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Articles Related to Cancer

Innovative Method for Treating Diabetes: Cancer Medicines Show Great Possibility in Treating Type-1 Diabetes

Australian scientists have recently uncovered a groundbreaking discovery suggesting that diabetes, specifically type 1 diabetes, may be effectively treated using existing cancer drugs. The research indicates that two types of drugs commonly employed in cancer treatments have demonstrated the potential to prevent type 1 diabetes, with the remarkable capability of inducing insulin hormone production within the pancreas in as little as 48 hours. The experimental validation of this approach involved a successful trial conducted on three individuals, providing encouraging results that could revolutionize diabetes treatment. With more than 420 million people worldwide grappling with diabetes, this discovery holds significant promise for addressing a global health challenge. Further research and clinical trials are warranted to explore the full potential and safety of these cancer drugs as a potential cure for diabetes. If successful, this innovative approach may offer new hope to millions living with diabetes and pave the way for transformative advancements in diabetes care
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Intravascular Large B-Cell Lymphoma, an Updated Review

Intravascular large B-cell lymphoma (IVBCL) is a rare but aggressive form of non-Hodgkin lymphoma. It is characterized by the malignant proliferation of lymphocytic tumor cells in the lumens of capillaries, small arterioles, and post-capillary venules. There exists two clinical variants: the Asian variant and the Western variant. The former is associated with neurologic and dermatologic signs and symptoms, whereas the latter often presents with splenomegaly, jaundice, and hemophagocytes. Lymphadenopathy is uncommon, and patients typically have nonspecific symptom
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Complex Decongestive Therapy and Additional Physiotherapy in Male Breast Cancer: A Case-Report

Introduction: Male Breast Cancer is a very rare disease associated with delayed diagnosis and a more invasive or aggressive tumor therapy, i.e., surgery, radiation, chemotherapy and hormone therapy. Lymphedema, shoulder joint restrictions, posture failures, sensitivity disorders, pain or cancer-related fatigue are common complaints.
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Assessment of Changes in Clinical Management of Cervical Cancer Patients in Light of New Staging Criteria

Objective: To assess the changes in the Current clinical management of cancer cervix patients as the new staging considers radiological and pathological criteria for cervical cancer staging. Methods: This retrospective study Retrospective collection of the Data from the medical records. Results: Five hundred and nine Patients were registered for cervical cancer from Jan 2019 to December 2021. The average age of patients treated was 53yrs. The patients' age distribution ( Table 2 ) was Less than one percent of patients below 30yrs, 31.4 percent, and 40.6 percent were in the 50 to 60 yrs range
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Dosimetric Comparison between Intensity Modulated Radiotherapy versus Volumetric Modulated Arc Therapy Treatment Plans for Breast Cancer

This study compared the dosimetric characteristics of Intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) and volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) techniques regarding target volume coverage and dose to heart, spinal cord, and lung for patients with breast cancer. We analyzed the dosimetric differences of plans in the treatment planning system (TPS) between IMRT and VMAT in treating breast cancer. The aim of this study is to compare the dosimetric aspects of IMRT plans with VMAT according to EMAMI, QUANTEC, and RTOG protocols
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Awareness towards Dental and Oral Health among Parents of Children Undergoing Anti-Cancer Treatment

The study aimed to assess the attitudes toward dental and oral health of parents of children receiving anti-cancer treatment. Methods: This cross-sectional descriptive study was based on a convenience sample of parents of 50 pediatric patients who were receiving anti-cancer treatment (study group) and 62 parents of healthy children (control group). Questionnaires were distributed to assess awareness towards oral and dental care.
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Radiomics, PET-PSMA and Machine Learning for Intraprostatic Cancer Diagnosis

Prostate cancer (Pca) is the second most prevalent malignant neoplasia in man, just after non-melanoma skin cancer. Today, prostate biopsy for tissue sampling is still the gold standard for its diagnosis. However, new generation imaging exam has been used in several clinical scenarios. Yet, positron emission tomography (PET) that targets a specific transmembrane protein on prostatic cells
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Does Body Mass Index Influence the Onset and Prognosis of Colorectal Cancer?

Overweight and obesity are considered an increasing colorectal cancer risk factor. The association between excess body weight and colorectal cancer appears to be related to a state of systemic low-grade inflammation, due to an overproduction of proinflammatory cytokines.
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Assessment of Antioxidant and Antineoplastic Activities Blumea Lacera (Burn. F) Leaves

Blumea lacera (Burn. f.) DC. (Family: Asteraceae) is an important member of Bangladeshi natural plant resource and it is an herbaceous weed locally known as Kukursunga. Different parts of this plant are used traditionally to cure various diseases. But detail study on the antioxidant and antineoplastic potentials of Blumea lacera leaves, has not yet been done. Aim of this study is to examine the antioxidant and antineoplastic properties and quantify the different type of phytochemical content of the methanolic extract of leaves of Blumea lacera (MELB). MELB contained a rich polyphenol, flavonol, flavonoid and proanthocyanidins. MELB showed moderate cytotoxic effect against Artemia salina (brine shrimp nauplii) where its LD50 values was 66.12 μg/ml. In vitro antioxidant assay, MELB exhibited a remarkable capacity to scavenge the tested reactive species. MELB scavenged DPPH with an IC50 of 33.64 μg/mL and 42.69 μg/mL, respectively. In vivo antineoplastic assay, MELB significantly (P<0.05) decreased viable cell count and increased the survival time of EAC cell bearing mice. Hematological profiles were also restored significantly (P<0.05) to normal levels in MELB treated mice as compared to untreated EAC control mice. In addition, fluorescence microscopic view of EAC cells derived from MELB-treated group showed apoptotic characteristics in treated cells compared to untreated EAC control. our findings suggest that methanolic extract of Blumea lacera leaves(MELB) might be a potential agent with antioxidant properties for prevention of cancer and has the merit for further investigation in isolating its active constituents.
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Malignant Scalp Tumors: Retrospective Analysis of 1000 Patients.

Background: Limited data on large cohort of patients with malignant tumors of the scalp are available in the literature. The aim of this study was to review a large cohort of patients with malignant scalp tumors to determine epidemilogy, tumor characteristics of this region and treatment. Materials and Method: A retrospective review of patients with malignant scalp tumors diagnosed histopathologically between 2005 and 2021 was performed. Demographic features and tumor characteristics were analyzed. Results: A total of 1080 patients (M: F 3,5:1) were treated and followed up for a mean period of 42 months (12-120 months). Age at diagnosis ranged from 12 to 98 years. Most malignant scalp tumors (95,1%) occurred in those 50 years or older and in bald patients (87%). Basal cell carcinomas (59,2%), squamous cell carcinomas (32,2%) and melanomas were the most common histologic types. Incidence was highest on the frontal of temporal region (66,1%). Recurrence was frequently in squamous and basal cell carcinomas but uncommon in melanoma. Conclusions: Tumors of the scalp accounted about 8,01 % of all skin cancers. Tend to be basal and squamous cell carcinomas, many of which occur in the temporal and frontal region of bald men. The outlook for patients with scalp tumor is positive, although we suggest excision margins of at least 3-4 mm and continued clinical vigilance is warranted given their higher recurrence rates.
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Radiation Dose to Oesophagus in Breast Cancer Patients Receiving Radiation Therapy: A Retrospective Study

Background: Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women worldwide. Management of Breast cancer requires multidisciplinary team approach (viz, Surgery, Chemotherapy, Radiation therapy, Hormonal therapy & Targeted therapy). Radiotherapy reduces the risk of breast cancer mortality for women after breast conserving surgery and for women after mastectomy for node-positive disease. One of the organs at risk in breast cancer therapy is esophagus. As such, there is potential to expose greater volumes of esophagus to radiation. This may result in increased frequency and severity of acute radiation esophagitis during treatment. Aims and Objectives: To evaluate dosimetric parameters such as mean dose (Dmean) maximum dose (Dmax) which may influence the incidence and severity of esophagitis in breast cancer patients receiving radiotherapy. Material and Methods: Treatment plans of post mastectomy patients who had already received adjuvant RT of dose 50 Gy in 25 # over 5 weeks to the chest wall along with Supraclavicular field (SCF) using 3-Dimensional Conformal Radiation Therapy (3D CRT) and Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy (IMRT) were selected. Mean dose (Dmean) and maximum dose (Dmax) to esophagus was assessed. Results: Dosimetric parameters assessed are Dmean and Dmax. Dmean assessed up to less than or equal to 11Gy and Dmax assessed upto less than or equal to 34Gy. The average of Dmean in this study is 8.34Gy which is within normal limits of prescribed dose. The mean Of Dmax in this study is 24.80Gy which is in limits of prescribed dose. Conclusion: Increased dose to esophagus in observed when IMRT is used especially when supraclavicular or internal mammary nodes are involved. Routine contouring of esophagus and planning accordingly may reduce oesophageal dose and acute oesophageal toxicity.
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Therapy-related Myeloid Neoplasms after Pediatric Solid Cancer in a Single Reference Cancer Center in Brazil

Pediatric cancer overall survival has increased due to improvements in treatment. However, long-term adverse effects are a challenge for this population. Secondary myeloid neoplasm (MN) is one of the complications of solid tumor treatment. Therapy-related myeloid neoplasms (t-MN), therapy-related acute myeloid leukemia (t-AML), and therapy-related myelodysplastic syndrome (t-MDS) are the most common events. The aim of this study was to report a large pediatric sample and the relevance of t-MN after pediatric solid tumor therapy. We conducted a retrospective study between 2000-2016 in a cohort of pediatric patients treated for solid tumors who developed a secondary MN by medical records review and analysis. Seven from 2178 pediatric patients who were previously treated for solid tumors, were diagnosed with t-MN in a reference cancer center in Brazil. The median age at primary tumor diagnosis was 12.8 years old. Osteosarcoma, atypical primitive neuroectodermal tumor (PNET), Ewing sarcoma, and retinoblastoma were the most frequent solid tumors associated with t-MN. Three patients had a story of familiar cancer, and one patient with osteosarcoma had Li-Fraumeni syndrome confirmed. The median latency period to secondary MN was ten months and the prevalence rate was 0.32%. Two patients developed t-MDS and five, t-AML. All these patients received cytotoxic agents’ high doses that may have been associated with t-MN development. t-MN initial control, as well as unfavorable cytogenetic abnormalities, may have contributed to the poor outcome. We described the rarity of t-MN related to previous solid tumor therapy in a large pediatric sample in a Brazilian Cancer Center and their poor prognosis.
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A Java Software for Randomized Phase II Clinical Cancer Trial Designs

Traditionally, a typical phase II trial has been conducted using a single-arm design recruiting patients only to the experimental therapy to be compared with a historical control. Due to a small sample size and heterogeneity of patient population, the patient characteristics of the patients in a new phase II trial is often different from that of the selected historical control, so that the single-arm phase II trial may lead to biased conclusions. A randomized phase II trial can resolve such problems by randomizing patients between an experimental arm and a control arm. We propose a software package for designing and analyzing randomized phase II trials. We develop a user-friendly Java software that will help us find optimal two-stage phase II trial designs. Although the programs accommodate trial designs based on various statistical methods and different types of early stopping rules, the main part of our paper is focused on randomized phase II trials based on Fisher’s exact test with futility and superiority early stopping values. If users enter input parameter values, the software generates a graphical output displaying all efficient two-stage designs. Minimax, optimal, and admissible designs are highlighted as good designs, but users can select any of the displayed designs. When the circle representing a design is clicked, all the specifics of the selected design are displayed. Fisher’s test is an exact method whose critical values depend on the total number of responders from two arms. So, the computations required to search for optimal randomized multi-stage phase II trial designs based on Fisher’s exact test is very heavy. By using efficient algorithms, our software provides output at almost real time speed
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Solitary Adrenal Metastasis: A Case Report of Aberrant Behavior of Prostate Cancer

A Caucasian male with prostate cancer under androgen deprivation therapy after radiotherapy for a locally advanced lesion. Positron emission tomography/Computed Tomography revealed an adrenal lesion. The mass was removed, and histopathological examination showed adenocarcinoma of prostatic origin. Prostate-specific antigen decreased dramatically after adrenalectomy
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Correlation between Overall Survival and Quality of Life in Patients with Esophageal Cancer: A Comparison between Radiation and Chemoradiation

Desirable treatment options for inoperable esophageal cancer considering not only overall survival (OS) but also quality of life (QOL) during the entire clinical course remain unclear. We evaluated OS and QOL during the clinical course of patients with inoperable esophageal cancer undergoing chemoradiation or radiation. Forty-four patients with inoperable esophageal cancer between 2015 and 2020 were included in this retrospective study.
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Editorial Board Members Related to Cancer

Abdolreza Esmaeilzadeh

Assistant Professor
Department of Immunology
Cancer Gene Therapy Research Center
Zanjan University of Medical Sciences
Iran

Jianfei Qi

Assistant Professor
Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
University of Maryland School of Medicine
United States

Saeid Abroun

Associate Professor
School of Medicine
Tarbiat Modares University
Iran

Michael Downing

Clinical Associate Professor
Faculty of Medicine
University of British Columbia
Canada

Chin-Chuan Wei

Associate Professor
Department of Chemistry
Southern Illinois University
United States

Shi J. Liu

Professor
Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences
University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences
United States

Desheng Pei

Professor
Chongqing Institute of Green and Intelligent Technology
Chinese Academy of Sciences
China

Arvind Chhabra

Assistant Professor
Department Of Medicine
University of Connecticut Health Center
United States

Ming Tan

Associate Professor
Mitchell Cancer Institute
United States

Peng Zhan

Associate professor
School of pharmaceutical sciences
Shandong University
China
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