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Is an IOC Still Necessary during Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy?

Routine intraoperative cholangiogram (IOC) during laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) helps to confirm biliary anatomy and reduce bile leaks. It also allows identification of common bile duct stones intraoperatively which in selected patients can be cleared transcystically in the same procedure which is much less morbid than through post-operative endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP). Despite this, some surgeons only selectively perform IOC or forgot it all together.
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A New Approach to Identify Sphincter of Oddi Dysfunction

Sphincter of Oddi dysfunction (SOD) is a known gastrointestinal disorder that has been well documented but is difficult to diagnose noninvasively.
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In Vitro Models to Study Candida Albicans Biofilms

Biofilm is a common mode of fungal growth in clinical infection and Candida albicans is one of the species that are the most frequently associated with biofilm infection which has a significant impact on morbidity and mortality. In the mode of biofilm, C. albicans tends to display high resistance to body immunity and antimicrobial agents.
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Unusual Variant of Guillain-Barré Syndrome Following Hepato-biliary Surgery — A Rare Case Report

Guillain-barré syndrome (G.B. Syndrome) is an acute inflammatory poly-radiculoneuropathy characterized by weakness and areflexia typically following viral infection, vaccination, and rarely surgery. Acute Inflammatory Demyelinating Poly-radiculoneuropathy is the most common subtype of G.B. Syndrome. Although post-operative G.B. syndrome is a rare entity, there are few case reports of G.B. syndrome after gastric surgery. But there have been no reported case scenarios of atypical variety of this neurologic entity following hepato billiary surgery. Hence our objective is to put forward this message to the readers.
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Extensive Worm Infestation: A Case Report

Ascariasis is the most common helminthic infection in the world and is seen mostly in the developing countries of Asia. We report a case of heavy worm infestation in a 2-year-old child who presented with worms in small bowel, common bile duct and liver with abscesses. He was managed conservatively and recovered well without any sequalae.
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