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Articles Related to Child

German Dentists’ Knowledge About How to Proceed in Cases of Suspected Child Abuse and Neglect

Introduction: Studies from several countries have shown that there is a lack of knowledge related to child protection among dentists and their teams. So far, there are no data available about the situation in Germany. Aim of this study is to describe the perception of the role of German dentists in terms of child abuse and neglect. Material and Methods: A questionnaire previously used by other studies regarding the role of dentists in child protection was adapted to German terminology and provided online. The internet address has been shown in different German dentists’ association journals addressing dentists only. The participation was voluntary. Results: A total of 251 (79.68%) dentists completed the questionnaire with valid data, 62.5% reported to have had a sus- picion of child abuse or neglect. Of these, 21,7% had reported their suspicion to the social services. Dentists specialized in pediatric dentistry reported their suspicion more often. Most frequently reported barriers towards contacting social services were uncertainty about diagnosis, fear of violence towards the child and the lack of knowledge in terms of referral procedures. Most of the participants expressed a need for further education. Conclusion: Dentists in Germany are not able to fill their role in child protection matters sufficiently and show a need for undergraduate and continuing postgraduate training.
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Factors Influencing Adherence to Hydroxyurea Treatment Among Children with Sickle Cell Disease at the Mother and Child Center of the Chantal Biya Foundation

Introduction: Sickle cell disease (SCD) is a genetic hemoglobin disease for which there are many treatment options. Evidence supports the efficacy and cost-effectiveness of hydroxyurea (HU). Nevertheless, its use and adherence to treatment remain suboptimal, hence, the necessity to assess the factors influencing this observance. Objectives: The objective was to evaluate the factors influencing observance to HU in children with sickle cell disease from the Mother and Child Center of the Chantal Biya Foundation (MCC of the CBF). Materials and Methods: This was a descriptive and analytical cross-sectional study from January to June 2020. Children on HU for at least six months, and followed up at MCC of the CBF were included. Data collection was done using a pre-tested questionnaire. The level of compliance was assessed using the Morisky’s observance grid, where 8 points was considered as “good”; 6-7 points as “fair”, and <6 as “poor”. Data were stored in CSPro version 7.0 software, and subsequently analyzed using the SPSS version 20.0 software. Results: Of 142 patients recruited, the level of patient observance was considered “good” in 2.1%, fair in 26.1% and poor in 71.8%. Logistic regression analyses suggested that using hydroxyurea to prevent complications was the only factor that favored good medical adherence [OR=0.37; CI (0.14-0.987)] (p=0.047). Poor compliance was mainly associated with the fear of infertility and and other sides effects associated with the use of HU. Conclusion: Children with SCD in this study have poor compliance with HU. Implementing IEC sessions would make it possible to raise patient/parent awareness and reverse this trend.
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Evaluation of the Parodontal Health of Schoolchildren from Widou in Ferlo (Senegal)

Introduction: Mechanical disorganization of the bacterial biofilm is the cornerstone of the prevention of gingivitis and periodontitis periodontal diseases. The objective of this study was to evaluate the periodontal health of schoolchildren in Widou, Ferlo. Methodology: This was a descriptive, cross-sectional study of schoolchildren living in Widou in the centre of Ferlo. The survey was exhaustive and concerned the only school in the locality. The epidemiological data collected concerned oral hygiene practice, periodontal health and socio-demographic characteristics such as sex, age and educational level. The degree of hygiene was assessed by the Silness and Loe plaque index (Plaque Index); inflammation and bleeding on probing were assessed by the Loe and Silness gingival index (Gingival Index). Results: In a total of 126 schoolchildren, boys and girls were equally represented and the average age was 10 years +/- 2.16.Sixty-nine percent (69%) of the children examined did not use a toothbrush. Of these, more than 47% reported brushing 3 times a day. The plaque index mean value was 1.23 and 99.2% of the population had a moderate plaque control. The average gingival index was 0.96 and 80.2% of the sample had moderate gingival inflammation. Conclusion: The study showed a relatively low rate of toothbrush use in contrast to the tooth stick and a relatively high rate of periodontal index. Communication-based approaches to behaviour change in children are needed to improve periodontal health.
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Immunological Analysis of Active Tuberculosis Infection in Children and Adolescents

The latent tuberculosis infection worldwide is determined by about 1.7 billion people. Identification of latent tuberculosis infection and prevention of the development of the disease is one of the highest priority tasks in the global radical reduc- tion of the burden of tuberculosis. The research is devoted to the study of the effectiveness of cellular and humoral anti- gen-specific immunological methods for determining the initial signs of tuberculosis infection activity when examining children and adolescents with a latent form of this infection. Cellular immunological reactions in contrast to the determi- nation of specific antibodies of blood serum using the recombinant specific protein ESAT-6-CFP-10, were not sufficiently effective in differentiating active and latent infections. Determination of antibodies to the ESAT-6-CFP-10 protein with analysis of the specific activity criterion and determina- tion of an increased concentration of neopterin up to 9 nM/L in blood plasma samples made it possible to reveal signs of tuberculosis infection activity. These results have been confirmed by the results of chest computed tomography of children and adolescents with the determination tuberculosis of intrathoracic lymph nodes or small intrapulmonary (2-5 mm) intrapulmonary foci, including those with signs of calcification.
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Therapy-related Myeloid Neoplasms after Pediatric Solid Cancer in a Single Reference Cancer Center in Brazil

Pediatric cancer overall survival has increased due to improvements in treatment. However, long-term adverse effects are a challenge for this population. Secondary myeloid neoplasm (MN) is one of the complications of solid tumor treatment. Therapy-related myeloid neoplasms (t-MN), therapy-related acute myeloid leukemia (t-AML), and therapy-related myelodysplastic syndrome (t-MDS) are the most common events. The aim of this study was to report a large pediatric sample and the relevance of t-MN after pediatric solid tumor therapy. We conducted a retrospective study between 2000-2016 in a cohort of pediatric patients treated for solid tumors who developed a secondary MN by medical records review and analysis. Seven from 2178 pediatric patients who were previously treated for solid tumors, were diagnosed with t-MN in a reference cancer center in Brazil. The median age at primary tumor diagnosis was 12.8 years old. Osteosarcoma, atypical primitive neuroectodermal tumor (PNET), Ewing sarcoma, and retinoblastoma were the most frequent solid tumors associated with t-MN. Three patients had a story of familiar cancer, and one patient with osteosarcoma had Li-Fraumeni syndrome confirmed. The median latency period to secondary MN was ten months and the prevalence rate was 0.32%. Two patients developed t-MDS and five, t-AML. All these patients received cytotoxic agents’ high doses that may have been associated with t-MN development. t-MN initial control, as well as unfavorable cytogenetic abnormalities, may have contributed to the poor outcome. We described the rarity of t-MN related to previous solid tumor therapy in a large pediatric sample in a Brazilian Cancer Center and their poor prognosis.
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Relationship between Vitamin D Status and Tic Disorder: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Observational Studies

This study was conducted to summarize the published observational data on the relationship between vitamin D status and the likelihood of TD. Methods: A systematic research on published articles until June 2021 was conducted in PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, the Cochrane Library, CNKI, WangFang database and VIP database.
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Comparison of Anthropometric Indicators of Overweight and Obesity in Children and Adolescents

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Transversal Pertussis Sero-Epidemiological Study in Fully Vaccinated Children and Adolescents in Antananarivo, Madagascar, and in Dapaong, Togo

African region is thought to contribute to >50% of deadly cases of pertussis worldwide, however surveillance and available data on Bordetella pertussis circulation are limited. Currently, pertussis vaccination schedule in most African countries is restricted to a primary immunization consisting of three doses during the first year of life using whole pertussis vaccines for which effectiveness is not known.
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Rape, Child and Abortion: from Ideologization to Rights Violation in Brazil

Analyze the abortion of a pregnant 10-year-old girl who was repeatedly raped by her uncle in the state of Espirito Santo paralyzed Brazil. Pregnancy was revealed on the 7th of August, when the girl went to a local hospital suffering from abdominal pain. The girl claimed that she has been raped by the relative since she was 6 years old and that she did not report him to the authorities before, due to the fear caused by the uncle’s threats.
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Iatrogenic Laryngotracheal Stenosis in Children: a Case Report

Laryngotracheal stenosis is one of the important causes of pediatric airway obstruction, and the etiology can be classified as congenital and acquired. With the widespread use of tracheal intubation and tracheotomy in pediatric emergency, iatrogenic laryngotracheal stenosis is gradually replacing trauma and infection as the major cause of acquired laryngotracheal stenosis [1]. Nowadays, open surgery is the first choice for severe laryngotracheal stenosis cases [1,2]. Here, we describe a case of childhood iatrogenic severe laryngotracheal stenosis, and the reflection on the current treatment methods of children with laryngotracheal stenosis.
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Mental Health and Psychological Resilience during the COVID-19 Pandemic

As the coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic sweeps across the world, it is causing widespread concern, fear and stress, all of which are natural and normal reactions to the changing and uncertain situation that everyone finds themselves in. “The issue facing each and every one of us is how we manage and react to the stressful situation unfolding so rapidly in our lives and communities. Here we can draw on the remarkable powers of strength and cooperation that we also fortunately possess as humans. And that is what we must try to focus on to respond most effectively to this crisis as individuals, family and community members, friends and colleagues,” said Dr Hans Henri P. Kluge, WHO Regional Director for Europe.
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Plasma Exchange for Neuroborreliosis Associated with Guillain Barre Syndrome

Lyme neuroborreliosis (LNB) is a rare infectious disorder of the nervous system caused by Borrelia burgdorferi spirochetes. Different neurological conditions were reported in the disease.
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Effect of a Nationwide Universal HBV Vaccination Program and Catch-Up Vaccination Campaign on HBV Prevalence in Children

In individuals with no immune disorders, a total of three Hepatitis B virus (HBV) vaccinations is recommended, with no need for booster doses except for certain circumstances. However, some studies have indicated that in infants vaccinated at birth against HBV in the context of a universal vaccination program may have reduced antibody titers over years, with a need for a booster dose at adolescence.
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Non-Polio Enterovirus Meningitis in Children-Clinical Spectrum, Viral Serotypes and Outcome: Unusual Community Outbreak Experience at a Tertiary Care Centre from Oman

Enterovirus meningitis is one of the commonest viruses causing meningitis in children which is underdiagnosed. The epidemiology of EV infections is not well studied in the Middle East and Arab Gulf Region. No Study was conducted in Oman to explore more about viral meningitis. This study will help to review enterovirus meningitis in order to guide management and patient care in Oman and will help to decrease the cost of treatment by avoiding unnecessary investigations.
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Inflammatory “Endotheliopathy’’ with COVID 19 Infections in Children, Unanswered Questions for Management Post Recovery

Recent studies from U.K, US and Canada have reported a unique presentation of the novel corona virus (SARS-CoV-2) in the pediatric age group. High fevers, rash, multiorgan involvement was a recurrent mode of presentation; with an overall case fatality rate in the US-Canadian PICU consortium group was reported to be approximately 4.2% [1-7]
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Editorial Board Members Related to Child

Hongbin Fang

Associate Professor
Department of Biostatistics, Bioinformatics & Biomathematics
Georgetown University
United States

Tracey Ledoux

Assistant Professor
Department of Health and Human Performance
University of Houston
United States

Eugene S. Kim

Associate Professor
Department of Surgery
University of Southern California
United States

Sangeeta Singg

Professor of Psychology
Angelo State University
United States

Erich Cosmi

Associate Professor of Obstetrics and Gynecology
Department of Woman and Child Health
University of Padua
Italy

Nils Ole Schmidt

Neurosurgeon
Department of Neurosurgery
University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf
Germany

Gary Lee Francis

Professor
Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism
Medical College of Virginia
United States

YARON NIV

Clinical Professor of Medicine
Tel-Aviv University
Israel

Riyadh Khudhair Lafta Al-Juboori

Professor
College of Medicine
Mustansiriya University
Iraq

MARCO CARUSELLI

Pediatric Anesthesia and Intensive Care Unit
La Timone Children’s Hospital
France
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