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Articles Related to ALS

Estimating the Unobserved Signals in the Mean and Dispersion in the Number of People who Tested Positive of COVID-19 in the UK

COVID-19 pandemic is a global public health emergency, where the rate of infection with Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), without prevention strategies, increases exponentially, and the spread of the virus from person to person is very fast. Fitting for COVID-19 infectious disease counts has received a great deal of attention, and modelling the dispersion of COVID-19 infectious disease counts can help measuring the spread of the disease in a population and evaluating the intervention
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Activated Charcoal and Derivate Materials in Drugs and Biopharmaceutical Purification: Impurity Aspects

In literature are reported various use of activated charcoal AC and derivates in biopharmaceutical purifications.Aim of this work is to verify impurity proficle when using this technology.Various commercial products are reported here but it is not the scope of this work put in relation with any toxicological reaction: only to describe the technique used in this field.Because various drugs and bioproduct need purification steps it is if of interest to see some material science peculiarity
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Unfolded Protein Response in Cereals, A Dynamic Signaling Pathway Involved in Response to Environmental Stresses

Stress of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is induced by the accumulation of misfolded proteins in this organelle. It can be triggered by biotic and abiotic stress (particularly heat), but also by chemical treatments (such as DTT and tunicamycin) at a laboratory scale. To respond to this stress, various cellular mechanisms are involved, including the highly conserved protein repair pathway, the UPR (Unfolded Protein Response). This pathway aims to restore protein homeostasis in cells. In cereals, seed storage proteins (SSP) represent one of the characteristics that determine grain quality and are of great interest to agriculture. Unlike dicots, the dynamics of the UPR induction pathway in monocots are poorly documented in the literature.
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Advance Indexed Model Analysis of Heavy Metals Pollution of River Ureje, Ado Ekiti, Nigeria

The results obtained from heavy metal pollution assessment of River Ureje using Heavy Pollution Index (HPI) and Contamination Index (Cd ). HPI values at upstream and downstream point of the river, Cd, Pb, Cr had high pollution load that exceeded threshold value of 100 while Mn, Cu, Zn, Ni had low pollution index which are below threshold value. This indicated that high pollution status of Cd, Pb, Cr were observed because they compete with other essential metallic cations for binding sites and inhibits enzyme activity while there is no pollution presence of Zn, Mn, Ni, Cu. Cd value results in both upstream and downstream point revealed that Zn, Cd, Cu, Pb had a low contamination index below <1 contamination value and tends to show no effect on aquatic environment and drinking water quality. However, Cr, Ni had medium contamination compared to (Cd=1-3) Cd value, this indicates slight contamination of these heavy metals and have slight effect on drinking water quality and aquatic life present while Manganese had high Cd value compared to (Cd>3) Cd value which to tends have high effect on drinking water quality and aquatic system. In conclusions, this study revealed that High level of HPI above critical index value was observed for Cd, Cr, Pb while Mn shows high Cd far above contamination index value.
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The Effect of the Morphology Optimization of Precursor with Different Nickel Content on the Performance of Lithium-Ion Battery Cathode Materials

Increasing the nickel content in the layered LiNixCoyMnzO2 (x + y + z = 1), the most promising cathode materials for lithium ion batteries (LIBs), has been a dominant strategy to increase their energy density. In this study, we report the control on the primary particle morphology of precursors with different nickel contents, e.g. Ni0.5Co0.2Mn0.3(OH)2 Ni0.6Co0.2Mn0.2(OH)2 and Ni0.8Co0.1Mn0.1(OH)2 by adjusting the preparation process. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images demonstrate that by decreasing the pH value and increasing the ammonia concentration, the order of precursors with different nickel contents increases, resulting in gradually directional and orderly stack or interlaced arrangement in the primary particles. With the increase of nickel content, the precursor changes from nano-sheet stacking like plug-in stereoscopic spheres to nano-needle interweaving like wool balls, all of which tend to grow in the direction of [001].
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Bioequivalence Study of Two 80 Mg Valsartan Tablets Formulations in Healthy Chinese Subjects Under Fasting and Fed Condition

Objective: The purpose of this study was to compare the bioavalability between the two 80 mg Valsartan Tablets formulations and to evaluate the bioequivalence of Reference and Test formulations of Valsartan Tablets 80 mg in Healthy adult chinese Male and Female subjects under Fasting and Fed condition.
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Falsely Low HbA1c Unmasking a Latent HbE Defec

The current case report illustrates role of vigilant laboratory services that helped in unmasking asymptomatic HbE variant in a middle aged known diabetic woman who came as an outdoor patient and on subsequent HbA1c testing was found to have lower value -2.9 %. It triggered extensive workup after looking for common causes and an electrophoresis of Hemoglobin revealed HbE variant.
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Chemicals Disinfections and Their Effects on The Dimensional Stability of Alginate: Systematic Review

Dental practice involves a risk of exposure to microorganisms causing many infectious diseases. The risk of contamination starts at the beginning of the prosthetic workflow through impressions. Various chemical disinfection protocols for dental impressions are reported in the literature.
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Socio-Demographic, Clinical Characteristics and Blood Lipid profiles of Type 1 Diabetic Patients Followed in Regional Hospitals in The Northern Zone of Cameroon

Background and Objective: In Cameroon, given the galloping growth in the prevalence of diabetes, in particular type 1 diabetes in the northern regions, we undertook this study, with the objective to improve the management of type 1 diabetes by determining the socio-demographic, clinical characteristics and lipid profiles of the patients followed in the care centers of regional hospitals of Maroua, Garoua and Ngaoundere. Methods: We undertook a descriptive cross-sectional study from 07 August 2018 to 07 May 2019 in the care centers of the regional hospitals. Sociodemographic and clinical data were collected by interview to consent patient through structured questionnaires in the survey sheet. Anthropometric data were also determined during the survey, and the blood was collected in referred laboratory for determination of some lipid profiles parameters. Results: On a sample of 467 Patient suffering from diabetes, 68 were of type 1, representing a prevalence of 26%. Type 1 diabetes Patients were mostly female (61.8%) and the mean age was 20.72 ± 3.4 years with a high percentage between 20-30 years (51.5%). More than half of our patients were pupils and students, many of them practiced Muslims as religion (58.8%). In most of cases (51.3%), the disease was diagnosed after one year as a result of illness. The majority of our patients were non-smokers (98.5%) and less athletic (32.4%). The mean Body Mass Index (BMI) was 23.03 ± 2.7 kg /m2 with an average waist circumference of 80.26 ± 9.23 cm in men and 82.15 ± 10.45 in women. Their treatment was based essentially on insulin therapy, mainly using regular and intermediate insulins. More than half of the subjects had high blood glucose (78.1%), high triglyceride (34.1%) and HDL-cholesterol (29.3%) levels. Most of the patients suffered from overweight/obesity, high blood pressure, arthritis, kidney failure and other diseases (malaria, jaundice, stomach ache). No significant relation was found between clinical and the sociodemographic and blood lipid profiles. Conclusion: It emerges from this study that type 1 diabetes represent high proportions of diabetes cases in septentrional area of Cameroon, and affect mostly young of less than 30 years old, dominated by women, practicing Muslim as religion. Their clinical profile characterized by high frequency of overweight/obesity, kidney failure and arthritis vary, but not significantly, with neither their sociodemographic nor their blood lipid profiles. Absence of sport, female and less control of their hypoglycemia are factors risks of the progression of the disease.
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Removal of Heavy Metals from Groundwater by Hydrous Ferric Oxide-Modified Peanut Shell

This study reports the adsorption capacity of copper Cu (II) and nickel Ni (II) of biochar obtained from peanut shell. The kinetics and equilibrium of biosorption were examined in detail. Two kinetic models (pseudo-first order and pseudo-second order) were used to correlate the experimental data and to determine the kinetic parameters. Two well-known adsorption isotherms were chosen to describe the biosorption equilibrium (Langmuir and Freundlich). The equilibrium isotherms showed that modified peanut shells possess high affinity, sorption capacity for Cu (II) and Ni (II) ions, sorption capacities of 37.443 mg/g Cu (II) and 28.626 mg/g Ni (II) biomass, respectively. All results showed that peanut shells biomass is an attractive, alternative low-cost bio sorbent for removal of heavy metal ions from aqueous media, therefore biomass materials find good application prospects.
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Hypoglycemic Potential of Ziziphus spina-christi Fruit on Alloxan induced Hyperglycemic Rats

Hyperglycaemia is a key symptom in diabetes mellitus associated with long term damages, dysfunction and eventually failure of organs, especially the eyes, kidneys, nerves, heart and blood vessels. This study is to evaluate the hypoglycaemic potential of orally administered aqueous and ethanol extracts of Zyziphus spina-christ fruit on alloxan induced hyperglycaemic Wistar rats. The plant was extracted using maceration using aqueous and 80% ethanol as extraction solvents. Qualitative phytochemical analysis was done. An in vitro assessment of both aqueous and ethanol extract to demonstrate hypoglycaemic activity via inhibition of alpha amylase enzyme and alpha glucosidase enzymes were done. Total of 45 albino rats were used in the study of both sexes divided in 9 groups. Group 1: normal control group, group 2: diabetic control group, group 3: positive control group (metformin 300mg/kg), group 4-6: (150mg/kg, 300mg/kg and 600mg/kg) aqueous extract and group 7-9: (150mg/kg, 300mg/kg and 600mg/kg) ethanol extract. Groups were compared using one way ANOVA for significant differences and Dunnet’s posthoc test was deployed were differences exit. Data were represented as mean ± SEM and p value <0.005 The aqueous and ethanol extract yielded 35.59%% and 46.68% respectively. Phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, terpenoids, tannins, Saponins, Saponins glycosides, steroids, Phytosteroids, carbohydrate and volatile oil. An in vitro assessment of aqueous and ethanol extract demonstrated hypoglycaemic activity via inhibition of both alpha amylase enzyme and alpha glucosidase enzymes. The percentage inhibition of alpha amylase was presented as IC50 of 0.14, 0.19 and 0.58 for the acarbose, ethanol extract and aqueous extract respectively. Alpha glucosidase inhibition was represented by the IC50 of 0.7mg/ml, 0.9mg/ml and 0.7mg/ml for acarbose, ethanol extracts and aqueous extracts. The aqueous and ethanol extracts significantly decrease the blood glucose level. Elevation of cholesterol and LDL was seen in diabetic control group. The results from the studies showed that Ziziphus spina-Christi fruit aqueous and ethanol extracts has an anti-hyperglycaemic potential which is not a dose dependent both in Vitro and in Vivo. Ziziphus spina-Christi fruit aqueous and ethanol extract also causes a significant reduction in cholesterol level.
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Progressive Supranuclear Palsy with Classic Radiological Signs: A Case Report and Literature Review

Progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) is a rare neurodegenerative parkinsonian syndrome with distinct clinical features which tends to be progressive, causing vertical supranuclear gaze palsy, frontal lobe cognitive decline, postural instability and progressive axial rigidity. Clinical examination typically reveals ocular motor dysfunction including restricted vertical gaze, slow vertical saccades and “eyelid opening apraxia” with intact vestibule ocular reflex. PSP falls under the rubric of Parkinsonism plus syndromes that are a group of heterogeneous degenerative neurological disorders that differ from the classical idiopathic Parkinson’s disease. PSP is often underreported, making it important for clinicians to be aware of this disorder. Here we report a case of PSP, which presented primarily with speech disturbances and recurrent falls due to postural instability. On investigating, the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed a classical sign diagnostic of PSP. This teaching case report describes management and prognosis of the disease
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High Prevalence of Morphological Abnormality on Peripheral Blood Cells Among Patients in Public Hospitals, Southern Ethiopia

Introduction: Morphologically abnormal blood cells in peripheral blood of a person reflect underlying pathological condition affecting formation, function, and lifespan of these cells. A properly identified morphological defect in peripheral blood cells is important to manage anemia, leukemia and other disorders of blood. This study aimed to assess magnitude and severity of morphological abnormality in blood cells of patients with abnormal complete blood count in public hospitals found in southern Ethiopia. Method: A facility-based cross-sectional study was conducted from January 01 to March 31, 2019 among five public hospitals in Southern Ethiopia. Peripheral blood sample and socio-demographic data were collected from 423 patients with abnormal complete blood count. Thin blood smear was prepared by Wedge method, stained with Wright’s Stain, and examined under microscope by 1000X magnification to detect and characterize abnormality in blood cells’ morphology. Descriptive statistical analysis was done using Statistical Package for Social Sciences version 20.0, and results are presented in tables and figures. Result: Prevalence of blood cell morphological abnormality was 63.8%. From this, 21.8% is marked and 78.2% is moderate abnormality. In 41.9% of the affected patients, the defect involved at least two blood cell types mainly affecting red blood cells. Females (73.8%), children (70.1%) and elderly (82.1%) carried higher prevalence of the abnormality. Conclusion: High prevalence of abnormality in PBS morphology was observed, chiefly among female, children and elderly. Stakeholders should work to alleviate the high prevalence, with particular attention to women, children and old-age people.
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A Review on Veterinary Medical Waste Disposal and Management

The purpose of this review is to highlight environmentally sound disposal methods of veterinary pharmaceutcals wastes and the risks associated with its improper disposal, with a systematic review. Pharmaceuticals are produced and used in large volumes increasingly every year throughout the world. Medicinal waste products are medicinal products which are not fit for sale or supply. Waste produced in veterinary practice in common with other medical disciplines can be broken down into general waste similar to household waste, clinical waste and hazardous waste. Disposal of pharmaceutical compounds is becoming a complex environmental issue. The safety and health of the environment is directly affected by the disposal methods. Improper medical waste disposal and management causes all types of pollution (air, soil, and water). Proper waste management have to be undertaken to ensure that it does not affect the environment and not cause health hazards to the people living there. Different types of medical waste require different disposal techniques. The appropriate safe disposal method recommended will depend principally on the pharmaceutical dosage form of the drugs. One of the best advisable veterinary waste disposal practices is to store the waste properly before collection and transportation. Some general medical waste can be disposed of in landfill, others require specialist treatment such as a medical incinerator. Appropriate safety precautions, which minimize the risk to the health and safety of pharmacy staff, should be taken when handling medicinal waste products. Extra precautions should be taken by staff in high-risk groups as they may be at increased risk if they come into contact with particular substances. The cost of pharmaceuticals waste disposal comprises of direct costs of supplies and materials used for collection, transport, storage, treatment, disposal, decontamination and cleaning, the cost of labor and material for training and maintenance, and will vary depending on the treatment method chosen, the capacity of the treatment facility and according to the waste quantity and quality.
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Decontamination of Impressions: Knowledge and Attitudes of Dentists in The Dakar Region (Senegal).

Introduction: The prosthetic act must obey the rules of asepsis with a certain rigour for the decontamination of impressions to reduce the risk of cross-contamination. The objective of this study was to evaluate the knowledge and attitudes of practitioners in the Dakar region (Senegal) regarding the decontamination of impressions. Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional descriptive epidemiological survey of 150 dentists in the Dakar region. Results: The sample consisted of 59,3% men and 40,7% women. Practitioners practising in private practice were 61,0% against 39% in public practice. The majority (83.3%) of dentists in the study had not received any continuing education on aseptic procedures in prosthetics and had a vague idea of the term "decontamination of impressions". Nevertheless, almost all practitioners (94,0%) systematically rinsed the impressions with water after disinsertion, 48.7% of practitioners decontaminated their impressions with a disinfectant. The most used decontamination methods were immersion at 70.3% followed by spraying at 17.1%. Sodium hypochlorite (63.9%) was the most used solution due to its effectiveness, simplicity of use and cost. Conclusion: There is diversity in the attitude and knowledge of dentists. Disinfection protocols that are simple to implement and adapted to the impression materials should be put in place. Moreover, a rinsing as soon as the mouth is removed must be carried out, then a post-disinfection rinsing for a better dimensional stability of our impressions.
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Ordered Growth of Anodic Aluminum Oxide in Galvanostatic and Galvanostatic-Potentiostatic Modes

The results are presented of obtaining anodic aluminum oxide with an ordered pore arrangement by employing two anodizing modes - galvanostatic mode and combined (galvanostatic + potentiostatic) mode, at high values of the current density and voltage. Use has been made of an oxalate electrolyte and a complex electrolyte comprising oxalic acid and phosphoric acid. Scanning electron microscopy has been used to investigate the surface morphology of the barrier and porous layers and to determine pore sizes and inter-pore distance.
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Anodic Porous Alumina Array for Cyanine Fluorophore Cy3 Confinement

Self-organized anodic porous alumina films with hexagonal pore lattice have attracted a considerable attention for biological arrays and confinement of various organic probes dyes in solutions. A molecular structure with axial symmetry in bis-heterocyclic indole chains and conjugate system, such as cyanine fluorophore Cy3 dye, was investigated here with respect to its fluorescence when loaded in the anodic alumina pores.
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Anodizing for Design and Function

Two basic reactions occur during the anodizing of aluminum: 1) the aluminum is consumed and 2) an oxide grows. By accepting this statement as true, the anodizing process can be viewed as a corrosion process, and anodizing can be modeled using the Tafel Equation. Anodizing process parameters of electrolyte chemistry and concentration, temperature, aluminum substrate resistance and current density are presented as they relate to the Tafel Equation and how they impact the anodic aluminum oxide structure and properties. Understanding this relationship is consequent in making anodizing an engineering process, one that enables tuning the structure such that it yields distinct characteristics to fulfill design and application requirements.
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The Effects of the Film Thickness and Roughness in the Anodization Process of Very Thin Aluminum Films

The anodization of aluminum foils having micrometer thickness is a common process and results in hexagonally self-ordered alumina membranes. However, anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) membranes fabricated from nanometer-thin films present new challenges to the anodization process, since aluminum films adheres poorly on supporting substrates and the smoothness of the film is highly related to the kind of substrate.
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Anodic Oxidation of Titanium in Sulphuric Acid and Phosphoric Acid Electrolytes

Anodisation of pure titanium has been carried out in sulphuric and in phosphoric acid solutions at potentials ranging from 50 to 150V. The SEM and AFM morphological analysis indicates that, within this potential range, oxidation in sulphuric acid solution produces better developed mesoporous oxide layers.
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Fabrication of Ordered Arrays of Anodic Aluminum Oxide Pores with Interpore Distance Smaller than the Pitch of Nano-pits formed by Ion Beam Etching

We investigated a method for preparation of ordered nanopore arrays with the interpore distance of 60 nm by guided self-organization of anodic aluminum oxide with a prepatterned array of pits in the starting Al film.
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Preparation of Large Area Anodic Alumina Membranes and their Application to Thin Film Fuel Cell

The design of an electrochemical reactor for the preparation of self-supported comparatively thin (up to 10 μm) and large area (up to 50 cm2) anodic alumina membranes is described allowing growth of porous alumina at high applied potential (up to 150 V) without burning.
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Fabrication of Vertical Cu2ZnSnS4 Nanowire Arrays by Two-Step Electroplating Method into Anodic Aluminum Oxide Template

Vertical Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) nanowire arrays have been synthesized via two-step electroplating method into anodized aluminum oxide template. For deposition of CZTS nanowires, anodized aluminum oxide (AAO) was used as the growth mask for the growth of the nanowires. AAO templates with hole sizes of 70 nm in diameter were used in the experiments.
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Fabrication and Luminescence of Anodic Alumina with Incorporated Vanadyl Citrate Chelate Anions

Anodic aluminum oxide doped with vanadyl citrate chelate complex anions was formed by a two-step self-organized anodization in 2 wt. % sulfuric acid containing 0.04 M V2O5 and 0.08 M citric acid at voltage range 13-23 V, and at 0 and 15 oC. The combination of two temperatures and at least four voltages (depending on the applied temperature) was applied as the operating conditions of anodization.
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Synthesis of BaTiO3 Nanowires via Anodic Aluminum Oxide Template Method Assisted by Vacuum-and-Drop Loading

In this paper, we report on the synthesis of BaTiO3 nanowires via the anodic aluminum oxide template method. To fill in the precursors of BaTiO3 into anodic aluminum oxide templates, the vacuum and drop loading method developed in our previous study was used. Ba(CH3COO)2 (barium acetate) and C12H28O4Ti (tetraisopropyl orthotitanate) were used as Ba and Ti sources, respectively. Anodic aluminum oxide membranes with the through-hole diameter of ~200 nm were used as the template for BaTiO3 nanowires.
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Editorial Board Members Related to ALS

Marc G. Sturgill

Associate Professor and Chair
Department of Pharmacy Practice & Administration
Ernest Mario School of Pharmacy
Rutgers University
United States

SONG-NAN CHOW

Professor
Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology
National Taiwan University
Taiwan

Cecilia Young

Consultant Physician Pharmacist People Health Magazine
Hong Kong

Adolfo Godoy Pinto

Professor
Veterinary Medicine and Animal Science
University of Chile
Chile

Ronald E.P. Frenkel

Voluntary Professor of Ophthalmology
Bascom Palmer Eye Institute
University of Miami School of Medicine
United States

Sotiris C. Stamou

Assistant Professor
Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery
University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics
United States

Bidyut Roy

Professor
Human Genetics Unit
Indian Statistical Institute
India

Yanyan Li

Assistant Professor
Department of Health and Nutrition Sciences
Montclair State University
United States

Fayez M. Bany-Mohammed

Clinical Professor
Department of Pediatrics
University of California
United States

Changle Chen

Professor
Department of Polymer Science
University of Science and Technology of China
China
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