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Articles Related to Clostridium

The Effect of Bundled Interventions on Prevention of Hospital Acquired Clostridium Difficile Infection: An Integrative Review

Hospitalized patients are at an increased risk for acquiring Clostridium Difficile Infection (CDI). Increased virulence of C. difficile strains and increased use of antimicrobials have led to an increase of CDI cases that are more difficult to treat (CDC, 2013). Proper hand hygiene techniques, room cleaning, and equipment cleaning are not consistently being followed by healthcare workers, leading an increased spread of CDI between hospitalized patients. The purpose of this integrative review was to determine the best evidencebased methods to reduce hospital-acquired CDI rates. The evidence reviewed supports the implementation of a multifaceted approach including: (a) proper hand hygiene practices, (b) adequate and appropriate surface cleaning practices, (c) compliance to contact isolation procedures, and (d) strengthening of an existing antimicrobial stewardship committee to reduce hospital-acquired CDI rates.
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Septic Shock Secondary to Salmonella Enterica Ssp. Arizonae in an Immunocompetent Albanian Male

Salmonella-associated diarrhea is a common cause of community-acquired gastroenteritis. Some species of salmonella are associated with invasive diseases like meningitis, endocarditis and septicemia.
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Acute Type C Botulism with Fatal Consequences in a Holstein Breeding Establishment in Northern Italy

BOTULISM is a neuro-paralytic intoxication illness caused by the ingestion of neurotoxins of Clostridium botulinum with contaminated water or food. The Gram-positive spore-producing bacterium Cl. botulinum is found worldwide and can survive in spore form for up to 30 years in numerous substrates in the environment. Cl. botulinum is classified into 7 or 8 different types (A, B, C (C1, C2), D, E, F, G) depending on the antigen properties of the botulinum neurotoxins (BoNT) produced, with intoxication mostly appearing in cattle following the ingestion of neurotoxins of type C and D and, less frequently, of type B.
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Editorial Board Members Related to Clostridium

Mamatha Ballal

Professor
Melaka Manipal Medical College
Manipal University
India
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