilised extensively as a potential alternative for traditional photolithography, yet a photolithographic step is still required for initial template fabrication. Here, we demonstrate the use of repurposed optical consumer items such as DVDs, diffraction glasses, and gratings that would otherwise be thrown away after their useful lives, being used here as a sustainable approach as templates for the formation of complex nano-patterns. By replicating these templates in polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) and polylactic acid (PLA), we show the varied interactions of human aortic smooth muscle cells (HAoSMC) to these surfaces. Notably, it was demonstrated that, in comparison to nonpatterned substrates, HAoSMC interaction (adhesion, spreading, and viability) was higher on DVD patterned surfaces compared to diffraction glass and grating patterned surfaces according to the results from cell metabolic activity (MTT and Alamar Blue), and proliferation (total DNA) assays. We demonstrate that a simple, reusable, inexpensive, yet robust technology could be a powerful tool in improving our understanding of cell-surface interactions and for the potential development of medical devices with micro- and nanoscale low or high adhesion features
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Intravascular Large B-Cell Lymphoma, an Updated Review

Intravascular large B-cell lymphoma (IVBCL) is a rare but aggressive form of non-Hodgkin lymphoma. It is characterized by the malignant proliferation of lymphocytic tumor cells in the lumens of capillaries, small arterioles, and post-capillary venules. There exists two clinical variants: the Asian variant and the Western variant. The former is associated with neurologic and dermatologic signs and symptoms, whereas the latter often presents with splenomegaly, jaundice, and hemophagocytes. Lymphadenopathy is uncommon, and patients typically have nonspecific symptom
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The Efficiency and Safety of a Resveratrol and Alpha Lipoic Acid Combination in the Prevention of Gestational Diabetes Related Complications: A Retrospective Clinical Trial

Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is associated with an increased maternal and fetal risk of complications. Other than lifestyle modifications and diet, little prevention can be done towards this maternal complication. Through a preclinical approach and a retrospective clinical trial, we investigated the effects of maternal supplementation with a nutraceutical composition based on resveratrol (RSV) and alpha-lipoic acid (ALA) on insulin resistance and GDM status
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Idol from within

We already know a lot about the world around us and, in general terms, understand how things work. Of course, some problems have not yet been solved: the behavior of black holes, the mysteries of quantum entanglement, the transparency of dark matter. It is not clear how life arose from dust. However, we hope to eventually understand everything that we do not yet understand, because we believe in the power of our minds. But the problem of the mind itself stands apart. There is nothing more complex in the world than consciousness. Here we have to comprehend ourselves and it is not entirely obvious that this is possible. Let's say the meat grinder is quite primitive, but she doesn't know it.
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Complex Decongestive Therapy and Additional Physiotherapy in Male Breast Cancer: A Case-Report

Introduction: Male Breast Cancer is a very rare disease associated with delayed diagnosis and a more invasive or aggressive tumor therapy, i.e., surgery, radiation, chemotherapy and hormone therapy. Lymphedema, shoulder joint restrictions, posture failures, sensitivity disorders, pain or cancer-related fatigue are common complaints.
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Immunity to Anaplasma marginale and Recent Advances in Vaccine Development

Anaplasma marginale is the etiological agent of bovine anaplasmosis, one of the most prevalent tick-borne diseases of cattle in tropical and subtropical regions that causes significant economic losses to cattle industry. Cattle that survive infection remain persistently infected for life. Immunity against A. marginale infection seems to require both humoral and cellular mechanisms. Antibodies against A. marginale neutralize bacteria by interacting with Major Surface Proteins (MSPs). For this reason, MSPs are believed to be one of the best candidate antigens for vaccine development. Research carried out in the last few years has helped us to understand the antigenic composition of A. marginale and to develop new potential vaccine formulations. Desirable bovine anaplasmosis vaccine must induce protective immunity as well as prevent infection and transmission
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Introduction to the special issue on ‘Nanostructures by Valve Metal Anodization’

With this special issue of JMSN we are pleased to present significant contributions to a fascinating topic in the field of materials nanostructing, which is the anodization of valve metals. By this treatment porous oxides of controlled geometry can be grown on the respective metal surfaces. To date, aluminum (Al) has been used most often, as confirmed in this special issue where nine out of ten contributions deals with its anodization.
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Ordered Growth of Anodic Aluminum Oxide in Galvanostatic and Galvanostatic-Potentiostatic Modes

The results are presented of obtaining anodic aluminum oxide with an ordered pore arrangement by employing two anodizing modes - galvanostatic mode and combined (galvanostatic + potentiostatic) mode, at high values of the current density and voltage. Use has been made of an oxalate electrolyte and a complex electrolyte comprising oxalic acid and phosphoric acid. Scanning electron microscopy has been used to investigate the surface morphology of the barrier and porous layers and to determine pore sizes and inter-pore distance.
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Anodic Porous Alumina Array for Cyanine Fluorophore Cy3 Confinement

Self-organized anodic porous alumina films with hexagonal pore lattice have attracted a considerable attention for biological arrays and confinement of various organic probes dyes in solutions. A molecular structure with axial symmetry in bis-heterocyclic indole chains and conjugate system, such as cyanine fluorophore Cy3 dye, was investigated here with respect to its fluorescence when loaded in the anodic alumina pores.
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Anodizing for Design and Function

Two basic reactions occur during the anodizing of aluminum: 1) the aluminum is consumed and 2) an oxide grows. By accepting this statement as true, the anodizing process can be viewed as a corrosion process, and anodizing can be modeled using the Tafel Equation. Anodizing process parameters of electrolyte chemistry and concentration, temperature, aluminum substrate resistance and current density are presented as they relate to the Tafel Equation and how they impact the anodic aluminum oxide structure and properties. Understanding this relationship is consequent in making anodizing an engineering process, one that enables tuning the structure such that it yields distinct characteristics to fulfill design and application requirements.
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Recent Developments in Human Odor Detection Technologies

Human odor detection technologies have drawn attention due to the wide possibility of potential applications they open up in areas such as biometrics, criminal investigation and forensics, search for survivors under rubble, and security checkpoint screening. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) has been the most successful and powerful analytical approach developed to date for human odor analysis, and hundreds of human odorants have been identified using this tool.
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Electronic-nose Applications in Forensic Science and for Analysis of Volatile Biomarkers in the Human Breath

The application of electronic-nose (E-nose) technologies in forensic science is a recent new development following a long history of progress in the development of diverse applications in the related biomedical and pharmaceutical fields. Data from forensic analyses must satisfy the needs and requirements of both the scientific and legal communities. The type of data collected from electronic-nose devices provides a means of identifying specific types of information about the chemical nature of evidentiary objects and samples under investigation using aroma signature profiles of complex gaseous mixtures containing volatile organic compounds (VOCs) released from manufactured products and parts of the human body. E-nose analyses also provide useful qualitative information about the physicochemical characteristics and metabolic conditions of human subjects without the need for time-consuming analyses to identify all chemical components in human-derived volatile mixtures.
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Analysis of Sweat Simulant Mixtures using Multiplexed Arrays of DNA-Carbon Nanotube Vapor Sensors

Carbon nanotube (NT) based electronic vapor sensors were tested against synthetic sweat solutions, consisting of 13 volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in saline, in order to probe the device ability to analyze and differentiate vapors derived from complex biological samples.
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Characteristic Human Scent Compounds Trapped on Natural and Synthetic Fabrics as analyzed by SPME-GC/MS

The collection of human odor volatiles is of interest to forensic applications as a path to investigate canine scent discriminations in legal investigations. A study using a selected array of previously identified human odor compounds has been conducted to determine the retention and release capabilities of five (5) natural and synthetic fabric types, cotton (mercerized fabric and gauze matrix), polyester, rayon and wool.
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The Effects of the Film Thickness and Roughness in the Anodization Process of Very Thin Aluminum Films

The anodization of aluminum foils having micrometer thickness is a common process and results in hexagonally self-ordered alumina membranes. However, anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) membranes fabricated from nanometer-thin films present new challenges to the anodization process, since aluminum films adheres poorly on supporting substrates and the smoothness of the film is highly related to the kind of substrate.
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Anodic Oxidation of Titanium in Sulphuric Acid and Phosphoric Acid Electrolytes

Anodisation of pure titanium has been carried out in sulphuric and in phosphoric acid solutions at potentials ranging from 50 to 150V. The SEM and AFM morphological analysis indicates that, within this potential range, oxidation in sulphuric acid solution produces better developed mesoporous oxide layers.
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Fabrication of Ordered Arrays of Anodic Aluminum Oxide Pores with Interpore Distance Smaller than the Pitch of Nano-pits formed by Ion Beam Etching

We investigated a method for preparation of ordered nanopore arrays with the interpore distance of 60 nm by guided self-organization of anodic aluminum oxide with a prepatterned array of pits in the starting Al film.
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Preparation of Large Area Anodic Alumina Membranes and their Application to Thin Film Fuel Cell

The design of an electrochemical reactor for the preparation of self-supported comparatively thin (up to 10 μm) and large area (up to 50 cm2) anodic alumina membranes is described allowing growth of porous alumina at high applied potential (up to 150 V) without burning.
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Fabrication of Vertical Cu2ZnSnS4 Nanowire Arrays by Two-Step Electroplating Method into Anodic Aluminum Oxide Template

Vertical Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) nanowire arrays have been synthesized via two-step electroplating method into anodized aluminum oxide template. For deposition of CZTS nanowires, anodized aluminum oxide (AAO) was used as the growth mask for the growth of the nanowires. AAO templates with hole sizes of 70 nm in diameter were used in the experiments.
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Fabrication and Luminescence of Anodic Alumina with Incorporated Vanadyl Citrate Chelate Anions

Anodic aluminum oxide doped with vanadyl citrate chelate complex anions was formed by a two-step self-organized anodization in 2 wt. % sulfuric acid containing 0.04 M V2O5 and 0.08 M citric acid at voltage range 13-23 V, and at 0 and 15 oC. The combination of two temperatures and at least four voltages (depending on the applied temperature) was applied as the operating conditions of anodization.
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Synthesis of BaTiO3 Nanowires via Anodic Aluminum Oxide Template Method Assisted by Vacuum-and-Drop Loading

In this paper, we report on the synthesis of BaTiO3 nanowires via the anodic aluminum oxide template method. To fill in the precursors of BaTiO3 into anodic aluminum oxide templates, the vacuum and drop loading method developed in our previous study was used. Ba(CH3COO)2 (barium acetate) and C12H28O4Ti (tetraisopropyl orthotitanate) were used as Ba and Ti sources, respectively. Anodic aluminum oxide membranes with the through-hole diameter of ~200 nm were used as the template for BaTiO3 nanowires.
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Editorial Board Members Related to

David N. McIlroy

Professor
Department of Physics
University of Idaho
United States

Seyed Fakhreddin

Department of Seafood Processing
Faculty of Marine Sciences
Tarbiat Modares University
Iran

Yanni Sun

Assistant Professor
Department of Computer Science and Engineering
Michigan State University
United States

George K. Paraskevas

Associate Professor
Department of Anatomy
Faculty of Medicine
Aristotle University of Thessaloniki
Greece

Mohamed A Sabry

Associate Professor
Biochemistry Department
Arabian Gulf University
Bahrain

Fatma Aykut Tonk

Associate Professor
Department of Field Crops
University of Ege
Turkey

WILLIAM B. SILVERMAN

Clinical Professor of Internal Medicine
Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology
University of Iowa Carver College of Medicine
United States

TAREK SHOKEIR

Professor
Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology
Mansoura University Teaching Hospitals
Egypt

Rashmi Bansal

Professor
Department of Neuroscience
University of Connecticut Health Center
United States

Emmanuel Andres

Professor
Department of Internal Medicine
University Hospital of Strasbourg
France
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