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Perceptions of Latent Tuberculosis Infection Care by Providers at a Tertiary Care Center in the United States

Introduction: Mycobacterium tuberculosis (TB) is a leading cause of infectious disease mortality worldwide. A large reservoir of latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) is a major public health problem worldwide and in the United States. Methods: A 13-question survey was distributed to providers working in the infectious disease, pulmonary/critical care, and general medicine departments at an academic tertiary care center in the United States. The survey included questions about provider confidence in and knowledge about LTBI management and perceived barriers to patient completion of the LTBI care cascade. Results: The response rate of the survey was 33% (62/186). Only 17 (30.9%) providers were able to correctly identify indication for screening in all six of the given patient scenarios. Overall, provider confidence in LTBI management decreased along the care cascade. Infectious disease providers were the most confident in management. The two most observed barriers to care were language barriers and lack of knowledge or understanding about TB. Discussion: Surveyed providers believe the largest barriers to patient LTBI treatment completion are due to a lack of patient comprehension about their infection. Patient understanding could be improved through mandated in-person interpreters, information pamphlets in patients’ preferred languages, and formation of community partnerships, to improve awareness about LTBI.
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Exploring the Efficiency and Feasibility of Tin/Al2O3 /p-Si MIS Devices: A Critical Review and Analysis

Test results have indicated the types of behaviors that can be expected with band engineering. The high-k dielectric used has introduced a mid-gap state in the silicon band gap. It is the Al2O3 layer that is causing this. By taking a polycrystalline high-k dielectric, the different grain boundaries that occur in the structure introduce different energies in the insulator layer. The electrons in the silicon that are being pinned are being trapped by these high and low energy states between the oxygen and silicon bonds. This is known as a quasi-static trapping. What this does is build up a positive oxide charge over time. This has an effect on the overall conductance of the p-type silicon. In terms of positive ion charge that is felt by the silicon, the charge density is still the same with electrons being spatially redistributed around the bonding sites. This is a key advantage with high-k dielectrics and one of the goals of the current research into MIS devices. The test data is showing a current increase from the field emission. When tested with constant voltage and varying temperature, the emission is a result of a thermally activated process by the tunneling increases. Energy is transferable to electrons in the silicon with carriers increased and at higher temperatures the increase in carriers is exponential. This can cause negative bias instability in the device and is not a desirable outcome for p-type or CMOS with progression into more advanced technology in the quest for higher device integration. This issue can potentially be resolved by band engineering the silicon. This is a large and complex topic and according to results and the current understanding of high-k dielectrics, no further progress should be made until it is fully understood how an insulator with a mid-gap state can affect the silicon. This and the effects of positive charge build up are the research topics which will lead on from the current work into MIS devices with high-k dielectric
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Unlocking Neurodegeneration: Scaffold-Derived Blockers of MAO-B and AChE Inspired by Bryophyllum pinnatum: A Structural Exploration

This study evaluates the potential of Bryophyllum pinnatum ligands as treatments for Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Parkinson's disease (PD) by targeting acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and monoamine oxidase B (MAO-B), enzymes linked to these neurodegenerative disorders. Utilizing Schrödinger Suite and Maestro 12.8 for computer-aided drug design, ligands from B. pinnatum and standard drugs were docked into the active sites of AChE and MAO-B. Further analysis included ADMET screening and MM/GBSA calculations, with pharmacophore modeling to align compounds with reference ligands. The study identified 4 and 6 promising compounds as MAO-B and AChE inhibitors, respectively. Pinoresinol was identified as the most promising candidate, exhibiting optimal binding, favorable blood-brain barrier permeability, and pharmacophoric features similar to those of the standard drug. These findings suggest the neuroprotective capabilities of B. pinnatum ligands, recommending further in vivo and in vitro testing to confirm their therapeutic efficacy
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Dosing Time-Dependency of the Arthritis-Inhibiting Effect of Tofacitinib in Mice

Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) has a 24-hour rhythm with a characteristic symptom of morning stiness, which causes pain in the joints from late night to early morning. We previously revealed that higher therapeutic eects were obtained in RA patients and RA animal models when the dosing time of anti-rheumatic drugs was chosen according to the 24-hour rhythms of cytokine and in- ammatory reaction. In this study, we evaluated whether dosing with the Janus-associated kinases inhibitor Tofacitinib while accounting for biological rhythms results in higher therapeutic ecacy
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Nutritional Value and Chemical Composition of Selected Fodders; Feed Intervention in Smallholder Dairy Farms in Kenya

This study evaluated the nutritional value and chemical composition of five selected fodder; Boma Rhodes, lucerne, greenleaf Desmodium, chicory, and sweet potato vines which were collected from three geographically distinct regions: Bomet, Nyandarua, and Nyeri, and taken for chemical analysis in the Animal Nutrition laboratory in Animal Science department at Egerton University. These fodder species were analysed for their proximate composition, metabolisable energy, and van Soest composition. All these analyses were done on a dry matter basis. All these results were analysed at P<0.05. The results revealed significant variations in the nutritional profiles of these diets across the three regions. Bomet exhibits specific trends in crude protein and dry matter, while Nyandarua showcases variability in ether extract and total ash content. Nyeri emphasises differences in crude protein and ash content. These findings provide valuable insights into the regional variations in the chemical composition of fodder, highlighting the importance of tailoring dietary strategies for livestock based on the local environment. The study contributes to the existing literature by offering a comprehensive analysis of the nutritional value of common livestock diets in diverse regions, aiding farmers and researchers in optimizing animal nutrition and enhancing overall agricultural practices
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Effect of Selected Fodder Intervention on Milk Yield in Friesian Dairy Cows in Selected Counties in Kenya

Over three decades, the mean daily milk production per cow in these regions has remained stagnant at a mere 6 kg/day with most smallholder farmers yielding a mere 3.67 litres of milk per cow daily, it's evident that their productivity falls well below par. In an effort to address this issue, a study conducted delves into the second objective, which revolves around assessing the effects of diverse dietary supplements on milk yield across the distinct geographical areas of Nyandarua, Bomet, and Nyeri. The study involved the utilization of a supplementary feed mixture which was 400 g/kg DM of dry matter content, comprising; lucerne, greenleaf desmodium, sweet potato vines, and chicory, which was chopped and mixed in a ratio of 1:2:3:1. Supplementation was done at the following inclusion levels; T1 (0%), T2 (10%), T3 (20%) and T4 (30%) of the estimated daily dry matter intake of 4% of the live body weight of the dairy cow. A basal diet of boma Rhodes which was 400 g/kg DM of dry matter content was used. This study ran for nine weeks in each region; one week of backgrounding all the animals, followed by fourteen days of adaptation and a month and a half of data collection. The research scrutinizes the outcomes of milk production resultant from diets featuring supplementation levels ranging from 10% to 30% in Friesian dairy cows. The findings reveal that, in Bomet, There isn't a significant variation in milk production between diets exhibiting 10% and 30% supplementation, suggesting a potential plateau in response to heightened supplementation levels. Conversely, in Nyandarua, diets supplemented with 20% and 30% show no significant variance in milk yield, spotlighting the efficacy of a moderate supplementation level. In Nyeri, noteworthy disparities in milk yield emerge between diets with 10% and 30% supplementation levels
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Why Hydrogen Peroxide-Producing Proteins are Not Suitable Targets for Drug Development

Reactive oxygen species (ROS) play an important role in pathological processes and provide hope for the development of treatments aimed at suppressing the effects of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 ). However, attempts to inhibit superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1), the main antioxidant enzyme that converts superoxide anion into H2O2 and water during ROS metabolism, have not yielded significant results. To understand the reason for the failure, we studied the behavior of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) in cancer cells exposed to H2O2 -generating compounds. EGFR can be activated by binding of EGF ligand to the extracellular region of the receptor and by interaction of H2O2 -generating chemicals with the catalytic cysteine in the intracellular domain of the receptor. Both mechanisms independently trigger downstream signaling pathways in cells. EGFR expression can also be reduced by the protein tyrosine phosphatase PTP-1B, which itself is activated by H2O2 . A simple in-gel fluorescence technique demonstrates the rapid binding of H2O2 -generating molecules to hundreds of proteins in cancer cells. The natural defense system Nrf2 takes longer to break down target proteins and therefore cannot prevent H2O2 released by chemical agents from affecting unwanted proteins. It can be concluded that cytoplasmic SOD1 and other H2O2 -producing proteins that protect cells from oxidative damage are not suitable targets for the development of practical drugs for the treatment of human diseases.
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Isotretinoin May Decrease the Risk of Periodontitis and the Risk of CMV-Or of HPV-Infection

Background: Isotretinoin helps to control acne which is partly due to Cutibacterium acnes infection. Objective: Assess whether Isotretinoin may also help to control other types of infections which may directly or indirectly be associated with biofilms containing Cutibacterium acnes such as periodontitis, herpetic infections or HPV-infections. Methods: All relevant medical and biological data were collected during routine consultations for Small Intestinal Bowel Overgrowth from 2021 March 1st to 2024 March 1st
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Phytotherapy: A Complementary Approach in Endodontic Management

The use of plant-derived products for medicinal purposes, known as phytotherapy, is gaining increasing interest as a complementary approach to traditional protocols in endodontics. This literature review examines the various clinical applications of phytotherapy in endodontics, with a particular focus on its potential utility in all stages of conservative or surgical endodontic management. This analysis draws upon in vivo and in vitro data to examine the specific indications of phytotherapy, with a particular focus on its advantages in terms of antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, and regenerative activity. As a supplementary approach, phytotherapy offers a natural and promising alternative to enhance the outcomes of endodontic treatments, while providing a sustainable perspective on oral healthcare
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Treatment of Intrabony Defects with Enamel Matrix Derivative Proteins Using Minimally Invasive Surgical Approaches to Papilla Preservation: A Systematic Review with Metanalysis

Background: To investigate the clinical performance of minimally invasive surgical approaches for interdental tissue preservation in association with enamel matrix derivatives in the treatment of intraosseous defects. Materials and Methods: A systematic literature review was carried out (PROSPERO: CRD42020135131) through research, extraction and analysis of data in duplicate, according to the PICOS strategy. The Ovid MEDLINE databases were consulted; Ovid EMBASE; Open Gray and in the journals Journal of Periodontology, Journal of Clinical Periodontology, Journal of Periodontal Research and Journal of Dental Research, the search covered an unlimited period until May 2019, following the guide PRISMA. For assessment was used Cochrane Collaboration's risk. Results: Eight randomized controlled trials reporting 557 subjects and 698 defects were identified. Among in techniques for preserving interdental tissues, there were no differences between them. However, in the meta-analysis obtained by the studies, the results were superior in clinical gain of insertion in favor of the test group [n = 119; MD= 0.92; 95%; IC (0.35; 1.50); p = 0.002 I² 78%], with these results statistically significant Conclusions: the open flap debridement technique using interdental tissue preservation approaches in association with EMD promote slightly superior clinical results in insertion gain. Clinical Relevance: Assist the professional in their clinical practice in traeatment of periodontal defects with minimally surgical approachs and Furthermore, demonstrate the possibility and the benefits of using the biomaterials like the enamel derivative proteins in the regeneration these periodontal defects
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Replacement of Missing Teeth: Comparing Factors That Motivate Male Denture Wearers with their Female Counterpart among Selected Group of Nigerian

Introduction: A condition where one or more teeth are missing in the mouth is referred to as partial edentulism. These missing teeth could be replaced by removable partial denture (RPD) or fixed partial denture. Factors that determine choice of replacing missing teeth includes but not limited to; esthetic, mastication and prevention of further tooth loss. The aim of this study was to compare factor that motivate male denture wearers to replace their missing teeth with the female counterpart Method: This cross-sectional self-administered questionnaire-based study was conducted in University of Calabar Teaching Hospital and Nigeria Navy Reference Hospital, Calabar. The respondents comprise of patients who presented at the dental clinic of both Hospital. Inclusion criteria were patients who requested for the replacement of their missing teeth and gave inform consent, while exclusion criteria were those who requested for tooth extraction etc. Questionnaires was delivered to each participant by hand and collected after it was filled. The questionnaire was divided into two sections. The first is for information of the respondents while the second was on reason for seeking tooth replacement
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Innovative Method for Treating Diabetes: Cancer Medicines Show Great Possibility in Treating Type-1 Diabetes

Australian scientists have recently uncovered a groundbreaking discovery suggesting that diabetes, specifically type 1 diabetes, may be effectively treated using existing cancer drugs. The research indicates that two types of drugs commonly employed in cancer treatments have demonstrated the potential to prevent type 1 diabetes, with the remarkable capability of inducing insulin hormone production within the pancreas in as little as 48 hours. The experimental validation of this approach involved a successful trial conducted on three individuals, providing encouraging results that could revolutionize diabetes treatment. With more than 420 million people worldwide grappling with diabetes, this discovery holds significant promise for addressing a global health challenge. Further research and clinical trials are warranted to explore the full potential and safety of these cancer drugs as a potential cure for diabetes. If successful, this innovative approach may offer new hope to millions living with diabetes and pave the way for transformative advancements in diabetes care
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Biofilm and Extended Spectrum Beta Lactamase (ESBL) Producing Multi Drug Resistant Bacterial Uropathogens: A Challenge to Antibiotic Therapy in Nepal

Background: Urinary tract infection is one of the most common bacterial infections encountered by clinicians in developing countries. A biofilm is a structured consortium of bacteria embedded in a self-produced polymer matrix consisting of polysaccharide, protein and DNA. Antibiotic resistance is a problem of deep scientific concern both in hospital and community settings. This study was aimed to determine the biofilm producers among multidrug uropathogenic bacteria isolated from urine cultures
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Bioactivity of Plant Extracts Against Fusarium Oxysporum f. sp. Lycopersici Sacc.) Causing Wilt Disease of Tomato (Solanum Lycopersicum L) in the Southern Guinea Savannah, Nigeria

Wilt disease of tomato is caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici and it is an important disease which causes significant yield reduction in the crop throughout the world. A study was undertaken to isolate, identify and test the pathogenicity of F. oxysporum f. sp. Lycopersici on tomato; and to evaluate the bioactivity of Azadirachta indica leaf, Piper guineense seed and Zingiber officinale rhizome extracts as well as the synthetic fungicide, mancozeb at different concentrations and combinations for the management of F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici in vitro. Results revealed that the percentage frequency of the fungus isolated and identified was more on the roots (35.56 %) than the stems (26.67 %), fruits (20.00 %) and leaves (17.77 %). Results of the pathogenicity test showed more virulence in the roots than in other parts of the tomato plant. Extracts of the three plants and mancozeb proved effective in controlling the mycelial growth of the fungus either alone or when combined. Mancozeb consistently gave 100 % growth inhibition irrespective of the concentration used. Among the plant extracts applied alone at 40 g/L, Z. officinale (66.69 %) was the most effective followed by P. guineense (53.52 %) while A. indica was the least (36.99 %). The mycelial growth inhibition increased from 40 g/L to 120 g/L irrespective of the combination of the treatments used. A combination of mancozeb with any plant extract was more effective than a combination of the plant extracts. It is therefore, recommended that the plant extracts be applied either alone or in combination with other plant extracts or the fungicide to control F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici, increase tomato yield and reduce postharvest rots associated with the pathogen
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The Mastitis Carcinomatosa vs. Infiltrating Duct Carcinoma with Osteoclastic Giant Cell Reaction: A Case Report

The mastitis carcinomatosa or inflammatory breast carcinoma is an aggressive form of mammary tumors. Diagnosis is made on clinical, cytology and histology correlation. Imaging is performed to look for the extent of disease. Breast carcinoma with osteoclastic giant cells (OGCs) are uncommon. Here, we report a 35 year old woman with a painless lump in her left breast that has been proved clinically and radiologically. Microscopic examination reveal differential diagnosis of Inflammatory breast carcinoma and Infiltrating carcinoma with osteoclastic giant cells.
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Introduction to the special issue on ‘Nanostructures by Valve Metal Anodization’

With this special issue of JMSN we are pleased to present significant contributions to a fascinating topic in the field of materials nanostructing, which is the anodization of valve metals. By this treatment porous oxides of controlled geometry can be grown on the respective metal surfaces. To date, aluminum (Al) has been used most often, as confirmed in this special issue where nine out of ten contributions deals with its anodization.
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Ordered Growth of Anodic Aluminum Oxide in Galvanostatic and Galvanostatic-Potentiostatic Modes

The results are presented of obtaining anodic aluminum oxide with an ordered pore arrangement by employing two anodizing modes - galvanostatic mode and combined (galvanostatic + potentiostatic) mode, at high values of the current density and voltage. Use has been made of an oxalate electrolyte and a complex electrolyte comprising oxalic acid and phosphoric acid. Scanning electron microscopy has been used to investigate the surface morphology of the barrier and porous layers and to determine pore sizes and inter-pore distance.
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Anodizing for Design and Function

Two basic reactions occur during the anodizing of aluminum: 1) the aluminum is consumed and 2) an oxide grows. By accepting this statement as true, the anodizing process can be viewed as a corrosion process, and anodizing can be modeled using the Tafel Equation. Anodizing process parameters of electrolyte chemistry and concentration, temperature, aluminum substrate resistance and current density are presented as they relate to the Tafel Equation and how they impact the anodic aluminum oxide structure and properties. Understanding this relationship is consequent in making anodizing an engineering process, one that enables tuning the structure such that it yields distinct characteristics to fulfill design and application requirements.
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Recent Developments in Human Odor Detection Technologies

Human odor detection technologies have drawn attention due to the wide possibility of potential applications they open up in areas such as biometrics, criminal investigation and forensics, search for survivors under rubble, and security checkpoint screening. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) has been the most successful and powerful analytical approach developed to date for human odor analysis, and hundreds of human odorants have been identified using this tool.
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Electronic-nose Applications in Forensic Science and for Analysis of Volatile Biomarkers in the Human Breath

The application of electronic-nose (E-nose) technologies in forensic science is a recent new development following a long history of progress in the development of diverse applications in the related biomedical and pharmaceutical fields. Data from forensic analyses must satisfy the needs and requirements of both the scientific and legal communities. The type of data collected from electronic-nose devices provides a means of identifying specific types of information about the chemical nature of evidentiary objects and samples under investigation using aroma signature profiles of complex gaseous mixtures containing volatile organic compounds (VOCs) released from manufactured products and parts of the human body. E-nose analyses also provide useful qualitative information about the physicochemical characteristics and metabolic conditions of human subjects without the need for time-consuming analyses to identify all chemical components in human-derived volatile mixtures.
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Analysis of Sweat Simulant Mixtures using Multiplexed Arrays of DNA-Carbon Nanotube Vapor Sensors

Carbon nanotube (NT) based electronic vapor sensors were tested against synthetic sweat solutions, consisting of 13 volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in saline, in order to probe the device ability to analyze and differentiate vapors derived from complex biological samples.
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Characteristic Human Scent Compounds Trapped on Natural and Synthetic Fabrics as analyzed by SPME-GC/MS

The collection of human odor volatiles is of interest to forensic applications as a path to investigate canine scent discriminations in legal investigations. A study using a selected array of previously identified human odor compounds has been conducted to determine the retention and release capabilities of five (5) natural and synthetic fabric types, cotton (mercerized fabric and gauze matrix), polyester, rayon and wool.
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The Effects of the Film Thickness and Roughness in the Anodization Process of Very Thin Aluminum Films

The anodization of aluminum foils having micrometer thickness is a common process and results in hexagonally self-ordered alumina membranes. However, anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) membranes fabricated from nanometer-thin films present new challenges to the anodization process, since aluminum films adheres poorly on supporting substrates and the smoothness of the film is highly related to the kind of substrate.
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Anodic Oxidation of Titanium in Sulphuric Acid and Phosphoric Acid Electrolytes

Anodisation of pure titanium has been carried out in sulphuric and in phosphoric acid solutions at potentials ranging from 50 to 150V. The SEM and AFM morphological analysis indicates that, within this potential range, oxidation in sulphuric acid solution produces better developed mesoporous oxide layers.
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Fabrication of Ordered Arrays of Anodic Aluminum Oxide Pores with Interpore Distance Smaller than the Pitch of Nano-pits formed by Ion Beam Etching

We investigated a method for preparation of ordered nanopore arrays with the interpore distance of 60 nm by guided self-organization of anodic aluminum oxide with a prepatterned array of pits in the starting Al film.
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Preparation of Large Area Anodic Alumina Membranes and their Application to Thin Film Fuel Cell

The design of an electrochemical reactor for the preparation of self-supported comparatively thin (up to 10 μm) and large area (up to 50 cm2) anodic alumina membranes is described allowing growth of porous alumina at high applied potential (up to 150 V) without burning.
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Fabrication of Vertical Cu2ZnSnS4 Nanowire Arrays by Two-Step Electroplating Method into Anodic Aluminum Oxide Template

Vertical Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) nanowire arrays have been synthesized via two-step electroplating method into anodized aluminum oxide template. For deposition of CZTS nanowires, anodized aluminum oxide (AAO) was used as the growth mask for the growth of the nanowires. AAO templates with hole sizes of 70 nm in diameter were used in the experiments.
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Synthesis of BaTiO3 Nanowires via Anodic Aluminum Oxide Template Method Assisted by Vacuum-and-Drop Loading

In this paper, we report on the synthesis of BaTiO3 nanowires via the anodic aluminum oxide template method. To fill in the precursors of BaTiO3 into anodic aluminum oxide templates, the vacuum and drop loading method developed in our previous study was used. Ba(CH3COO)2 (barium acetate) and C12H28O4Ti (tetraisopropyl orthotitanate) were used as Ba and Ti sources, respectively. Anodic aluminum oxide membranes with the through-hole diameter of ~200 nm were used as the template for BaTiO3 nanowires.
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Editorial Board Members Related to CT

Jacek Wachowiak

Professor
Department of Pediatric Oncology, Hematology and Transplantology
University of Medical Sciences
Poland

Zeina Ghorab

Assistant Professor
Department of Pathology
Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre
Canada

Svetlana I Rogovskaya

Professor
Federal Russian Medical Academy of postgraduate education
Russia

Yosra A. Mohamed

Research Associate
Department of Veterinary Preventive Medicine
The Ohio State University
USA

Wei Min Huang

Associate Professor
Nanyang Technological University
Singapore

MASSIMO RUGGE

Professor
Department of Pathology
Padova University
Italy

Syed W. Shah

Associate Professor
School of Health Sciences
Universiti Sains Malaysia
Malaysia

Madhuresh Kumar Sethi

Researcher
Research and Development
Mylan Laboratories Limited
India

CHI-HIN CHO

Professor
School of Biomedical Sciences
The Chinese University of Hong Kong
Hong Kong
China

Eric Fung

Professor of Pharmacology
Department of Oral Biology
University of Nebraska Medical Center College of Dentistry
United States
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